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Hallucinogens are a class of psychoactive substances that produce powerful alterations in perception, mood, and various cognitive processes.[1] Hallucinogens represent one of the three major classes of psychoactive substances: the other two are stimulants ("uppers") and depressants ("downers").

However, hallucinogens are claimed to be distinct from stimulants and depressants in that they do not merely amplify or dull existing states of consciousness but instead produce qualitatively unique states in which the environment and self are perceived in a new fashion.

A notable aspect of hallucinogens is that they are often reported to be able to facilitate introspective or therapeutic processes. Hallucinogenic experiences are often compared to non-ordinary forms of consciousness such as lucid dreaming, trance meditation, mystical, shamanic, or transpersonal experiences, hallucinations, and states of psychosis.

Hallucinogens can be classified into three categories:

Each category is associated with a unique mechanism of action, subjective effects, therapeutic potential, and health risks.

Despite what their names suggest, most hallucinogens rather induce pseudo-hallucinations than 'true' hallucinations, which cannot be distinguished from normal reality. Pseudohallucinations, on the other hand, are recognized as such by the user.[2] These are common with psychedelics and dissociatives, while 'true' hallucinations are usually induced by deliriants.

It is highly advised to use harm reduction practices if using these substances.

List of hallucinogens

See also

External links



  1. Nichols, D. E. (2004). Hallucinogens. Pharmacology & therapeutics, 101(2), 131-181. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pharmthera.2003.11.002
  2. Telles-Correia, Diogo; Moreira, Ana Lúcia; Gonçalves, João S. (2015). "Hallucinations and related concepts—their conceptual background". Frontiers in Psychology. 6: 991. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00991. ISSN 1664-1078. OCLC 701805890. PMC 4515540Freely accessible. PMID 26283978.