Ibogaine

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Ibogaine is known to cause deadly heart complications.

It is strongly discouraged to use this substance in high doses or for multiple days in a row. It is recommended to have a trip sitter, ideally with proper medical training and equipment. Please see this section for more details.

Summary sheet: Ibogaine
Ibogaine
Ibogaine.svg
Chemical Nomenclature
Common names Ibogaine
Substitutive name 10-Methoxyibogamine
Systematic name 7-Ethyl-2-methoxy-6,6a,7,8,9,10,12,13-octahydro-5H-6,9-methano-pyrido[1',2':1,2]azepino[4,5-b]indole
Class Membership
Psychoactive class Psychedelic / Dissociative / Opioid
Chemical class Tryptamine
Routes of Administration

WARNING: Always start with lower doses due to differences between individual body weight, tolerance, metabolism, and personal sensitivity. See responsible use section.



Oral
Dosage
Common 15 - 22 mg/kg of body weight
Strong Strong doses may result in fatal heart complications.
Duration
Onset 30 - 180 minutes
Peak 18 - 36 hours
After effects 24 - 72 hours









DISCLAIMER: PW's dosage information is gathered from users and resources for educational purposes only. It is not a recommendation and should be verified with other sources for accuracy.

10-Methoxyibogamine (commonly known as Ibogaine) is a naturally-occurring hallucinogenic indole alkaloid found in some plants of the Apocynaceae family such as Tabernanthe iboga, Voacanga africana and Tabernaemontana undulata plants.[1] It is classed as a psychedelic with dissociative and kappa-opioid properties.

Ibogaine-containing preparations are used for medicinal and ritual purposes within African spiritual traditions of the Bwiti, who claim to have learned it from the Pygmy peoples. Although it was first commonly advertised as having anti-addictive properties in 1962 by Howard Lotsof, its use in the West predates this by at least a century. In France, it was marketed under the trade-name Lambarène and used as a stimulant. Additionally, the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) studied the effects of ibogaine in the 1950s.[citation needed]

Ibogaine is obtained either by extraction from the iboga plant or by semi-synthesis from the precursor compound voacangine,[2][3] another plant alkaloid. The total synthesis of ibogaine was described in 1956 and structural elucidation by X-ray crystallography was completed in 1960.[4][5]

Ibogaine is not currently approved for any medical uses in the United States.[6] Preliminary research indicates that it may help with drug addiction;[7] however, there is a lack of data in humans.[8] Its use has been associated with severe side effects and death.[9] It is used as an alternative medicine treatment for drug addiction in some countries. Its prohibition in other countries has slowed scientific research.[10]

Ibogaine is also used to facilitate psychological introspection and spiritual exploration. Derivatives of ibogaine that lack the substance's psychedelic properties are under development.[11]

Chemistry

Ibogaine or 12-Methoxyibogamine is an indole alkaloid molecule of the tryptamine class. Tryptamines share a core structure comprised of a bicyclic indole heterocycle attached at R3 to an amino group via an ethyl side chain. While ibogaine contains a tryptamine backbone, the structure features substitutions atypical to other hallucinogenic tryptamines.

Ibogaine is substituted at R10 of it's structure with a methoxy group. The location of this substitution is identical to other R5 substituted tryptamines, notably 5-MeO-DMT. The traditional amino attached ethyl chain of tryptamine is incorporated into a seven member nitrogenous azepine ring. The azepine ring is fused to three interlocked cyclohexane rings, attached at the integrated tryptamine nitrogen of azepine and two carbons over. Attached to the fusion of cyclohexane rings is an ethyl chain at R7.

Pharmacology

Further information: Serotonergic psychedelic

Like with most psychedelic tryptamines, ibogaine is thought to act as a 5-HT2A partial agonist. The psychedelic effects are believed to come from ibogaine's binding efficacy at the 5-HT2A receptors. However, the role of these interactions and how they result in the psychedelic experience continues to remain elusive.

Ibogaine is metabolized in the human body into noribogaine. Noribogaine functions as a serotonin reuptake inhibitor. It also acts as a moderate κ-opioid receptor agonist[12] and weak µ-opioid receptor agonist[13] or weak partial agonist.[14] It is possible that the action of ibogaine at the kappa opioid receptor may indeed contribute significantly to the psychoactive effects attributed to ibogaine ingestion. Salvia divinorum is another plant recognized for its strong hallucinogenic properties; it contains the chemical salvinorin A which is also a highly selective kappa opioid agonist.

Both ibogaine and noribogaine have a plasma half-life of around two hours in rats,[15] although the half-life of noribogaine is slightly longer than that of the parent compound. It is proposed that ibogaine is deposited in fat and metabolized into noribogaine as it is released. [16] After ibogaine ingestion in humans, noribogaine shows higher plasma levels than ibogaine and is detected for a longer period than ibogaine.[17] Noribogaine is also more potent than ibogaine in rat drug discrimination assays when tested for the subjective effects of ibogaine.[18]

This compound is also thought to act as an NMDA receptor antagonist. NMDA receptors, a type of glutamate receptor, allow for excitatory electrical signals to pass between neurons in the brain and spinal column; for the signals to pass, the receptor must be open. Dissociatives inactivate the NMDA receptors by blocking them. This disconnection of neurons leads to the general loss of bodily sensation, motor coordination, memory recall and eventually this substance's equivalent of the “K-hole.”

Ki-values in μM[19] (a smaller value demonstrates higher binding affinity)
Receptor Ibogaine Noribogaine
κ-opioid 2.2 0.61
μ-opioid 2.0 0.68
δ-opioid >10 5.2
NMDA 3.1 15
5-HT2A 16 >100
5-HT2C >10 >10
5-HT3 2.6 >100
σ1 2.5 11
σ2 0.4 19

Natural sources

Ibiogaine can be found within a variety of natural sources which are primarily found on the African continent.

The most common of these are listed below.

Subjective effects

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This subjective effect breakdown is a stub.

As such, it may contain incomplete or wrong information and is still in progress.

You can help by expanding it.

The effects listed below are based upon the subjective effects index and personal experiences of PsychonautWiki contributors. The listed effects should be taken with a grain of salt and will rarely (if ever) occur all at once, but heavier doses will increase the chances and are more likely to induce a full range of effects. Likewise, adverse effects become much more likely on higher doses and may include serious injury or death.

Physical effects
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Disconnective effects
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Cognitive effects
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Multi-sensory effects
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Transpersonal effects
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Experience reports

There are currently no anecdotal reports which describe the effects of this compound within our experience index. Additional experience reports can be found here:

Toxicity and harm potential

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This toxicity and harm potential section is a stub.

As such, it may contain incomplete or even dangerously wrong information. You can help by expanding upon or correcting it.
We also recommend that you practice diligent independent research and the most thorough harm reduction practices when using this substance.

Ibogaine is known to cause fatal heart complications at a high rate, such as QT prolongation. It can be taken safely, but only under the supervision of trained medical professionals.

Tolerance and addiction potential

Ibogaine is not habit-forming and the desire to use it can actually decrease with regular consumption. Like with most psychedelics it is most often thought to be self-regulating.

Legality

  • Brazil - On January 14, 2016, Ibogaine was legalized for prescription use.[25]
  • Canada - As of 2009, ibogaine is unregulated.[26][27]
  • Germany - Ibogaine is unregulated, but for medical use it can be regulated by the pharmacy rules (AMG).
  • Mexico - As of 2009, ibogaine is unregulated.[28]
  • New Zealand - Ibogaine was gazetted in 2009 as a non-approved prescription medicine.[29]
  • Norway - Ibogaine is illegal (as are all tryptamine derivatives).[30]
  • Sweden - Ibogaine is schedule I.[31]
  • United Kingdom - It is illegal to produce, supply, or import this drug under the Psychoactive Substance Act, which came into effect on May 26th, 2016.[32]
  • United States - Ibogaine is classified as a Schedule I drug,[33] and is not currently approved for addiction treatment (or any other therapeutic use) because of its hallucinogenic, cardiovascular and possibly neurotoxic side effects, as well as the scarcity of safety and efficacy data in human subjects.[34]

In most other countries it remains unregulated and unlicensed.[35][36]

See also

External links

Research institutions

References

  1. The Anti-Addiction Drug Ibogaine and the Heart: A Delicate Relation | http://www.mdpi.com/1420-3049/20/2/2208
  2. Chris Jenks: Extracting Ibogaine (YouTube) | https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4W-GUEHDgFw
  3. Iboga Extraction Manual | http://www.puzzlepiece.org/ibogaine/literature/iboga_extraction_manual.pdf
  4. Crystal and molecular structure of ibogaine: An alkaloid fromStemmadenia galeottiana | http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2FBF01181911
  5. The structure of ibogaine | http://scripts.iucr.org/cgi-bin/paper?S0365110X60001369
  6. The Anti-Addiction Drug Ibogaine and the Heart: A Delicate Relation | http://www.mdpi.com/1420-3049/20/2/2208
  7. The Anti-Addiction Drug Ibogaine and the Heart: A Delicate Relation | http://www.mdpi.com/1420-3049/20/2/2208
  8. The ibogaine medical subculture | https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18029124
  9. The Anti-Addiction Drug Ibogaine and the Heart: A Delicate Relation | http://www.mdpi.com/1420-3049/20/2/2208
  10. The ibogaine medical subculture | https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18029124
  11. Ibogaine: Can it Cure Addiction Without the Hallucinogenic Trip? | http://www.villagevoice.com/news/ibogaine-can-it-cure-addiction-without-the-hallucinogenic-trip-6437311
  12. Noribogaine is a G-protein biased κ-opioid receptor agonist | https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26302653
  13. Noribogaine is a G-protein biased κ-opioid receptor agonist | https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26302653?dopt=Abstract
  14. Effect of Iboga alkaloids on µ-opioid receptor-coupled G protein activation | https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24204784
  15. In vivo neurobiological effects of ibogaine and its O-desmethyl metabolite, 12-hydroxyibogamine (noribogaine), in rats | https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11303040
  16. Pharmacokinetic characterization of the indole alkaloid ibogaine in rats | https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10849889
  17. Ibogaine: complex pharmacokinetics, concerns for safety, and preliminary efficacy measures | https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11085338
  18. Noribogaine generalization to the ibogaine stimulus: correlation with noribogaine concentration in rat brain | https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10379526
  19. A contemporary history of ibogaine in the United States and Europe | http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0099959801560186
  20. Treatment of acute opioid withdrawal with ibogaine | https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10506904
  21. ibogaine in the treatment of chemical dependence disorders: clinical perspectives | http://www.maps.org/news-letters/v05n3/05316ibo.html
  22. Giannini, A. James (1997). Drugs of Abuse (2 ed.). Practice Management Information Corporation. ISBN 1-57066-053-0.
  23. A clinical study of LSD treatment in alcoholism | https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/5798383
  24. Treatment of acute opioid withdrawal with ibogaine | https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10506904
  25. https://www.ibogainealliance.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/01/CONSELHO-ESTADUAL-DE-POLI%CC%81TICAS-SOBRE-DROGAS.pdf
  26. http://www.straight.com/article-116274/ibogaine-a-one-way-trip-to-sobriety-pot-head-says
  27. http://laws-lois.justice.gc.ca/eng/acts/C-38.8/
  28. http://www.villagevoice.com/news/ibogaine-can-it-cure-addiction-without-the-hallucinogenic-trip-6437311
  29. http://www.medsafe.govt.nz/profs/class/mccMin03Nov2009.htm
  30. https://lovdata.no/dokument/SF/forskrift/2013-02-14-199
  31. https://lakemedelsverket.se/upload/lvfs/LVFS%201997-12.pdf
  32. Psychoactive Substances Act 2016 (Legislation.gov.uk) | http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/2016/2/contents/enacted
  33. https://www.deadiversion.usdoj.gov/schedules/orangebook/orangebook.pdf
  34. http://www.drugwarfacts.org/cms/Ibogaine#sthash.sKX0AVkG.acvAqx4Q.dpbs
  35. Can a hallucinogen from Africa cure addiction? | http://www.bbc.com/news/magazine-17666589
  36. The Shaman Will See You Now | http://www.villagevoice.com/news/the-shaman-will-see-you-now-6440113