|Summary sheet: 1B-LSD|
|Substitutive name||1-Butyryl-d-lysergic acid diethylamide|
|Routes of Administration|
1-Butanoyl-d-lysergic acid diethylamide (also known as 1B-LSD) is a novel psychedelic substance of the lysergamide class. 1B-LSD is closely related to LSD and 1P-LSD and is reported to produce near-identical effects. 1B-LSD has been found to be around 14% as potent as LSD and expresses itself at the same 5-HT2A receptor.
The original synthesis date of 1B-LSD is not known. Unlike most research chemicals, 1B-LSD has no prior record in the scientific literature. The first reports of 1B-LSD use surfaced in 2018 following its appearance on the online research chemical market.
Subjective effects include visual geometry, hallucinatory states, time distortion, enhanced introspection, conceptual thinking, increased music appreciation, euphoria, and ego loss. User reports indicate that the subjective effects of 1B-LSD are extremely similar to those of 1P-LSD. 1B-LSD acts as a prodrug for LSD. The similarities in chemical structure between 1B-LSD and LSD predicts a near-identical effect profile, likely differing mainly in its rate of absorption and duration.
Very little data exists about the pharmacological properties, metabolism, and toxicity of 1B-LSD. It is presumed to have a similar toxicity and risk profile as LSD, although no evidence currently exists to support this. It is highly advised to use harm reduction practices if using this substance.
History and culture
1B-LSD first appeared on the online research chemical market in August 2016. It is unknown who first synthesized 1B-LSD, as the substance does not appear in any academic literature pre-dating its arrival on the research chemical market. Interestingly, the future usage of 1-akylated lysergamide derivatives as a means to bypass controlled substance laws banning LSD as a precursor was foreseen in a DEA report from 1988:
|“||...a reduction in hallucinogenic activity may become acceptable to the U.S. clandestine chemist when he notes that lysergic acid amide is listed as a Schedule III substance in the CFR; therefore, structurally similar substances of this compound are exempted from the CsA amendment. A lucid argument can then be made that lysergic acid N,N-dimethylamide is derived from lysergic acid amide rather than LSD. Carrying this theme to the next logical step one would then assume that the 1-alkyl and 1-acyl derivatives of the N,N-dimethyl isomer would also not be controlled by the CsA amendment.||”|
|— Donald A. Cooper, Future Synthetic Drugs of Abuse, 1988.|
1B-LSD is a molecule of the lysergamide family. It is similar to LSD and is named for the butyryl group bound to the nitrogen of the polycyclic indole group of LSD.
The tetracyclic ergoline is characteristic of the chemical structure of ergot alkaloids. In contrast to LSD, 1B-LSD has an additional N1-butyryl group. Chemical modifications in the N1 position are among the most frequently performed changes in the ergoline system, as the Indole nitrogen is easily accessible for alkylations, acylations, Mannich reactions and Michael additions.
Based on its structural similarity to LSD, 1B-LSD likely acts as a partial agonist at the 5-HT2A receptor. The psychedelic effects are thought to primarily come from its efficacy at the 5-HT2A receptors distributed throughout the brain. 1B-LSD also likely displays binding activity at a wide range of monoamine receptors, such as those for dopamine and norepinephrine. However, there is currently no data to support these claims.
It has been shown that 1B-LSD (as well as the acyl homologs 1P-LSD and ALD-52) are deacylated in the body via CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 into LSD by elimination of the butyric acid, as shown in studies with both human blood serum and in rats.
Anecdotal reports from many users suggest that the subjective effects of 1B-LSD are so similar to that of LSD so as to be virtually indistinguishable from one another. In comparison to other psychedelics such as psilocybin, LSA and ayahuasca, 1B-LSD is significantly more stimulating and fast-paced regarding the specific style of its physical and cognitive effects.
Disclaimer: The effects listed below cite the Subjective Effect Index (SEI), an open research literature based on anecdotal user reports and the personal analyses of PsychonautWiki contributors. As a result, they should be viewed with a healthy degree of skepticism.
It is also worth noting that these effects will not necessarily occur in a predictable or reliable manner, although higher doses are more liable to induce the full spectrum of effects. Likewise, adverse effects become increasingly likely with higher doses and may include addiction, severe injury, or death ☠.
- Stimulation - 1B-LSD is usually regarded as very energetic and stimulating without being forced. For example, when taken in any environment it will usually encourage physical activities such as running, walking, climbing or dancing. In comparison, other more commonly used psychedelics such as psilocybin which are generally sedating and relaxed.
- Spontaneous bodily sensations - The "body high" of 1B-LSD can be characterized as proportionally very intense in comparison to its accompanying visual and cognitive effects. It behaves as a euphoric, fast-moving, sharp and location-specific tingling sensation. For some, it is manifested spontaneously at different, unpredictable points throughout the trip, but for most, it maintains a steady presence that rises with the onset and hits its limit once the peak has been reached. At moderate to high doses of 1B-LSD, this sensation often approaches its highest level and can become so overwhelming that people may find themselves debilitated with pleasurable sensations.
- Physical euphoria - It should be noted that this effect is not as reliably induceable as it is with substances like stimulants or entactogens, and can just as easily manifest as extreme physical discomfort without any apparent reason.
- Tactile enhancement - Feelings of enhanced tactile sensations are consistently present at moderate levels throughout most 1B-LSD experiences. If level 8A geometry is reached, an intense sensation of suddenly becoming aware of and being able to feel every single nerve ending across a person's entire body all at once is consistently present.
- Stamina enhancement - This is generally mild in comparison to the stamina enhancement produced by traditional stimulants.
- Appetite suppression
- Bodily control enhancement
- Difficulty urinating
- Excessive yawning - This effect is significantly less pronounced than it is with psilocybin and its related compounds, the four-position substituted tryptamines.
- Nausea - Mild nausea is occasionally reported when consumed in moderate to high dosages and either passes instantly soon after the user has vomited or gradually fades by itself as the peak sets in.
- Increased blood pressure
- Increased heart rate
- Increased perspiration
- Muscle contractions
- Muscle spasms
- Pupil dilation
- Increased salivation
- Vasoconstriction - Vasoconstriction may lead to users feeling cold, especially in the extremities.
- Seizure - The likelihood is largely extrapolated from the seizures that have been reported from the use of LSD. It is thought to mainly be a risk in those who are genetically predisposed to them, particularly while accompanied by physically taxing conditions such as states of dehydration, fatigue, undernourishment or overheating.
- Colour enhancement - In comparison to other psychedelics, this effect is often reported to be brighter but not as varied in its character.
- Pattern recognition enhancement
- Visual acuity enhancement
- Drifting (melting, breathing, morphing and flowing) - In comparison to other psychedelics, this effect can be described as highly detailed yet cartoon-like in its appearance. The distortions are slow and smooth in motion and fleeting in their appearance.
- Colour shifting
- Colour tinting
- After images
- Depth perception distortions
- Perspective distortions
- Symmetrical texture repetition
- Scenery slicing
The visual geometry of 1B-LSD can be described as more similar in appearance to that of 2C-B or 2C-I than psilocin, LSA or DMT. It can be comprehensively described through its variations as primarily intricate in complexity, algorithmic in form, unstructured in organization, brightly lit, colourful in scheme, synthetic in feel, multicoloured in scheme, flat in shading, sharp in edges, large in size, fast in speed, smooth in motion, angular in its corners, non-immersive in-depth and consistent in intensity.
In the case of higher-level geometry, this substance is level 8A dominant but is also capable of inducing 8B Geometry under the right circumstances.
1B-LSD is capable of producing a full range of hallucinatory states in a fashion that is significantly less consistent and reproducible than that of many other commonly used psychedelics, specifically tryptamines like DMT or psilocybin mushrooms. These effects include:
- Machinescapes - This component is a rare effect that typically only occurs at very strong to heavy doses, and not as consistently as with notably visual psychedelics like DMT, ETH-LAD, and 2C-P, and atypical psychedelics like salvia.
- Internal hallucination (autonomous entities; settings, sceneries, and landscapes; perspective hallucinations and scenarios and plots) - Although 1B-LSD is technically capable of producing hallucinatory states in a fashion that is on par with psilocin or DMT in its vividness and intensity, these effects are incredibly rare and inconsistent in comparison. While traditional psychedelics such as LSA, ayahuasca and mescaline will induce internal hallucinations near consistently at level 5 geometry and above, 1B-LSD will for most simply go straight into Level 8A visual geometry. This lack of consistently induced hallucinatory breakthroughs means that for most, LSD is limited in depth. When they do occur, they can be described in terms of their variations as lucid in believability, interactive in style, new experiences in content, autonomous in controllability and geometry-based in appearance.
- External hallucination (autonomous entities; settings, sceneries, and landscapes; perspective hallucinations and scenarios and plots)
- Analysis enhancement - This effect is consistent in its manifestation and introspection dominant.
- Anxiety & Paranoia - This effect is not as common at low to moderate doses and is less likely to occur when the basic rules of set and setting are taken into account. It should be noted that this inconsistently induced effect is seemingly more likely to manifest when used with cannabis. This combination should be used with extreme caution if one is not experienced with psychedelics, meaning that the user should adequately pace themselves with a fraction of their usual amount. It is commonly reported that psychedelics can to a certain extent counteract some of the perceived mental cloudiness or intoxicating effects of THC causing the user to in turn use more cannabis than is needed which can often lead to an overwhelmingly anxious headspace or a "bad trip".
- Conceptual thinking
- Creativity enhancement
- Emotion enhancement
- Novelty enhancement
- Personal bias suppression
- Personal meaning enhancement
- Focus enhancement - This effect is experienced exclusively on low or threshold dosages and feels less forced than it does with stimulants.
- Immersion enhancement
- Suggestibility enhancement
- Cognitive euphoria - This component is, generally speaking less consistent and pronounced than it is with substances like psilocybin and MDMA. The mental euphoria experienced on LSD is usually simply due to an enhancement of the user’s current psychological and emotional state coupled with its more regularly occurring effect, physical euphoria.
- Déjà vu
- Ego replacement
- Increased libido
- Increased music appreciation
- Increased sense of humor
- Laughter fits - This can manifest prominently during a 1B-LSD experience, particularly during the come up phase, often resulting in bouts of uncontrollable giggles and laughter that can form a feedback loop if around others who are also under the influence.
- Memory suppression
- Multiple thought streams
- Personality regression
- Thought acceleration
- Thought disorganization
- Thought loops
- Time distortion
- Synaesthesia - In its fullest manifestation, this is a very rare and non-reproducible effect. Increasing the dosage can increase the likelihood of this occurring, but seems to only be a prominent part of the experience among those who are already predisposed to synaesthetic states.
- Alcohol - Alcohol's central depressant effects can be used to reduce some of the anxiety and tension produced by 1B-LSD. However, alcohol can cause dehydration, nausea and physical fatigue which can negatively impact the direction of the trip. Users are advised to pace themselves and drink a portion of their usual amount.
- Benzodiazepines - Benzodiazepines are highly effective at reducing the intensity of 1B-LSD's effects through the general suppression of brain activity.
- Cannabis - Cannabis strongly intensifies the sensory and cognitive effects of 1B-LSD. Extreme caution is advised when using this combination as it can significantly increase the chances of a negative psychological reaction like anxiety, confusion and psychosis. Users are advised to start off with only a fraction of their usual cannabis dose and take long breaks between hits to avoid over intake.
- Dissociatives - 1B-LSD enhances the cognitive, visual and general hallucinatory effects of dissociatives. Dissociative-induced holes, spaces, and voids and internal hallucinations become more vivid and intense on 1B-LSD. These effects correspond with an increased risk of confusion, delusions, and psychosis.
- MDMA - 1B-LSD and MDMA are highly synergistic and mutually enhance each other's physical, cognitive, and visual effects. The synergy between these substances is unpredictable, and it is advised to start with markedly lower doses than one would take for each individually. There is some evidence that suggests LSD increases the neurotoxicity of MDMA, which may be relevant to 1B-LSD as well.
Anecdotal reports which describe the effects of this compound within our experience index include:
Additional experience reports can be found here:
Toxicity and harm potential
The toxicity and long-term health effects of recreational 1B-LSD use have not been studied. This is because 1B-LSD is a research chemical with almost no history of human use.
Anecdotal reports suggest that there are no negative health effects attributed to simply trying 1B-LSD by itself, at low to moderate doses, and using it very sparingly (although nothing can be completely guaranteed). Independent research should always be conducted to ensure that a combination of two or more substances is safe before consumption.
Based on its similarity to LSD, 1B-LSD is assumed to be physiologically well-tolerated with a extremely low toxicity relative to dose. There are relatively few physical side effects that have been reported following acute 1B-LSD exposure.
However, as with LSD and psychedelics in general, it is likely that 1B-LSD can act as a trigger for those with underlying mental disorders. Those with a personal or family history of mental illness are generally advised not to use this substance, particularly when outside of a supervised medical setting.
It is strongly recommended that one uses harm reduction practices when using this substance.
1B-LSD has no known toxic dose. However, higher doses increase the risk of adverse psychological reactions. These reactions include anxiety, delusions, panic attacks and, more rarely, seizures. Medical attention is usually not needed except in the case of severe psychotic episodes or the ingestion of fake acid (such as 25i-NBOMe or DOB). Administration of benzodiazepines or antipsychotics can help to relieve the acute negative cognitive effects of 1B-LSD.
Dependence and abuse potential
Although no formal studies have been conducted, it is assumed that like LSD itself, 1B-LSD is non-addictive with a low abuse potential. There are no literature reports of successful attempts to train animals to self-administer LSD — an animal model predictive of abuse liability — indicating that it does not have the necessary pharmacology to either initiate or maintain dependence. Likewise, there is virtually no withdrawal syndrome when chronic use of LSD is stopped. It is assumed that 1B-LSD shares these properties with LSD.
Tolerance to the effects of 1B-LSD is built almost immediately after ingestion. After that, it takes about 5-7 days for the tolerance to be reduced to half and 14 days to be back at baseline (in the absence of further consumption). 1B-LSD produces cross-tolerance with all psychedelics, meaning that after the use of 1B-LSD they will have a reduced effect.
Warning: Many psychoactive substances that are reasonably safe to use on their own can suddenly become dangerous and even life-threatening when combined with certain other substances. The following list provides some known dangerous interactions (although it is not guaranteed to include all of them).
Always conduct independent research (e.g. Google, DuckDuckGo, PubMed) to ensure that a combination of two or more substances is safe to consume. Some of the listed interactions have been sourced from TripSit.
The following substances are listed on the assumption that 1B-LSD possesses a similar if not the same dangerous interactions profile as LSD, and may include more due to its status as an unstudied research chemical.
- Lithium - Lithium is commonly prescribed for the treatment of bipolar disorder. There is a large body of anecdotal evidence that suggests taking it with psychedelics significantly increases the risk of psychosis and seizures. As a result, this combination is strictly discouraged.
- Cannabis - Cannabis may have an unexpectedly strong and unpredictable synergy with the effects of 1B-LSD. Caution is advised with this combination as it can significantly increase the risk of adverse psychological reactions like anxiety, paranoia, panic attacks, and psychosis. Users are advised to start off with only a fraction of their normal cannabis dose and take long breaks between hits to avoid unintentional overdose.
- Stimulants - Stimulants like amphetamine, cocaine or methylphenidate affect many parts of the brain and alter dopaminergic function. This combination can increase the risk of anxiety, paranoia, panic attacks, and thought loops. This interaction may also result in an elevated risk of mania and psychosis.
- Tramadol - Tramadol is well-documented to lower the seizure threshold and psychedelics may act to trigger seizures in susceptible individuals.
Internationally, 1B-LSD is not scheduled under the UN Convention on Psychotropic Substances. It is considered to exist in a legal grey area in many countries, meaning that while it is not specifically illegal, individuals may still be charged for its possession under certain circumstances such as under analogue laws and with the intent to sell or consume.
- Austria: 1B-LSD is technically not illegal but it may fall under the NPSG (Neue-Psychoaktive-Substanzen-Gesetz Österreich) as an analogue of LSD, thus making it illegal to supply for human consumption.
- Germany: 1B-LSD is controlled under the NpSG (New Psychoactive Substances Act) as of July 18, 2019. Production and import with the aim to place it on the market, administration to another person and trading is punishable. Possession is illegal but not penalized.
- Japan: 1B-LSD is controlled by the Pharmaceutical Affairs Law in Japan, making it illegal to possess or sell.
- Latvia: 1B-LSD is illegal in Latvia. Although it is not officially scheduled, it is controlled as an LSD structural analog due to an amendment made on June 1, 2015.
- Lithuania: 1B-LSD is illegal in Lithuania and is specifically named on the list of illegal substances since June 5, 2019.
- Singapore: 1P-LSD is a Class A controlled substance.
- Sweden: Following its sale as a designer drug, 1B-LSD was made illegal in Sweden on January 26, 2016.
- Switzerland: 1B-LSD can be considered a controlled substance as a defined derivative of Lysergic Acid under Verzeichnis E point 263. It is legal when used for scientific or industrial use.
- United Kingdom: 1B-LSD is illegal to produce, supply, or import under the Psychoactive Substance Act, which came into effect on May 26, 2016.
- United States: While 1B-LSD is not explicitly prohibited by law it is however, a prodrug for LSD, meaning its possession and sale may be prosecutable in the United States under the Federal Analogue Act.
- Brandt, S. D., Kavanagh, P. V., Westphal, F., Stratford, A., Elliott, S. P., Hoang, K., ... & Halberstadt, A. L. (2016). Return of the lysergamides. Part I: Analytical and behavioural characterization of 1‐propionyl‐d‐lysergic acid diethylamide (1P‐LSD). Drug Testing and Analysis, 8(9), 891-902. https://doi.org/10.1002/dta.1884
- Passie, T., Halpern, J. H., Stichtenoth, D. O., Emrich, H. M., & Hintzen, A. (2008). The Pharmacology of Lysergic Acid Diethylamide: A Review, 14, 295–314. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1755-5949.2008.00059.x
- Carhart-Harris, R. L., Muthukumaraswamy, S., Roseman, L., Kaelen, M., Droog, W., Murphy, K., … Nutt, D. J. (2016). Neural correlates of the LSD experience revealed by multimodal neuroimaging. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1518377113
- ↑ 1.0 1.1 Brandt, S. D., Kavanagh, P. V., Westphal, F., Stratford, A., Elliott, S. P., Dowling, G., Wallach, J., Halberstadt, A. L. (August 2019). "Return of the lysergamides. Part V: Analytical and behavioural characterization of 1‐butanoyl‐ d ‐lysergic acid diethylamide (1B‐LSD)". Drug Testing and Analysis. 11 (8): 1122–1133. doi:10.1002/dta.2613. ISSN 1942-7603.
- ↑ 2.0 2.1 Wagmann, L., Richter, L. H. J., Kehl, T., Wack, F., Bergstrand, M. P., Brandt, S. D., Stratford, A., Maurer, H. H., Meyer, M. R. (July 2019). "In vitro metabolic fate of nine LSD-based new psychoactive substances and their analytical detectability in different urinary screening procedures". Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry. 411 (19): 4751–4763. doi:10.1007/s00216-018-1558-9. ISSN 1618-2642.
- ↑ "1B-LSD (Google Trends)". Retrieved January 1, 2020.
- ↑ Brandt, S. D.; Kavanagh, P. V.; Westphal, F.; Stratford, A.; Elliott, S. P.; Hoang, K.; Wallach, J.; Halberstadt, A. L. (2015). "Return of the lysergamides. Part I: Analytical and behavioural characterization of 1‐propionyl‐d‐lysergic acid diethylamide (1P‐LSD)". Drug Testing and Analysis. 8 (9): 891–902. doi:10.1002/dta.1884. ISSN 1942-7603.
- ↑ Cooper, Donald A. (1988). "Future Synthetic Drugs of Abuse". Proceedings of the international symposium on the forensic aspects of controlled substances. p. 79. ISBN 978-0-93211-509-6.
- ↑ Wagmann, L.; Richter, L. H. J.; Kehl, T.; Wack, F.; Pettersson Bergstrand, M.; Brandt, S. D.; Stratford, A.; Maurer, H. H.; Meyer, M. R. (2019). "In vitro metabolic fate of nine LSD-based new psychoactive substances and their analytical detectability in different urinary screening procedures". Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry. 411 (19): 4751–4763. doi:10.1007/s00216-018-1558-9. ISSN 1618-2642.
- ↑ Armstrong, B. D.; Paik, E.; Chhith, S.; Lelievre, V.; Waschek, J. A.; Howard, S. G. (2004). "Potentiation of (DL)‐3,4‐methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)‐induced toxicity by the serotonin 2A receptior partial agonist d‐lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), and the protection of same by the serotonin 2A/2C receptor antagonist MDL 11,939". Neuroscience Research Communications. 35 (2): 83–95. doi:10.1002/nrc.20023. ISSN 1520-6769.
- ↑ Gudelsky, Gary A.; Yamamoto, Bryan; Nash, J. Frank (1994). "Potentiation of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine-induced dopamine release and serotonin neurotoxicity by 5-HT2 receptor agonists". European Journal of Pharmacology. 264 (3): 325–330. doi:10.1016/0014-2999(94)90669-6. ISSN 0014-2999.
- ↑ Capela, J. P.; Fernandes, E.; Remião, F.; Bastos, M. L.; Meisel, A.; Carvalho, F. (2007). "Ecstasy induces apoptosis via 5-HT2A-receptor stimulation in cortical neurons". Neurotoxicology. 28 (4): 868–875. doi:10.1016/j.neuro.2007.04.005. ISSN 0161-813X. PMID 17572501.
- ↑ Nichols, David E. (2004). "Hallucinogens". Pharmacology & Therapeutics. 101 (2): 131–181. doi:10.1016/j.pharmthera.2003.11.002. ISSN 0163-7258.
- ↑ Talaie, H.; Panahandeh, R.; Fayaznouri, M. R.; Asadi, Z.; Abdollahi, M. (2009). "Dose-independent occurrence of seizure with tramadol". Journal of Medical Toxicology. 5 (2): 63–67. doi:10.1007/BF03161089. ISSN 1556-9039.
- ↑ "Synthetische Drogen: Neues Gesetz soll "Legal Highs" bekämpfen" [Synthetic drugs: New law is to combat legal highs] (in German). Der Standard. September 28, 2011. Retrieved January 1, 2020.
- ↑ "Entwurf: Bundesgesetz, mit dem ein Bundesgesetz über den Schutz vor Gesundheitsgefahren im Zusammenhang mit Neuen Psychoaktiven Substanzen (Neue-Psychoaktive-Substanzen-Gesetz, NPSG) erlassen und das Suchtmittelgesetz (SMG) geändert wird" (PDF) (in German). Retrieved January 1, 2020.
- ↑ "Anlage NpSG" (in German). Bundesministerium der Justiz und für Verbraucherschutz [Federal Ministry of Justice and Consumer Protection]. Retrieved December 10, 2019.
- ↑ "Verordnung zur Änderung der Anlage des Neue-psychoaktive-Stoffe-Gesetzes und von Anlagen des Betäubungsmittelgesetzes" (PDF). Bundesgesetzblatt Jahrgang 2019 Teil I Nr. 27 (in German). Bundesanzeiger Verlag. July 17, 2019. pp. 1083–1094. Retrieved January 1, 2020.
- ↑ "§ 4 NpSG" (in German). Bundesministerium der Justiz und für Verbraucherschutz [Federal Ministry of Justice and Consumer Protection]. Retrieved December 10, 2019.
- ↑ "指定薬物を指定する省令が公布されました" (in Japanese). 厚生労働省 [Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW)]. Retrieved March 25, 2021.
- ↑ "Noteikumi par Latvijā kontrolējamajām narkotiskajām vielām, psihotropajām vielām un prekursoriem" (in Latvian). VSIA Latvijas Vēstnesis. November 10, 2005. Retrieved January 1, 2020.
- ↑ "LR SAM Įsakymas Dėl Narkotinių ir psichotropinių medžiagų sąrašų patvirtinimo" (in Lithuanian). Retrieved January 1, 2020.
- ↑ "Misuse of Drugs Act: (CHAPTER 185)". sso.agc.gov.sg. March 31, 2008. Retrieved October 22, 2020.
- ↑ "31 nya substanser klassas som narkotika eller hälsofarlig vara" (in Swedish). Folkhälsomyndigheten [Public Health Agency of Sweden]. January 26, 2016. Retrieved January 1, 2020.
- ↑ "Verordnung des EDI über die Verzeichnisse der Betäubungsmittel, psychotropen Stoffe, Vorläuferstoffe und Hilfschemikalien" (in German). Bundeskanzlei [Federal Chancellery of Switzerland]. Retrieved January 1, 2020.
- ↑ "Psychoactive Substances Act 2016". UK Government. Retrieved January 1, 2020.
- ↑ 21 U.S. Code § 813 - Treatment of controlled substance analogues