25x-NBOMe

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Members of the NBOMe series have been linked to numerous overdoses and fatalities.[1][2][3]

It is strongly discouraged to insufflate (snort) or take higher doses of these compounds. Please see this section for more details.

The general structure for a 25x-NBOMe compound

25x-NBOMe is the general form of the NBOMe series of psychedelic phenethylamines. The series had nearly no history of human use before 2010 when some of the first compounds became available for purchase from online research chemical vendors.

While members of this series are often misrepresented as LSD, a fundamental difference between them is that 25x-NBOMe is only active when taken through a sublingual or insufflated route. This means that to get the full effects, 25x-NBOMe blotter paper must be lightly chewed on for 20+ minutes and never immediately swallowed.

25x-NBOMe blotters cause numbness of the tongue and have a distinct taste that is often described as "strongly bitter", "metallic", or "chemical like". This is unlike LSD blotters, which will not cause numbness of the tongue and may be tasteless or have a slight flavor depending on the amount of ink on the blotter and the composition of the blotter paper.

Although these differences can be helpful in identifying an unwanted compound on a blotter, it is recommended that more reliable methods of identification be used, such as the use of testing reagents like the Ehrlich reagent.

Insufflation of these substances are highly discouraged due to numerous reports of people suffering dangerous and often fatal overdoses that have surfaced over the years.[citation needed]

Chemistry

In a comparison of 25x-NBOMe and 2C-x chemicals, each 25x-NBOMe molecule is a serotonergic N-benzyl derivative of the corresponding 2C-x molecule. This change in structure results in an increase in potency. It differs from the related 2C-x structurally through a substitution on the amine (NH2) with a 2-methoxybenzyl (BOMe) group. The addition of this BOMe group also causes most of the compounds to have relatively the same duration, regardless of how long the 2C-x counterpart lasts.

List of 25x-NBOMe compounds

Compound R4 Structure
25B-NBOMe Br 25B-NBOMe.svg
25C-NBOMe Cl 25C-NBOMe.svg
25D-NBOMe CH3 25D-NBOMe.svg
25I-NBOMe I 25I-NBOMe.svg
25N-NBOMe NO2 25N-NBOMe.svg
25iP-NBOMe CH(CH3)2 25iP-NBOMe.svg

Toxicity and harm potential

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This toxicity and harm potential section is a stub.

As such, it may contain incomplete or even dangerously wrong information. You can help by expanding or correcting it.
We also recommend that you conduct independent research and use harm reduction practices when using this substance.

Tolerance and addiction potential

Members of the 25x-NBOMe series are not habit-forming and the desire to use them can actually decrease with use. They are thought to be most often self-regulating.

Tolerance to the effects of any member of the 25x-NBOMe series is built almost immediately after ingestion. After that, it takes about 1 week for the tolerance to be reduced to half and 2 weeks to be back to baseline (in the absence of further consumption). Members of the 25x-NBOMe series present cross-tolerance with all psychedelics, meaning that after the consumption of any member of the 25x-NBOMe series all psychedelics will have a reduced effect.

Overdose

Due to the very high potency and seemingly unpredictable effects the margin between a normal and an overdose of NBOMe compounds is extremely small when compared to many other substances. The exact toxic dose is unclear since it seems to depend a lot on personal physiology, rather than predominantly dosage, but various anecdotal reports suggest dangerous side effects start to show up when exceeding 1000 μg and it possibly becoming lethal for the more sensitive people at roughly 2000 μg. Reports of other people surviving much higher doses, sometimes even without any major side effects has been documented as well. There is also the uncertainty of dosage on blotter paper since it is rather difficult to lay such an exact dosage. Insufflating, vaporizing or drinking tinctures of this substance is highly discouraged because of this and has been tied to many documented deaths[4][5][6].

The overdose effects of NBOMes are typically a dangerously high heart rate, blood pressure, hyperthermia and significant vasoconstriction[citation needed] also accompanied by confusion, delusions, panic attacks, aggressive behavior, numbness or pain, amnesia and often seizures. The risks in an overdose include anything from organ failure to cardiac arrest and death[citation needed]. There are also multiple reports of people lethally injuring themselves or falling to death[7][8]. Benzodiazepines or antipsychotics can help with the psychological effects during an overdose although medical attention should always be called in even a possible overdose of 25I-NBOMe.

Dangerous interactions

Although many psychoactive substances are reasonably safe to use on their own, they can quickly become dangerous or even life-threatening when taken with other substances. The following lists some known dangerous combinations, but cannot be guaranteed to include all of them. Independent research should always be conducted to ensure that a combination of two or more substances is safe to consume. Some interactions listed have been sourced from Tripsit.

Serotonin syndrome risk

Combinations with the following substances can cause dangerously high serotonin levels. Serotonin syndrome requires immediate medical attention and can be fatal if left untreated.

Legal status

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This legality section is a stub.

As such, it may contain incomplete or wrong information. You can help by expanding it.

  • Austria: The 25x-NBOMe family is illegal to possess, produce and sell under the NPSG (Neue-Psychoaktive-Substanzen-Gesetz Österreich).[citation needed]
  • United States: In the US, some of the 25x-NBOMe chemicals are listed as Schedule I substances and others may be considered analogues under the Federal Analogue Act.[citation needed]
  • United Kingdom: The majority of synthesised 25x-NBOMe substances are Class A drugs in the United Kingdom as a result of the N-benzylphenethylamine catch-all clause.[11] Any compounds not covered by the clause are illegal to produce, supply, or import under the Psychoactive Substance Act, which came into effect on May 26th, 2016.[12]

See also

Literature

  • Hansen, M., Phonekeo, K., Paine, J. S., Leth-Petersen, S., Begtrup, M., Bräuner-Osborne, H., & Kristensen, J. L. (2014). Synthesis and structure–activity relationships of N-benzyl phenethylamines as 5-HT2A/2C agonists. ACS Chemical Neuroscience, 5(3), 243-249. https://doi.org/10.1021/cn400216u
  • Heim, Ralf (2004). "Synthese und Pharmakologie potenter 5-HT2A-Rezeptoragonisten mit N-2-Methoxybenzyl-Partialstruktur". Freie Universität Berlin. Retrieved 27 June 2015.
  • Hansen, M.; Phonekeo, K.; Paine, J. S.; Leth-Petersen, S.; Begtrup, M.; Bräuner-Osborne, H.; Kristensen, J. L. (2014). "Synthesis and Structure-Activity Relationships of N-Benzyl Phenethylamines as 5-HT2A/2C Agonists". ACS Chemical Neuroscience. 5 (3): 243–9. PMC 3963123 Freely accessible. PMID 24397362. https://doi.org/10.1021/cn400216u
  • Ettrup, A.; Hansen, M.; Santini, M. A.; Paine, J.; Gillings, N.; Palner, M.; Lehel, S.; Herth, M. M.; Madsen, J. (2010). "Radiosynthesis and in vivo evaluation of a series of substituted 11C-phenethylamines as 5-HT2A agonist PET tracers". European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging. 38 (4): 681–693. PMID 21174090. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00259-010-1686-8

References

  1. 25I-NBOMe (2C-I-NBOMe) Fatalities / Deaths by Erowid | https://www.erowid.org/chemicals/2ci_nbome/2ci_nbome_death.shtml
  2. 25C-NBOMe (2C-C-NBOMe) Fatalities / Deaths by Erowid | https://www.erowid.org/chemicals/2cc_nbome/2cc_nbome_death.shtml
  3. Other or Unknown NBOMe Compound Fatalities / Deaths by Erowid | https://www.erowid.org/chemicals/nbome/nbome_death.shtml
  4. https://erowid.org/chemicals/2ci_nbome/2ci_nbome_death.shtml
  5. https://erowid.org/chemicals/2cc_nbome/2cc_nbome_death.shtml
  6. https://erowid.org/chemicals/nbome/nbome_death.shtml
  7. nbome_death_news__i2013e0190_disp.jpg
  8. nbome_death_news__i2013e0191_disp.jpg
  9. Talaie, H., Panahandeh, R., Fayaznouri, M. R., Asadi, Z., & Abdollahi, M. (2009). Dose-independent occurrence of seizure with tramadol. Journal of medical toxicology, 5(2), 63-67. doi:10.1007/BF03161089
  10. Gillman, P. K. (2005). Monoamine oxidase inhibitors, opioid analgesics and serotonin toxicity. British Journal of Anaesthesia, 95(4), 434-441. https://doi.org/10.1093/bja/aei210
  11. United Kingdom. (2014). Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 (S.I. 2014/1106). London: The Stationery Office Limited. Retrieved July 5, 2017, from http://www.legislation.gov.uk/uksi/2014/1106/made
  12. Psychoactive Substances Act 2016 (Legislation.gov.uk) | http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/2016/2/contents/enacted