Methoxphenidine

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Summary sheet: Methoxphenidine
Methoxphenidine
Methoxphenidine.svg
Chemical Nomenclature
Common names Methoxphenidine, MXP
Substitutive name 2-MeO-Diphenidine
Systematic name (±)-1-[1-(2-Methoxyphenyl)-2-phenylethyl]piperidine
Class Membership
Psychoactive class Dissociative
Chemical class Diarylethylamine
Routes of Administration

WARNING: Always start with lower doses due to differences between individual body weight, tolerance, metabolism, and personal sensitivity. See responsible use section.



Oral
Dosage
Threshold Common Heavy
30 - 50 - 75 - 120 - 150 mg
Light Strong
Threshold 30 - 50 mg
Light 50 - 75 mg
Common 75 - 120 mg
Strong 120 - 150 mg
Duration
Total 6 - 8 hours
Onset 30 - 60 minutes
After effects 1 - 3 hours









DISCLAIMER: PW's dosage information is gathered from users and resources for educational purposes only. It is not a recommendation and should be verified with other sources for accuracy.

Methoxphenidine (also known as MXP) is a lesser-known novel dissociative substance of the diarylethylamine class that produces dissociative and hallucinogenic effects when administered. It is structurally related to diarylethylamines like diphenidine and ephenidine.

Methoxphenidine is classified as an NMDA receptor antagonist.[1] Members of this class induce a state known as "dissociative anesthesia" and are used in both medical (e.g. surgical anesthesia) and recreational settings. These include arylcyclohexylamines like ketamine and phencyclidine (PCP), as well as dextromethorphan (DXM).

Methoxphenidine along with related diarylethylamines have been studied as treatments for neurotoxic injuries.[2][3][4][5][6] It has no documented history of non-medical use before the 2013 UK arylcyclohexylamine ban, when it and diphenidine became available in powder and tablet form on the online research chemical market.[7] It was initially marketed as a replacement for methoxetamine (MXE) although users report substantially different effects. It is an example of a designer drug specifically chosen to mimic the functional or structural features of commonly used illicit substances and circumvent government regulation.[8][9]

Very little data exists about the pharmacological properties, metabolism, and toxicity of methoxphenidine in humans, and it has an extremely limited history of human usage. A number of fatal and non-fatal overdoses have been linked to the abuse of diarylethylamines.[1] Many reports suggest that they may pose different and more pronounced risks than traditional dissociatives. It is highly advised to use harm reduction practices if using this substance.

Chemistry

Methoxphenidine, or 2-MeO-Diphenidine is a molecule of the diarylethylamine class. It contains a substituted phenethylamine skeleton with an additional phenyl ring bound to Rα. The terminal amino group of the phenethylamine chain is incorporated into a piperidine ring. Hence, methoxphenidine belongs to the piperidine dissociative class of compounds. Methoxphenidine is structurally analogous to Diphenidine, containing an additional 2-methoxy CH3O- substitution.

Pharmacology

Further information: NMDA receptor antagonist

MXP acts as an NMDA receptor antagonist.[10] NMDA receptors allow for electrical signals to pass between neurons in the brain and spinal column; for the signals to pass, the receptor must be open. Dissociatives close the NMDA receptors by blocking them. This disconnection of neurons leads to loss of feeling, difficulty moving, and eventually an almost identical equivalent of the “k-hole.”

Although it has not been formally studied, the feelings of physical and emotional euphoria which many users report suggests that it may also have action as a dopamine and / or a noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor.

Subjective effects

The effects listed below are based upon the subjective effects index and personal experiences of PsychonautWiki contributors. The listed effects should be taken with a grain of salt and will rarely (if ever) occur all at once, but heavier doses will increase the chances and are more likely to induce a full range of effects. Likewise, adverse effects become much more likely on higher doses and may include serious injury or death.

Physical effects
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Visual effects
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Cognitive effects
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After effects
Aftereffects (3).svg

Experience reports

Anecdotal reports which describe the effects of this compound within our experience index include:

Additional experience reports can be found here:

Toxicity and harm potential

The toxicity and long-term health effects of recreational MXP use do not seem to have been studied in any scientific context and the exact toxic dosage is unknown. This is because MXP has very little history of human usage.

Anecdotal reports from those who have tried this substance that there do not seem to be any negative health effects attributed to simply trying it by itself at low to moderate doses and using it sparingly (but nothing can be completely guaranteed). Independent research should always be done to ensure that a combination of two or more substances is safe before consumption.

It is strongly recommended that one use harm reduction practices when using this substance.

Tolerance and addiction potential

As with other NMDA receptor antagonists, the chronic use of MXP can be considered moderately addictive with a high potential for abuse and is capable of causing psychological dependence among certain users. When addiction has developed, cravings and withdrawal effects may occur if a person suddenly stops their usage.

Tolerance to many of the effects of MXP develops with prolonged and repeated use. This results in users having to administer increasingly large doses to achieve the same effects. After that, it takes about 3 - 7 days for the tolerance to be reduced to half and 1 - 2 weeks to be back at baseline (in the absence of further consumption). MXP presents cross-tolerance with all dissociatives, meaning that after the consumption of MXP all dissociatives will have a reduced effect.

Dangerous interactions

Although many psychoactive substances are safe on their own, they can become dangerous and even life-threatening when combined with other substances. The list below contains some common potentially dangerous combinations, but may not include all of them. Certain combinations may be safe in low doses of each but still increase the potential risk of death. Independent research should always be done to ensure that a combination of two or more substances is safe before consumption.

Prominent examples include PCP and its analogs 3-MeO-PCP, MXE, and the diarylethylamine dissociatives like diphenidine or ephenidine. There is also evidence that suggests that combining these two increases their neurotoxicity.[citation needed] Anecdotally, worsened comedowns are also commonly reported when these two classes of substances are combined.

Legal status

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This legality section is a stub.

As such, it may contain incomplete or wrong information. You can help by expanding it.

  • Canada: As of March 2016, MT-45 and its analogues, one of which being Methoxphenidine, are Schedule I controlled substances.[11] Possession without legal authority can result in maximum 7 years imprisonment. Only those with a law enforcement agency, person with an exemption permit or institutions with Minister's authorization may possess the substance.
  • China: As of October 2015 MXP is a controlled substance in China.[12]
  • Italy: MXP is banned in Italy according to the Table of Drugs since 2016. [13]
  • Sweden: MXP is also banned in Sweden.[14]
  • United Kingdom: It is illegal to produce, supply, or import this substance under the Psychoactive Substance Act, which came into effect on May 26th, 2016.[15]

See also

External links

Community

Literature

  • Wallach, J., Kang, H., Colestock, T., Morris, H., Bortolotto, Z. A., Collingridge, G. L., ... & Adejare, A. (2016). Pharmacological investigations of the dissociative ‘legal highs’ diphenidine, methoxphenidine and analogues. PLoS One, 11(6), e0157021. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0157021
  • Morris, H., & Wallach, J. (2014). From PCP to MXE: A comprehensive review of the non-medical use of dissociative drugs. Drug Testing and Analysis, 6(7–8), 614–632. https://doi.org/10.1002/dta.1620

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 Wallach, J., Kang, H., Colestock, T., Morris, H., Bortolotto, Z. A., Collingridge, G. L., ... & Adejare, A. (2016). Pharmacological investigations of the dissociative ‘legal highs’ diphenidine, methoxphenidine and analogues. PLoS One, 11(6), e0157021. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0157021
  2. Nancy M. Gray; Brian K. Cheng (6 April 1994). "Patent EP 0346791 - 1,2-diarylethylamines for treatment of neurotoxic injury". G.D. Searle, LLC – via SureChEMBL. 
  3. Michael L. Berger; Anna Schweifer; Patrick Rebernik; Friedrich Hammerschmidt (May 2009). "NMDA receptor affinities of 1,2-diphenylethylamine and 1-(1,2-diphenylethyl)piperidine enantiomers and of related compounds". Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry. 17 (1): 3456–3462. doi:10.1016/j.bmc.2009.03.025. PMID 19345586. 
  4. Jason Wallach; Pierce V. Kavanagh; Gavin McLaughlin; Noreen Morris; John D. Power; Simon P. Elliott; Marion S. Mercier; David Lodge; Hamilton Morris; Nicola M. Dempster; Simon D. Brandt (May 2015). "Preparation and characterization of the 'research chemical' diphenidine, its pyrrolidine analogue, and their 2,2-diphenylethyl isomers". Drug Testing and Analysis. 7 (5): 358–367. doi:10.1002/dta.1689. PMID 25044512. 
  5. Thurkauf, Andrew; Monn, James; Mattson, Marienna V.; Jacobson, Arthur E.; Rice, Kenner C. (1989). "Structural and conformational aspects of the binding of aryl-alkyl amines to the phencyclidine binding site" (PDF). NIDA research monograph. 95: 51–56. ISSN 1046-9516. PMID 2561843. 
  6. Goodson, L. H.; Wiegand, C. J. W.; Splitter, Janet S. (November 1946). "Analgesics. I. N-Alkylated-1,2-diphenylethylamines Prepared by the Leuckart Reaction". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 68 (11): 2174–2175. doi:10.1021/ja01215a018. PMID 21002222. 
  7. Test purchase, synthesis, and characterization of 2-methoxydiphenidine (MXP) and differentiation from its meta- and para-substituted isomers | http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/dta.1800/abstract
  8. From PCP to MXE: a comprehensive review of the non-medical use of dissociative drugs (PubMed.gov / NCBI) | https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24678061
  9. "Word of mouse": indigenous harm reduction and online consumerism of the synthetic compound methoxphenidine (PubMed.gov / NCBI) | https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25715070
  10. MXP Patent | http://worldwide.espacenet.com/publicationDetails/biblio?CC=EP&NR=0346791&KC=&FT=E&locale=en_EP
  11. Regulations Amending the Food and Drug Regulations (Parts G and J — Lefetamine, AH-7921, MT-45 and W-18) | http://www.gazette.gc.ca/rp-pr/p2/2016/2016-06-01/html/sor-dors106-eng.php
  12. "关于印发《非药用类麻醉药品和精神药品列管办法》的通知" | http://www.sfda.gov.cn/WS01/CL0056/130753.html
  13. http://www.salute.gov.it/imgs/C_17_pagineAree_3729_listaFile_itemName_0_file.pdf
  14. Fler ämnen föreslås bli klassade som narkotika eller hälsofarlig vara | http://www.folkhalsomyndigheten.se/nyheter-och-press/nyhetsarkiv/2015/mars/fler-amnen-foreslas-bli-klassade-som-narkotika-eller-halsofarlig-vara/
  15. Psychoactive Substances Act 2016 (Legislation.gov.uk) | http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/2016/2/contents/enacted