Methoxphenidine

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Summary sheet: Methoxphenidine
Methoxphenidine
Methoxphenidine.svg
Chemical Nomenclature
Common names Methoxphenidine, Methoxyphenidine, MXP, 2-MXP
Substitutive name 2-MeO-Diphenidine
Systematic name (±)-1-[1-(2-Methoxyphenyl)-2-phenylethyl]piperidine
Class Membership
Psychoactive class Dissociative
Chemical class Diarylethylamine
Routes of Administration

WARNING: Always start with lower doses due to differences between individual body weight, tolerance, metabolism, and personal sensitivity. See responsible use section.



Oral
Dosage
Threshold 30 - 50 mg
Light 50 - 75 mg
Common 75 - 120 mg
Strong 120 - 150 mg
Duration
Total 6 - 8 hours
Onset 30 - 60 minutes
After effects 1 - 3 hours









DISCLAIMER: PW's dosage information is gathered from users and resources for educational purposes only. It is not a recommendation and should be verified with other sources for accuracy.

Interactions

Methoxphenidine (also known as MXP) is a lesser-known novel dissociative substance of the diarylethylamine class. It is an NMDA antagonist with subjective effects similar to those of ketamine and phencyclidine (PCP). It is structurally related to diphenidine and ephenidine.[1]

Methoxphenidine has been studied alongside other diarylethylamines as a treatment for neurotoxic injuries.[2][3][4][5][6] The first reports of human recreational use appeared shortly after the 2013 U.K. arylcyclohexylamine ban, during which it and diphenidine began to be sold in powder and tablet form on the online research chemical market.[7] It was initially marketed by vendors as a replacement for the highly popular methoxetamine (MXE) despite little to no evidence that it possessed similar effects.

Subjective effects include depersonalization, disconnective effects, conceptual thinking, increased music appreciation, and euphoria. Methoxphenidine belongs to a class of substances that can induce a hallucinogenic state known as "dissociative anesthesia", in which the user feels detached from their bodies.

Very little data exists about the pharmacological properties, metabolism, and toxicity of methoxphenidine and it has an extremely limited history of human usage. A number of fatal and non-fatal overdoses have been linked to the abuse of diarylethylamines.[1] Additionally, a number of user reports suggest that they may carry different and more pronounced risks than traditional dissociatives. It is highly advised to use harm reduction practices if using this substance.

History and culture

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As a result, it may contain incomplete or wrong information. You can help by expanding it.

Methoxphenidine is an example of a designer drug, specifically chosen to mimic the functional or structural features of commonly used illicit substances and circumvent government regulation.[8][9]

Chemistry

Methoxphenidine, or 2-MeO-Diphenidine, is a synthetic compound of the diarylethylamine class. Methoxphenidine's chemical structure contains a substituted phenethylamine skeleton with an additional phenyl ring bound to Rα. The terminal amino group of the phenethylamine chain is incorporated into a piperidine ring. Hence, methoxphenidine belongs to the piperidine dissociative class of compounds.

Methoxphenidine is a structural analog of diphenidine, featuring a methoxy group at the two position of a phenyl group.

Pharmacology

Further information: NMDA receptor antagonist

MXP acts as an NMDA receptor antagonist.[10] NMDA receptors allow for electrical signals to pass between neurons in the brain and spinal column; for the signals to pass, the receptor must be open. Dissociatives close the NMDA receptors by blocking them. This disconnection of neurons leads to loss of feeling, difficulty moving, and eventually an almost identical equivalent of the “k-hole.”

Although it has not been formally studied, the feelings of physical and emotional euphoria which many users report suggests that it may also have action as a dopamine and / or a noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor.

Subjective effects

It should be noted that like other diaryethylamines, methoxphenidine is reported to have a much more rapid onset and lower half-life when vaporized or smoked. When consumed this way, it is a suspected to be carcinogenic when excess heat is used. Some user reports have concluded that vaporization requires as low as 20% of what would be a common oral dose for that person.

Disclaimer: The effects listed below are taken from the subjective effect index, which is based on anecdotal reports and the personal experiences of PsychonautWiki contributors. As a result, they should be treated with a healthy degree of skepticism. It is worth noting that these effects will rarely (if ever) occur all at once, although higher doses will increase the chances of inducing a full range of effects. Likewise, adverse effects become much more likely on higher doses and may include serious injury or death.

Physical effects
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Visual effects
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Cognitive effects
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Auditory effects
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After effects
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Experience reports

Anecdotal reports which describe the effects of this compound within our experience index include:

Additional experience reports can be found here:

Toxicity and harm potential

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This toxicity and harm potential section is a stub.

As such, it may contain incomplete or even dangerously wrong information. You can help by expanding or correcting it.
We also recommend that you conduct independent research and use harm reduction practices when using this substance.

The toxicity and long-term health effects of recreational MXP use do not seem to have been studied in any scientific context and the exact toxic dosage is unknown. This is because MXP has very little history of human usage.

Anecdotal reports from those who have tried this substance that there do not seem to be any negative health effects attributed to simply trying it by itself at low to moderate doses and using it sparingly (but nothing can be completely guaranteed). Independent research should always be done to ensure that a combination of two or more substances is safe before consumption.

It is strongly recommended that one use harm reduction practices when using this substance.

Dependence and abuse potential

As with other NMDA receptor antagonists, the chronic use of MXP can be considered moderately addictive with a high potential for abuse and is capable of causing psychological dependence among certain users. When addiction has developed, cravings and withdrawal effects may occur if a person suddenly stops their usage.

Tolerance to many of the effects of MXP develops with prolonged and repeated use. This results in users having to administer increasingly large doses to achieve the same effects. After that, it takes about 3 - 7 days for the tolerance to be reduced to half and 1 - 2 weeks to be back at baseline (in the absence of further consumption). MXP presents cross-tolerance with all dissociatives, meaning that after the consumption of MXP all dissociatives will have a reduced effect.

Dangerous interactions

Although many psychoactive substances are reasonably safe to use on their own, they can quickly become dangerous or even life-threatening when taken with other substances. The following lists some known dangerous combinations, but cannot be guaranteed to include all of them. Independent research should always be conducted to ensure that a combination of two or more substances is safe to consume. Some interactions listed have been sourced from TripSit.

Legal status

  • Canada: As of March 2016, MT-45 and its analogues, one of which is methoxphenidine, are schedule I controlled substances.[11] Possession without legal authority can result in maximum 7 years imprisonment. Only those with a law enforcement agency, person with an exemption permit or institutions with Minister's authorization may possess the substance.
  • China: As of October 2015, methoxphenidine is a controlled substance in China.[12]
  • Germany: Methoxphenidine is a controlled substance under the NpSG, as it is a derivative of 2-Phenethylamine. Production and sale is illegal. Possession and import, although illegal, is not penalized if intended for self-consumption.[13]
  • Italy: Methoxphenidine is a prohibited substance in Italy.[14]
  • Sweden: Methoxphenidine is a prohibited substance in Sweden.[15]
  • United Kingdom: Methoxphenidine is illegal to produce, supply, or import under the Psychoactive Substance Act, which came into effect on May 26th, 2016.[16]
  • United States: Methoxphenidine is not currently scheduled in the United States.[citation needed] This means it is not specifically illegal but individuals may still be charged for its possession under certain circumstances such as under analogue laws and with the intent to sell or consume.

See also

External links

Discussion

Literature

  • Wallach, J., Kang, H., Colestock, T., Morris, H., Bortolotto, Z. A., Collingridge, G. L., ... & Adejare, A. (2016). Pharmacological investigations of the dissociative ‘legal highs’ diphenidine, methoxphenidine and analogues. PLoS One, 11(6), e0157021. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0157021
  • Morris, H., & Wallach, J. (2014). From PCP to MXE: A comprehensive review of the non-medical use of dissociative drugs. Drug Testing and Analysis, 6(7–8), 614–632. https://doi.org/10.1002/dta.1620

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 Wallach, J., Kang, H., Colestock, T., Morris, H., Bortolotto, Z. A., Collingridge, G. L., ... & Adejare, A. (2016). Pharmacological investigations of the dissociative ‘legal highs’ diphenidine, methoxphenidine and analogues. PLoS One, 11(6), e0157021. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0157021
  2. Nancy M. Gray; Brian K. Cheng (6 April 1994). "Patent EP 0346791 - 1,2-diarylethylamines for treatment of neurotoxic injury". G.D. Searle, LLC – via SureChEMBL. 
  3. Michael L. Berger; Anna Schweifer; Patrick Rebernik; Friedrich Hammerschmidt (May 2009). "NMDA receptor affinities of 1,2-diphenylethylamine and 1-(1,2-diphenylethyl)piperidine enantiomers and of related compounds". Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry. 17 (1): 3456–3462. doi:10.1016/j.bmc.2009.03.025. PMID 19345586. 
  4. Jason Wallach; Pierce V. Kavanagh; Gavin McLaughlin; Noreen Morris; John D. Power; Simon P. Elliott; Marion S. Mercier; David Lodge; Hamilton Morris; Nicola M. Dempster; Simon D. Brandt (May 2015). "Preparation and characterization of the 'research chemical' diphenidine, its pyrrolidine analogue, and their 2,2-diphenylethyl isomers". Drug Testing and Analysis. 7 (5): 358–367. doi:10.1002/dta.1689. PMID 25044512. 
  5. Thurkauf, Andrew; Monn, James; Mattson, Marienna V.; Jacobson, Arthur E.; Rice, Kenner C. (1989). "Structural and conformational aspects of the binding of aryl-alkyl amines to the phencyclidine binding site" (PDF). NIDA research monograph. 95: 51–56. ISSN 1046-9516. PMID 2561843. 
  6. Goodson, L. H.; Wiegand, C. J. W.; Splitter, Janet S. (November 1946). "Analgesics. I. N-Alkylated-1,2-diphenylethylamines Prepared by the Leuckart Reaction". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 68 (11): 2174–2175. doi:10.1021/ja01215a018. PMID 21002222. 
  7. Test purchase, synthesis, and characterization of 2-methoxydiphenidine (MXP) and differentiation from its meta- and para-substituted isomers | http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/dta.1800/abstract
  8. From PCP to MXE: a comprehensive review of the non-medical use of dissociative drugs (PubMed.gov / NCBI) | https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24678061
  9. "Word of mouse": indigenous harm reduction and online consumerism of the synthetic compound methoxphenidine (PubMed.gov / NCBI) | https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25715070
  10. MXP Patent | http://worldwide.espacenet.com/publicationDetails/biblio?CC=EP&NR=0346791&KC=&FT=E&locale=en_EP
  11. Regulations Amending the Food and Drug Regulations (Parts G and J — Lefetamine, AH-7921, MT-45 and W-18) | http://www.gazette.gc.ca/rp-pr/p2/2016/2016-06-01/html/sor-dors106-eng.php
  12. "关于印发《非药用类麻醉药品和精神药品列管办法》的通知" | http://www.sfda.gov.cn/WS01/CL0056/130753.html
  13. https://www.gesetze-im-internet.de/npsg/anlage.html
  14. http://www.salute.gov.it/imgs/C_17_pagineAree_3729_listaFile_itemName_0_file.pdf
  15. Fler ämnen föreslås bli klassade som narkotika eller hälsofarlig vara | http://www.folkhalsomyndigheten.se/nyheter-och-press/nyhetsarkiv/2015/mars/fler-amnen-foreslas-bli-klassade-som-narkotika-eller-halsofarlig-vara/
  16. Psychoactive Substances Act 2016 (Legislation.gov.uk) | http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/2016/2/contents/enacted