|Summary sheet: Myristicin|
|Substitutive name||Myristicin, 3-methoxy,4,5-methylenedioxy-allylbenzene|
|Chemical class||Phenylpropene / MDxx|
|Routes of Administration|
Myristicin is a phenylpropene, a natural organic compound which is classed as a deliriant, present in small amounts in the essential oil of nutmeg and to a lesser extent in other spices such as parsley and dill. It is believed that myristicin, along with elemicin, are the main psychoactive components found within nutmeg, responsible for its psychoactive properties.
Nutmeg was reported to induce hallucinogenic effects, such as visual distortions and paranoid ideation. In the reports, nutmeg intoxication took several hours before maximum effect was reached. Effects and after-effects lasted up to several days. Raw nutmeg consists of 5-15% essential oil by mass. 4-8.5% of nutmeg essential oil, or 0.2-1.3% of raw nutmeg, is myristicin. One study found 20 grams of nutmeg to contain 210 mg myristicin. The dosage in the substancebox assumes that one is using nutmeg powder and not pure myristicin, as this is extremely uncommon.
- 1 Chemistry
- 2 Pharmacology
- 3 Subjective effects
- 4 Forms
- 5 Experience reports
- 6 Toxicity and harm potential
- 7 Legal issues
- 8 See also
- 9 External links
- 10 References
Myristicin, also known as 3-methoxy,4,5-methylenedioxyallylbenzene, is a naturally occurring substance which belongs to a chemical class known as the phenylpropenes. It features a methylenedioxy ring at carbons R4 and R5 of the benzene ring. The benzene ring is also substituted with a separate methoxy group at the R3 carbon, and an allyl chain at R6 to make the main phenylpropene group.
In 1963, Alexander Shulgin speculated myristicin could be metabolized to MMDA, a psychoactive drug related to MDA, in the liver. This, however, is highly speculative. It is believed that myristicin is an anticholinergic, since, in overdose, it produces effects similar to anticholinergics, but the exact mechanism of action has not been established. Myristicin is also found to be a serotonin receptor antagonist, while simultaneously acting as a weak MAO inhibitor.
Elemicin is found in nutmeg alongside myristicin and contributes to its hallucinogenic effects. Elemicin is likely to have similar effects to myristicin. It is also the traditional precursor in synthesizing the alkaloid mescaline.
|This subjective effects section is a stub.|
As such, it is still in progress and may contain incomplete or wrong information.
You can help by expanding or correcting it.
Disclaimer: The effects listed below cite the Subjective Effect Index (SEI), a literature based on anecdotal reports and the personal experiences of PsychonautWiki contributors. As a result, they should be treated with a healthy amount of skepticism. It is worth noting that these effects will not necessarily occur in a consistent or reliable manner, although higher doses are more likely to induce the full spectrum of effects. Likewise, adverse effects become much more likely with higher doses and may include serious injury or death.
In comparison to datura or diphenhydramine, its effects tend to be milder and, depending on the dosage, even be considered pleasant and euphoric. It has unique effects compared to other deliriants or hallucinogens. It also has a long, smooth and enjoyable come-up, where the effects build in a similar manner to cannabis.
The physical effects of myristicin are usually described as mild and tolerable, which makes them different from other deliriants. They can be uncomfortable or pleasurable, depending on the dosage. These are described below and generally include:
- Difficulty urinating and Frequent urination - This can be described as a feeling of concrete blocking the urethra, painfully conflicting with a frequent need to urinate.
- Abnormal heartbeat
- Perception of bodily heaviness
- Pupil dilation
- Spontaneous tactile sensations
- Tactile enhancement or Tactile suppression
- Tactile hallucination
Myristicin does not enhance visual stimuli in the way that psychedelics do; instead, it tends to degrade and decrease visual aptitude while increasing hallucinations. These components are detailed below:
- Visual acuity suppression - This effect can result in blurry vision. It sometimes can last for days after the trip itself.
- Double vision
- Pattern recognition suppression
- Vibrating vision
Myristicin is moderately efficient at inducing delirious hallucinations which can be broken into the categories described below:
- External hallucination (autonomous entities; settings, sceneries, and landscapes; perspective hallucinations and scenarios and plots) - In comparison to other classes of hallucinogen, this effect occurs more frequently than that of any other at moderate to heavy doses and is the defining feature of the experience. It can be comprehensively described through its variations as delirious in believability, autonomous in controllability and solid in style. The most common themes for these hallucinations include those of everyday occurrences such as smoking phantom cigarettes, talking to people who are not there, insects, and sinister, nightmarish experiences.
- Internal hallucination (autonomous entities; settings, sceneries, and landscapes; perspective hallucinations and scenarios and plots) - In comparison to other classes of hallucinogen, this effect occurs briefly and spontaneously at moderate doses but becomes progressively extended in its occurrence and duration proportional to dosage before eventually becoming all-encompassing. It can be comprehensively described through its variations as delirious in believability, interactive in style, equal in new experiences and memory replays in content, autonomous in controllability and solid in style.
- Peripheral information misinterpretation
- Shadow people
- The cognitive effects of myristicin are described by many as mildly euphoric, but can also be dysphoric throughout the trip, primarily consisting of moderate paranoia. It can also be confusing and disorienting. Myristicin contains unique cognitive effects found almost exclusively in the deliriant class. The most prominent of these effects include:
Myristicin is found in nutmeg, nutmeg essential oil and to a lesser extent in parsley, dill and other plants.
Ground nutmeg powder
This is the most common form in which myristicin is sold, and it can be found in almost any supermarket as a spice.
It is worth noting that anecdotal reports suggest no clear guide on dosaging in this form. Some users report no effects at all from dosages that others consider extreme or even highly toxic. This may be the case because of varying myristicin content in ground powder and one should start at lower dosages reccomended here and always use the same brand. The dose for oral consumption is generally considered to be:
- Light: 5 - 15g
- Common: 15 - 20g
- Strong: 20 - 30g
- Heavy: 30g+
Myristicin can be extracted from nutmeg powder by fractional distillation. When using pure myristicin, the dose for oral consumption is generally considered to be:
- Light: 50 - 200mg
- Common: 200 - 500mg
- Strong: 500 - 800mg
- Heavy: 800mg+
Anecdotal reports which describe the effects of this compound within our experience index include:
- Experience:3 drops of cinnamon bark oil/ 5 drops of german chamomile oil/ 2mL of nutmeg oil in lecithin - experiments with nutmeg oil
- Experience:4 tablespoons of Nutmeg
- Experience:Nutmeg (8 teaspoons) - My Mom Introduces Me To Genesis and Other Things
Additional experience reports can be found here:
Toxicity and harm potential
This toxicity and harm potential section is a stub.
As such, it may contain incomplete or even dangerously wrong information. You can help by expanding or correcting it.
Myristicin is neurotoxic and can be fatal in extremely high doses.
Tolerance and addiction potential
Myristicin is not known to be addictive and the desire to use it can actually decrease with use. It is mostly self-regulating.
Information regarding tolerance is unknown.
Myristicin and nutmeg are both unscheduled in nearly all parts of the world and are commonly bought in form of either ground spice, essential oil or as whole nuts.
- McKenna, A., Nordt, S. P., & Ryan, J. (2004). Acute nutmeg poisoning. European Journal of Emergency Medicine, 11(4), 240-241. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.mej.0000127649.69328.a5
- Abernethy, M. K., & Becker, L. B. (1992). Acute nutmeg intoxication. The American journal of emergency medicine, 10(5), 429-430. https://doi.org/10.1016/0735-6757(92)90069-A
- Myristicin-induced neurotoxicity in human neuroblastoma SK-N-SH cells. (PubMed.gov / NCBI) | https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15795093