JWH-073

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Summary sheet: JWH-073
JWH-073
JWH-073.svg
Chemical Nomenclature
Common names JWH-073, Spice
Systematic name naphthalen-1-yl-(1-butylindol-3-yl)methanone
Routes of Administration

WARNING: Always start with lower doses due to differences between individual body weight, tolerance, metabolism, and personal sensitivity. See responsible use section.


Smoked
Dosage
Threshold < 3 mg
Light 3 - 5 mg
Common 5 - 10 mg
Strong 10 - 15 mg
Heavy 15 mg +
Duration
Total 1 - 2 hours
Onset 5 - 10 minutes
Peak 60 - 90 minutes
Offset 5 - 10 minutes
After effects 60 - 90 minutes










DISCLAIMER: PW's dosage information is gathered from users and resources for educational purposes only. It is not a recommendation and should be verified with other sources for accuracy.

JWH-073 is an analgesic chemical from the naphthoylindole family that acts as a partial agonist at both the CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors. It is somewhat selective for the CB1 subtype, with affinity at this subtype approximately 5x the affinity at CB2.[1] The abbreviation JWH stands for John W. Huffman, one of the inventors of the compound.

JWH-073 gained popularity in April 2009, when it was claimed by chemists at the University of Freiburg to have been found in a "fertilizer" product called "Forest Humus", along with another synthetic cannabinoid, CP 47,497.[2] It was subsequently found as a chemical within the popular synthetic cannabis blend Spice, which had been sold in numerous countries around the world since 2002.[3][4][5]

Cannabinoids are commonly smoked or vaporized to achieve a quick onset of effects and rapid offset. JWH-073 is orally active when dissolved in a lipid, which can increase the duration significantly. Like other cannabinoids, it is insoluble in water but dissolves in ethanol and lipids.

Unlike cannabis, the chronic abuse of synthetic cannabinoids has been associated with multiple deaths and more dangerous side effects and toxicity in general. Therefore, it is strongly discouraged to take this substance for extended periods of time or in excessive doses.

Chemistry

JWH-073, or Naphthalen-1-yl-(1-butylindol-3-yl)methanone, is a synthetic cannabinoid containing a substituted indole structure. This indole core is shared with other cannabinoid substances including PB-22, 5F-PB-22, JWH-018, and AM2201. JWH-018 is substituted at R1 with a butyl chain. Additionally, the indole core is substituted at R3 with a carbonyl group which is also bonded to a napthalene moeity.

Napthalene is a bicyclic structure of two fused benzene rings. This carbonyl bridge of JWH-073 classifies it as a ketone. JWH-073 is an analog of THJ-073 in which the core indazole structure is substituted with an indole base.

Pharmacology

Unlike most synthetic cannabinoids (including JWH-018) JWH-073 is a partial agonist of both the CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors; however, unlike JWH-018, JWH-073 has not been researched well in context to its interactions with humans. However, studies on animals have shown a higher binding profile than THC.[6]

Subjective effects

The effects listed below are based upon the subjective effects index and personal experiences of PsychonautWiki contributors. These effects should be taken with a grain of salt and will rarely (if ever) occur all at once, but heavier doses will increase the chances of inducing a full range of effects. Likewise, adverse effects become much more likely on higher doses and may include serious injury or death.

Physical effects
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Cognitive effects
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Visual effects
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Auditory effects
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Combinational effects

  • Psychedelics - When used in combination with psychedelics, cannabinoids are capable of intensifying and extending the duration of both the visual and cognitive effects with extreme efficiency. This should be used with caution if one is not experienced with psychedelics.
  • Dissociatives - When used in combination with dissociatives, the geometry, euphoria, dissociation and hallucinatory effects are often greatly enhanced.
  • Alcohol - When used in combination with alcohol, cannabinoids can cause feelings of extreme nausea, dizziness and changes in gravity. It is recommended that one smoke before drinking and not the other way around unless they are extremely cautious.

Experience reports

There are currently no anecdotal reports which describe the effects of this compound within our experience index. Additional experience reports can be found here:

Toxicity and harm potential

JWH-073, unlike many synthetic cannabinoids, is a partial agonist of the CB1 receptors. Because JWH-073 is a partial agonist, unlike most cannabinoids, harm mediated by CB1 receptor agonism can be less severe than its full agonist counterparts. JWH-018 has been shown to cause profound changes in CB1 receptor density following administration, causing desensitization to its effects more rapidly than related cannabinoids with partial agonism.[16][17] JWH-073, like other cannabinoids, has also been known to exacerbate pre-existing psychological disorders causing intense paranoia, anxiety and agitation; however, Δ9-THC itself has been known to do this as well.[18]

It has often been recommended that those with severe pre-existing mental conditions should not ingest these substances due to the way they strongly increase one's current state of mind and emotions. Also, like THC, prolonged usage of synthetic cannabinoids may increase one's disposition to mental illness and psychosis[19], particularly in vulnerable individuals with risk factors for psychotic illnesses (like a past or family history of schizophrenia).[20][21][22]

As synthetic cannabinoids are active in the milligram range (with below 5mg being a common dose), it is important to use proper precautions when dosing to avoid a negative experience.

It is strongly recommended that one use harm reduction practices when using this drug.

Tolerance and addiction potential

As with other synthetic cannibanoids, the chronic use of JWH-073 can be considered moderately addictive with a high potential for abuse and is capable of causing psychological dependence among certain users. When addiction has developed, cravings and withdrawal effects may occur if a person suddenly stops their usage.

Tolerance to many of the effects of JWH-073 develops with prolonged and repeated use. This results in users having to administer increasingly large doses to achieve the same effects. After that, it takes about 3 - 7 days for the tolerance to be reduced to half and 1 - 2 weeks to be back at baseline (in the absence of further consumption). JWH-073 presents cross-tolerance with all cannabinoids, meaning that after the consumption of JWH-073 all cannabinoids will have a reduced effect.

Legal issues

  • Austria: JWH-073 is illegal to possess, produce and sell under the NPSG (Neue-Psychoaktive-Substanzen-Gesetz Österreich).
  • Brazil - Possession, production and sale is illegal as it is listed on Portaria SVS/MS nº 344.[23]
  • United Kingdom - It is illegal to produce, supply, or import this drug under the Psychoactive Substance Act, which came into effect on May 26th, 2016.[24]
  • USA - The U.S. DEA temporarily declared JWH-073 a schedule I controlled substance on March 1st, 2011 through 76 FR 11075, and permanently instated the same schedule on July 9th, 2012 in the Section 1152 of the Food and Drug Administration Safety and Innovation Act.[25]
  • Australia - On July 8th, 2011 the AUS government banned the sale of JWH-073.[26] JWH-073 is considered a Schedule 9 prohibited substance in Australia under the Poisons Standard (October 2015).[27] A Schedule 9 substance is a substance which may be abused or misused, the manufacture, possession, sale or use of which should be prohibited by law except when required for medical or scientific research, or for analytical, teaching or training purposes with approval of Commonwealth and/or State or Territory Health Authorities.[28]
  • New Zealand - On May 8th, 2014 the New Zealand government banned the sale of JWH-073.[29]

See also

External links

References

  1. Influence of the N-1 alkyl chain length of cannabimimetic indoles upon CB(1) and CB(2) receptor binding. (PubMed.gov / NCBI) | http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10940540
  2. http://www.pierre-markuse.de/2009/04/20/forest-humus-enthalt-synthetische-cannabinoide
  3. http://www.fr-online.de/frankfurt_und_hessen/nachrichten/frankfurt/1646010_Gefaehrlicher-Kick-mit-Spice.html
  4. http://www.haz.de/newsroom/wissen/zentral/wissen/art680,757107#
  5. http://www.badische-zeitung.de/nachrichten/panorama/spice-enthaelt-chemischen-wirkstoff--9211606.html
  6. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0041008X13001087
  7. Mechoulam, R. (1984). Cannabinoids as therapeutic agents. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. ISBN 0-8493-5772-1.
  8. How Marijuana Works | http://science.howstuffworks.com/marijuana4.htm
  9. How Marijuana Works | http://science.howstuffworks.com/marijuana4.htm
  10. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1526-4637.2009.00703.x/abstract
  11. Cannabinoids for treatment of chronic non-cancer pain; a systematic review of randomized trials | http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-2125.2011.03970.x/abstract
  12. Causal association between cannabis and psychosis: examination of the evidence - The British Journal of Psychiatry Jan 2004, 184 (2) 110-117 | http://bjp.rcpsych.org/content/184/2/110.short
  13. Every-Palmer, S. Synthetic cannabinoid use and psychosis: an explorative study. Journal of Drug and Alcohol Dependence 2011.
  14. “Spice” Girls: Synthetic Cannabinoid Intoxication - The Journal of Emergency Medicine Volume 40, Issue 3, March 2011, Pages 296–299 (ScienceDirect) | http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0736467910008802
  15. A Teenager With Agitation: Higher Than She Should Have Climbed - Pediatric Emergency Care: June 2010 - Volume 26 - Issue 6 - pp 462-465 | http://journals.lww.com/pec-online/Abstract/2010/06000/A_Teenager_With_Agitation__Higher_Than_She_Should.16.aspx
  16. Atwood, B.K., et al., "JWH018, a common constituent of 'Spice' herbal blends, is a potent and efficacious cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonist."
  17. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1476-5381.2009.00582.x/abstract
  18. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111%2Fj.1360-0443.2010.03119.x
  19. Causal association between cannabis and psychosis: examination of the evidence - The British Journal of Psychiatry Jan 2004, 184 (2) 110-117 | http://bjp.rcpsych.org/content/184/2/110.short
  20. Every-Palmer, S. Synthetic cannabinoid use and psychosis: an explorative study. Journal of Drug and Alcohol Dependence 2011.
  21. “Spice” Girls: Synthetic Cannabinoid Intoxication - The Journal of Emergency Medicine Volume 40, Issue 3, March 2011, Pages 296–299 (ScienceDirect) | http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0736467910008802
  22. A Teenager With Agitation: Higher Than She Should Have Climbed - Pediatric Emergency Care: June 2010 - Volume 26 - Issue 6 - pp 462-465 | http://journals.lww.com/pec-online/Abstract/2010/06000/A_Teenager_With_Agitation__Higher_Than_She_Should.16.aspx
  23. http://portal.anvisa.gov.br/documents/10181/3115436/%281%29RDC_130_2016_.pdf/fc7ea407-3ff5-4fc1-bcfe-2f37504d28b7
  24. Psychoactive Substances Act 2016 (Legislation.gov.uk) | http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/2016/2/contents/enacted
  25. Schedules of Controlled Substances: Temporary Placement of Four Synthetic Cannabinoids Into Schedule I | http://www.deadiversion.usdoj.gov/fed_regs/rules/2014/fr0110_10.htm
  26. http://www.tga.gov.au/pdf/scheduling/scheduling-decisions-1107-final.pdf
  27. POISONS STANDARD OCTOBER 2015 | https://www.comlaw.gov.au/Details/F2015L01534
  28. POISONS STANDARD OCTOBER 2015 | https://www.comlaw.gov.au/Details/F2015L01534
  29. https://www.drugfoundation.org.nz/synthetic-cannabinoids/what-they-are