|Summary sheet: JWH-073|
|Common names||JWH-073, Spice|
|Routes of Administration|
JWH-073 is an analgesic chemical from the naphthoylindole family that acts as a partial agonist at both the CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors. It is somewhat selective for the CB1 subtype, with affinity at this subtype approximately 5x the affinity at CB2. The abbreviation JWH stands for John W. Huffman, one of the inventors of the compound.
JWH-073 gained popularity in April 2009, when it was claimed by chemists at the University of Freiburg to have been found in a "fertilizer" product called "Forest Humus", along with another synthetic cannabinoid, CP 47,497. It was subsequently found as a chemical within the popular synthetic cannabis blend Spice, which had been sold in numerous countries around the world since 2002.
Cannabinoids are commonly smoked or vaporized to achieve a quick onset of effects and rapid offset. JWH-073 is orally active when dissolved in a lipid, which can increase the duration significantly. Like other cannabinoids, it is insoluble in water but dissolves in ethanol and lipids.
Unlike cannabis, the chronic abuse of synthetic cannabinoids has been associated with multiple deaths and more dangerous side effects and toxicity in general. Therefore, it is strongly discouraged to take this substance for extended periods of time or in excessive doses.
JWH-073, or Naphthalen-1-yl-(1-butylindol-3-yl)methanone, is a synthetic cannabinoid containing a substituted indole structure. This indole core is shared with other cannabinoid substances including PB-22, 5F-PB-22, JWH-018, and AM2201. JWH-018 is substituted at R1 with a butyl chain. Additionally, the indole core is substituted at R3 with a carbonyl group which is also bonded to a napthalene moeity.
Napthalene is a bicyclic structure of two fused benzene rings. This carbonyl bridge of JWH-073 classifies it as a ketone. JWH-073 is an analog of THJ-073 in which the core indazole structure is substituted with an indole base.
Unlike most synthetic cannabinoids (including JWH-018) JWH-073 is a partial agonist of both the CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors; however, unlike JWH-018, JWH-073 has not been researched well in context to its interactions with humans. However, studies on animals have shown a higher binding profile than THC.
Disclaimer: The effects listed below cite the Subjective Effect Index (SEI), an open research literature based on anecdotal user reports and the personal analyses of PsychonautWiki contributors. As a result, they should be viewed with a healthy degree of skepticism.
It is also worth noting that these effects will not necessarily occur in a predictable or reliable manner, although higher doses are more liable to induce the full spectrum of effects. Likewise, adverse effects become increasingly likely with higher doses and may include addiction, severe injury, or death ☠.
- Spontaneous tactile sensations - The "body high" of JWH-073 can be described as a warm and soft pleasurable, all-encompassing tingling sensation that spreads over the body in a prior to initial ingestion. It maintains a consistent presence that quickly rises with the onset and hits its limit once the peak has been reached before immediately dissipating. It can be described as less intense in proportion to cognitive effects when compared to JWH-018
- Sedation - Generally, the effects on the user's energy levels are sedating. This encourages one to relax, lie down, and at higher doses, fall asleep. It produces moderate sedative effects that can be described as less powerful than JWH-018, 5F-AKB48, and 5F-PB-22 but more sedating when compared to THC,THJ-018, AM-2201, or 5F-UR-144.
- Motor control loss - This substance causes a partial to moderate suppression of motor control which intensifies proportional to dosage but rarely results in a complete inability to walk and perform basic movements.
- Appetite enhancement - As with many other cannabinoids, JWH-073 causes an increase in appetite, known colloquially as "the munchies" in popular American and United Kingdom culture. Clinical studies and survey data have found that cannabis increases food enjoyment and interest in food. This is thought to be due to the way in which endocannabinoids in the hypothalamus activate cannabinoid receptors that are responsible for maintaining food intake.
- Dehydration- This is known colloquially as "cotton mouth" in popular American and United Kingdom culture.
- Vasodilation - Cannabinoids appear to decrease blood pressure by dilating the blood vessels and increasing blood flow throughout the body. The arteries in the eyeball expand from the decreased blood pressure and the heart rate increases to compensate for the reduction in pressure.
- Pain relief - Cannabinoids have been clinically demonstrated to provide pain relief via agonism of cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2, which extends to synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists.
- Perception of bodily heaviness or Perception of bodily lightness
- Changes in gravity - JWH-073, like other cannabinoids, is capable of causing vertigo with which the environment appears to be spinning or oscillating. At moderate doses, it can spontaneously induce the sensation of falling, which can be overwhelming and uncomfortable. The propensity of this is greatly reduced and eliminated in proportion to tolerance.
- Emotion enhancement - The most prominent cognitive component of cannabinoids is the way in which they enhances the emotions one is already feeling proportional to dosage. This can result in euphoria, extreme laughter, or increased immersion within tasks and activities or it can result in anxiety or paranoia depending on the user's current state of mind.
- Euphoria - This can be considered very prominent in comparison to JWH-018, THJ-018, AM-2201, and 5F-UR-144.
- Thought connectivity - This can attribute to fluid, more abstract thinking in comparison to linear thought.
- Anxiety - Subjectively, JWH-073 is less anxiogenic and stimulating than Δ9-THC, JWH-018, THJ-018, AM-2201, or 5F-UR-144.
- Conceptual thinking
- Dream suppression
- analysis suppression
- Paranoia - All cannabinoids are capable of inducing paranoia at high doses, or with chronic administration, but the intensity of which can be considered much less when compared to Δ9-THC, JWH-018, 5F-AKB48 and 5F-UR-144.
- Psychosis - The prolonged usage of synthetic cannabinoids may increase one's disposition to psychosis, particularly in vulnerable individuals with risk factors for psychotic illnesses (like a past or family history of schizophrenia).
- Thought deceleration
- Colour enhancement
- Visual acuity suppression
- Geometry - As reported with other cannabinoids, JWH-073 can produce closed eye visuals at moderate doses, which can escalate into visual distortions such as a ripples in the field of vision upon continuous administration. Within users who also regularly use psychedelics, it is capable of inducing these consistently in a visual style which seems to be an averaged out depiction of all the psychedelics one has used within the past. These rarely extend beyond level 4 and are considered to be mild, fine, small and zoomed out but brighter and better defined than the geometry experienced with cannabis.
- Psychedelics - When used in combination with psychedelics, cannabinoids are capable of intensifying and extending the duration of both the visual and cognitive effects with extreme efficiency. This should be used with caution if one is not experienced with psychedelics.
- Dissociatives - When used in combination with dissociatives, the geometry, euphoria, dissociation and hallucinatory effects are often greatly enhanced.
- Alcohol - When used in combination with alcohol, cannabinoids can cause feelings of extreme nausea, dizziness and changes in gravity. It is recommended that one smoke before drinking and not the other way around unless they are extremely cautious.
There are currently no anecdotal reports which describe the effects of this compound within our experience index. Additional experience reports can be found here:
Toxicity and harm potential
JWH-073, unlike many synthetic cannabinoids, is a partial agonist of the CB1 receptors. Because JWH-073 is a partial agonist, unlike most cannabinoids, harm mediated by CB1 receptor agonism can be less severe than its full agonist counterparts. JWH-018 has been shown to cause profound changes in CB1 receptor density following administration, causing desensitization to its effects more rapidly than related cannabinoids with partial agonism. JWH-073, like other cannabinoids, has also been known to exacerbate pre-existing psychological disorders causing intense paranoia, anxiety and agitation; however, Δ9-THC itself has been known to do this as well.
It has often been recommended that those with severe pre-existing mental conditions should not ingest these substances due to the way they strongly increase one's current state of mind and emotions. Also, like THC, prolonged usage of synthetic cannabinoids may increase one's disposition to mental illness and psychosis, particularly in vulnerable individuals with risk factors for psychotic illnesses (like a past or family history of schizophrenia).
As synthetic cannabinoids are active in the milligram range (with below 5mg being a common dose), it is important to use proper precautions when dosing to avoid a negative experience.
It is strongly recommended that one use harm reduction practices when using this drug.
Tolerance and addiction potential
As with other synthetic cannibanoids, the chronic use of JWH-073 can be considered moderately addictive with a high potential for abuse and is capable of causing psychological dependence among certain users. When addiction has developed, cravings and withdrawal effects may occur if a person suddenly stops their usage.
Tolerance to many of the effects of JWH-073 develops with prolonged and repeated use. This results in users having to administer increasingly large doses to achieve the same effects. After that, it takes about 3 - 7 days for the tolerance to be reduced to half and 1 - 2 weeks to be back at baseline (in the absence of further consumption). JWH-073 presents cross-tolerance with all cannabinoids, meaning that after the consumption of JWH-073 all cannabinoids will have a reduced effect.
Warning: Many psychoactive substances that are reasonably safe to use on their own can suddenly become dangerous and even life-threatening when combined with certain other substances. The following list provides some known dangerous interactions (although it is not guaranteed to include all of them).
Always conduct independent research (e.g. Google, DuckDuckGo, PubMed) to ensure that a combination of two or more substances is safe to consume. Some of the listed interactions have been sourced from TripSit.
- Amphetamines - Stimulants increase anxiety levels and the risk of thought loops which can lead to negative experiences
- Cocaine - Stimulants increase anxiety levels and the risk of thought loops which can lead to negative experiences
- Australia: On July 8th, 2011 the AUS government banned the sale of JWH-073. JWH-073 is considered a Schedule 9 prohibited substance in Australia under the Poisons Standard (October 2015). A Schedule 9 substance is a substance which may be abused or misused, the manufacture, possession, sale or use of which should be prohibited by law except when required for medical or scientific research, or for analytical, teaching or training purposes with approval of Commonwealth and/or State or Territory Health Authorities.
- Austria: JWH-073 is illegal to possess, produce and sell under the NPSG (Neue-Psychoaktive-Substanzen-Gesetz Österreich).
- Brazil: Possession, production and sale is illegal as it is listed on Portaria SVS/MS nº 344.
- Germany: JWH-073 is controlled under Anlage II BtMG (Narcotics Act, Schedule II) as of January 22, 2010. It is illegal to manufacture, possess, import, export, buy, sell, procure or dispense it without a license. A quantity over 6 grams is regarded as a 'non-small amount' by decision of the BGH (Federal Supreme Court). In these cases, the range of sentences is increased.
- Lithuania: JWH-073 is a controlled substance as of May 27, 2009.
- New Zealand: On May 8th, 2014 the New Zealand government banned the sale of JWH-073.
- Sweden: A bill to ban JWH-073 under the law 1992:1554 was accepted on July 30, 2009 and entered into force on September 15, 2009.
- Switzerland: JWH-073 is a controlled substance specifically named under Verzeichnis D. It is a controlled substance as of December 1, 2010.
- United Kingdom: It is illegal to produce, supply, or import this drug under the Psychoactive Substance Act, which came into effect on May 26, 2016.
- United States: The U.S. DEA temporarily declared JWH-073 a Schedule I controlled substance on March 1, 2011 through 76 FR 11075, and permanently instated the same schedule on July 9, 2012 in the Section 1152 of the Food and Drug Administration Safety and Innovation Act.
- ↑ Aung, M. M., Griffin, G., Huffman, J. W., Wu, M., Keel, C., Yang, B., Showalter, V. M., Abood, M. E., Martin, B. R. (1 August 2000). "Influence of the N-1 alkyl chain length of cannabimimetic indoles upon CB(1) and CB(2) receptor binding". Drug and Alcohol Dependence. 60 (2): 133–140. doi:10.1016/s0376-8716(99)00152-0. ISSN 0376-8716.
- ↑ forest-humus-enthalt-synthetische-cannabinoide
- ↑ http://www.fr-online.de/frankfurt_und_hessen/nachrichten/frankfurt/1646010_Gefaehrlicher-Kick-mit-Spice.html
- ↑ http://www.haz.de/newsroom/wissen/zentral/wissen/art680,757107#
- ↑ Zeitung, B., Spice enthält chemischen Wirkstoff - Panorama - Badische Zeitung
- ↑ Rajasekaran, M., Brents, L. K., Franks, L. N., Moran, J. H., Prather, P. L. (1 June 2013). "Human metabolites of synthetic cannabinoids JWH-018 and JWH-073 bind with high affinity and act as potent agonists at cannabinoid type-2 receptors". Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. 269 (2): 100–108. doi:10.1016/j.taap.2013.03.012. ISSN 0041-008X.
- ↑ Mechoulam, R., ed. (1986). Cannabinoids as therapeutic agents. CRC Press. ISBN 9780849357725.
- ↑ 8.0 8.1 How Marijuana Works, 2001
- ↑ Martín-Sánchez, E., Furukawa, T. A., Taylor, J., Martin, J. L. R. (November 2009). "Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Cannabis Treatment for Chronic Pain". Pain Medicine. 10 (8): 1353–1368. doi:10.1111/j.1526-4637.2009.00703.x. ISSN 1526-2375.
- ↑ Lynch, M. E., Campbell, F. (November 2011). "Cannabinoids for treatment of chronic non-cancer pain; a systematic review of randomized trials: Cannabinoids for pain". British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. 72 (5): 735–744. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2125.2011.03970.x. ISSN 0306-5251.
- ↑ 11.0 11.1 Arseneault, L., Cannon, M., Witton, J., Murray, R. M. (February 2004). "Causal association between cannabis and psychosis: examination of the evidence". The British Journal of Psychiatry. 184 (2): 110–117. doi:10.1192/bjp.184.2.110. ISSN 0007-1250.
- ↑ 12.0 12.1 Every-Palmer, S. (September 2011). "Synthetic cannabinoid JWH-018 and psychosis: An explorative study". Drug and Alcohol Dependence. 117 (2–3): 152–157. doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2011.01.012. ISSN 0376-8716.
- ↑ 13.0 13.1 Vearrier, D., Osterhoudt, K. C. (June 2010). "A Teenager With Agitation: Higher Than She Should Have Climbed". Pediatric Emergency Care. 26 (6): 462–465. doi:10.1097/PEC.0b013e3181e4f416. ISSN 0749-5161.
- ↑ Atwood, B. K., Huffman, J., Straiker, A., Mackie, K. (June 2010). "JWH018, a common constituent of 'Spice' herbal blends, is a potent and efficacious cannabinoid CB 1 receptor agonist: 'Spice' contains a potent cannabinoid agonist". British Journal of Pharmacology. 160 (3): 585–593. doi:10.1111/j.1476-5381.2009.00582.x. ISSN 0007-1188.
- ↑ Every-Palmer, S. (October 2010). "WARNING: LEGAL SYNTHETIC CANNABINOID-RECEPTOR AGONISTS SUCH AS JWH-018 MAY PRECIPITATE PSYCHOSIS IN VULNERABLE INDIVIDUALS: Letters to the Editor". Addiction. 105 (10): 1859–1860. doi:10.1111/j.1360-0443.2010.03119.x. ISSN 0965-2140.
- ↑ http://www.tga.gov.au/pdf/scheduling/scheduling-decisions-1107-final.pdf
- ↑ 17.0 17.1 Health, Poisons Standard October 2015
- ↑ http://portal.anvisa.gov.br/documents/10181/3115436/%281%29RDC_130_2016_.pdf/fc7ea407-3ff5-4fc1-bcfe-2f37504d28b7
- ↑ "Anlage II BtMG" (in German). Bundesministerium der Justiz und für Verbraucherschutz. Retrieved December 30, 2019.
- ↑ "Vierundzwanzigste Verordnung zur Änderung betäubungsmittelrechtlicher Vorschriften" (PDF). Bundesgesetzblatt Jahrgang 2009 Teil I Nr. 80 (in German). Bundesanzeiger Verlag. December 23, 2009. pp. 3944–3945. Retrieved December 30, 2019.
- ↑ "§ 29 BtMG" (in German). Bundesministerium der Justiz und für Verbraucherschutz. Retrieved December 19, 2019.
- ↑ ""Legal Highs": Grenzwerte für synthetische Cannabinoide festgesetzt" (in German). juris. Archived from the original on March 21, 2015. Retrieved December 30, 2019.
- ↑ 23.0 23.1 "THEMATIC PAPERS: Understanding the 'Spice' phenomenon" (PDF). European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA). 2009. doi:10.2810/27063. ISBN 978-92-9168-411-3. ISSN 1725-5767. Retrieved December 30, 2019.
- ↑ https://www.drugfoundation.org.nz/synthetic-cannabinoids/what-they-are
- ↑ "Verordnung des EDI über die Verzeichnisse der Betäubungsmittel, psychotropen Stoffe, Vorläuferstoffe und Hilfschemikalien" (in German). Bundeskanzlei [Federal Chancellery of Switzerland]. Retrieved January 1, 2020.
- ↑ Psychoactive Substances Act 2016
- ↑ Schedules of Controlled Substances: Temporary Placement of Four Synthetic Cannabinoids Into Schedule I | http://www.deadiversion.usdoj.gov/fed_regs/rules/2014/fr0110_10.htm