Datura

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Datura is extremely dangerous and can directly result in severe injury or death.[citation needed]

Datura is extremely unpredictable and its use is strongly linked to psychosis, severe injury or death. Please see this section for more details.

Summary sheet: Datura
Datura
Drawing of D. Inoxia
Chemical Nomenclature
Common names Datura, Jimson Weed
Substitutive name Angel's Trumpets, Devil's Apple, Thorn Apple, Stinkweed, Devil's Weed, Moonflower
Class Membership
Psychoactive class Deliriant
Chemical class Tropane alkaloid
Routes of Administration

WARNING: Always start with lower doses due to differences between individual body weight, tolerance, metabolism, and personal sensitivity. See responsible use section.



Oral
Dosage
Duration
Total 8 - 18 hours
Onset 20 - 120 minutes
Come up 60 - 120 minutes
Peak 5 - 12 hours
Offset 2 - 3 hours
After effects 6 - 24 hours









DISCLAIMER: PW's dosage information is gathered from users and resources for educational purposes only. It is not a recommendation and should be verified with other sources for accuracy.

Datura is a genus of flowering plants which is classed as a powerful deliriant drug containing tropane alkaloids such as scopolamine, hyoscyamine, and atropine, primarily in their seeds and flowers.

The plants precise and natural distribution seem to be throughout most of the temperate and tropical regions of the globe, owing to its extensive cultivation and naturalization. There are a total of nine different species in the Datura genus, but the two most well-known species are Datura inoxia and Datura stramonium. Both have been used in a shamanic context for religious purposes on most continents since before recorded history throughout the ancient Americas, Europe, and India.

Chemistry

The principal psychoactive constituents of all datura plants are tropane alkaloids such as scopolamine, hyoscyamine, and atropine, primarily in their seeds and flowers. These three constituents of datura are structurally analogous.

The molecules contain a substituted tropane ring, a seven-membered ring with an N-methylated nitrogen bridge between R1 and R5. Scopolamine additionally has an oxygen bonded to R6 and R7 of this bicyclic structure to form a three membered oxirane ring. These tropane alkaloids also contain a propionic acid chain, CH3CH2COOH, which is substituted at R2 with an aromatic phenyl ring and at R3 with a hydroxyl group OH-. The propionic acid chain is linked at R1 through an oxygen atom to R3 of the substituted tropane ring to form an ether.

These compounds are secondary metabolites synthesized naturally by various plants. The ratio of these compounds in datura plants is greatly varied depending on location, growing conditions, etc. The datura genus contains other chemical constituents, but limited research has been done on their properties. Scopolamine, hyoscyamine, and atropine have a stereocenter at R2 of their propionic chain. Hyoscyamine is the levorotorary enantiomer of atropine.

Scopolamine
Atropine
Hyoscyamine

Pharmacology

The alkaloids within datura exert their effects by acting as competitive antagonists at muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, primarily muscarinic acetylcholine receptors M1 and M2. Although the precise mechanism is not understood, it’s this inhibition of acetylcholine which leads to delirium, sedation and intensely realistic hallucinations alongside of extremely uncomfortable and dysphoric physical side effects.

Subjective effects

The effects listed below are based upon the subjective effects index and personal experiences of PsychonautWiki contributors. The listed effects should be taken with a grain of salt and will rarely (if ever) occur all at once, but heavier doses will increase the chances and are more likely to induce a full range of effects. Likewise, adverse effects become much more likely on higher doses and may include serious injury or death.

Physical effects
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Visual effects
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Cognitive effects
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Auditory effects
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After effects
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Experience reports

Anecdotal reports which describe the effects of this compound within our experience index include:

Additional experience reports can be found here:

Natural plant sources

Due to its extensive cultivation and naturalization throughout the temperate and tropical regions, datura is found in most areas of the world. There are nine identified species:

Toxicity and harm potential

Datura is known to be extremely unpredictable and has the potential to result in severe consequences, hospitalization or death. The toxicity and long-term health effects of regular datura usage do not seem to have been studied in any scientific context and the exact toxic dosage is unknown. This is because long-term datura usage is very rare and the vast majority of people who try this compound do not wish to repeat the experience.

In traditional cultures, a great deal of experience with and detailed knowledge of datura was critical to minimize harm.[4][5] Many fatal incidents result from modern users ingesting datura. For example, in the 1990s and 2000s, the United States media contained stories of adolescents and young adults dying or becoming seriously ill from intentionally ingesting datura.[6][7] There are also several reports in the medical literature of deaths from D. stramonium and D. ferox intoxication.[8][9][10] Children are especially vulnerable to atropine poisoning and their prognosis is likely to be fatal.[11][12]

In some parts of Europe and India, datura has been a popular poison for suicide and murder. From 1950 to 1965, the State Chemical Laboratories in Agra, India investigated 2,778 deaths caused by ingesting datura.[13][14][15]

Psychosis

Datura has been reported to cause psychosis and delirium at a significantly higher rate than other hallucinogens like LSD, ketamine, or DMT. There are a large number of experience reports online which describe states of psychotic delirium, amnesia, and other serious consequences after abusing the drug. In many cases, it has resulted in hospitalization and death.

It is strongly recommended that one avoid this compound altogether or at least uses extreme caution and harm reduction practices when using this drug, including having a sober trip sitter.

Lethal dosage

There can be a 5:1 potency variation between plants and a given plant's toxicity depends on its age, where it is growing, and the local weather conditions. This variation makes datura exceptionally hazardous as a drug and there is no way for the common man to accurately measure the dosage of any given plant. Datura has been used for centuries in some cultures as a poison because of the presence of these substances.[16][17]

The safest way to prevent overdose is to grind the dried plant matter into an extremely fine and even powder so that the active chemicals within them are distributed evenly across itself. From here, one can slowly work their way up in extremely small increments until the correct dose for that particular plant is found.

It is strongly recommended that one use harm reduction practices when using this drug.

Tolerance and addiction potential

The use of datura can be considered mildly addictive with a high potential for adverse side effects such as psychosis. In comparison to other hallucinogens, datura has been reported to be significantly less addictive than that of MXE, ketamine, 2C-B and LSD. This is simply because the vast majority of people who try this compound do not wish to repeat the experience.

Tolerance to many of the effects of datura develops with repeated use. This results in users having to administer increasingly large doses to achieve the same effects. After that, it takes about 3 - 7 days for the tolerance to be reduced to half and 1 - 2 weeks to be back at baseline (in the absence of further consumption). Datura presents cross-tolerance with deliriants, meaning that after the consumption of datura, all deliriants will have a reduced effect.

Legal status

Datura grows naturally and is legal to grow, sell and consume in most parts of the world. It is, however, restricted within the following countries:

  • Australia: Datura is a Schedule I poison.
  • Brazil: Possession and sale is illegal.
  • United Kingdom - It is illegal to produce, supply, or import this drug under the Psychoactive Substance Act, which came into effect on May 26th, 2016.[18]

See also

External links

Community

References

  1. Atropine eye drops | http://www.netdoctor.co.uk/eyes/medicines/atropine-eye-drops.html
  2. Wood, George B. (1860) A treatise on therapeutics, and pharmacology or materia medica. | http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=hw0DAAAAQAAJ&pg=PA792&lpg=PA792&dq=%22in+one,+producing+blindness+with+large+dilatation+of+the+pupil%22&hl=en#v=onepage&q&f=false
  3. Hindered vision for a week after consuming Datura. Cs. "Out of Body Delusional Poison: An Experience with Datura (ID 44494)". Erowid.org. Jun 23, 2006. erowid.org/exp/44494 | https://www.erowid.org/experiences/exp.php?ID=44494
  4. Preissel, U.; Preissel, H.-G. (2002). Brugmansia and Datura: Angel's Trumpets and Thorn Apples. Buffalo, NY: Firefly Books. pp. 106–129. ISBN 1-55209-598-3.
  5. Spirit, Mind and Body in Chumash Healing (PubMed.gov / NCBI) | http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1297503/
  6. Suspected Moonflower Intoxication --- Ohio, 2002 | http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5233a2.htm
  7. Jimson weed users chase high all the way to hospital | http://usatoday30.usatoday.com/news/nation/2006-11-01-jimson_x.htm
  8. Discussion of "Datura stramonium: a fatal poisoning" (PubMed.gov / NCBI) | http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6502123
  9. Fatal poisoning from ingestion of Datura stramonium seeds (PubMed.gov / NCBI) | http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15080209
  10. Fatal Datura poisoning: identification of atropine and scopolamine by high performance liquid chromatography/photodiode array/mass spectrometry | http://www.fsijournal.org/article/S0379-0738(04)00171-9/abstract
  11. Datura intoxication in Riyadh (PubMed.gov / NCBI) | http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6710568
  12. Acute intoxication with "sobi-lobi" (Datura). Four cases in Niger (PubMed.gov / NCBI) | http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11204734
  13. Preissel, U.; Preissel, H.-G. (2002). Brugmansia and Datura: Angel's Trumpets and Thorn Apples. Buffalo, NY: Firefly Books. pp. 106–129. ISBN 1-55209-598-3.
  14. Spirit, Mind and Body in Chumash Healing (PubMed.gov / NCBI) | http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1297503/
  15. Daturas | http://www.sleuthsayers.org/2012/02/daturas.html
  16. Preissel, U.; Preissel, H.-G. (2002). Brugmansia and Datura: Angel's Trumpets and Thorn Apples. Buffalo, NY: Firefly Books. pp. 106–129. ISBN 1-55209-598-3.
  17. Spirit, Mind and Body in Chumash Healing (PubMed.gov / NCBI) | http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1297503/
  18. Psychoactive Substances Act 2016 (Legislation.gov.uk) | http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/2016/2/contents/enacted