|Summary sheet: LSA|
|Common names||LSA, Ergine|
|Substitutive name||d-Lysergic acid amide / d-Lysergamide|
|Routes of Administration|
Lysergic acid amide (also known as ergine, d-lysergic acid amide, d-lysergamide, and LSA) is a naturally-occurring psychedelic substance of the lysergamide class. LSA is an ergot alkaloid and the main psychoactive constituent of morning glory seeds. LSA is chemically related to LSD and is said to produce similar effects, although the extent to which it does is unclear.
LSA was first described in 1932 as part of an investigation into the alkaloids found in ergot. In 1947, it was synthesized and tested for human activity by Albert Hofmann. The intramuscular administration of a 500 microgram dose produced a "tired, dreamy state with an inability to maintain clear thoughts." In 1970, LSA was detected as a constituent in Hawaiian baby woodrose seeds, which were being ground up into capsules and sold on the street as "mescaline". Today, LSA is typically consumed via morning glory and Hawaiian baby woodrose seeds.
User reports describe the effects of LSA as primarily sedating and dream-like, with a mild to moderate psychedelic component. The psychedelic effects of LSA occur inconsistently and are not directly comparable to the effects of classical psychedelics like LSD, psilocybin mushrooms, or mescaline. LSA is described as primarily bodily and cognitive with little visual effects. Many users report serious nausea and bodily discomfort ("body load") when taking LSA-containing seeds.
Like other psychedelics, LSA is not considered to be addictive. However, adverse reactions such as severe anxiety, paranoia, and psychosis are always possible, particularly among those who are predisposed to psychiatric disorders. It is therefore highly advised to use harm reduction practices if using this substance.
- 1 Chemistry
- 2 Pharmacology
- 3 Subjective effects
- 4 Natural plant sources
- 5 Toxicity and harm potential
- 6 Legal status
- 7 See also
- 8 External links
- 9 References
LSA, or d-lysergic acid amide, is an organic alkaloid belonging to the lysergamide class. The chemical structure of LSA contains a core structure of lysergic acid with an amine functional group bound to RN. The structure of lysergic acid is composed of a bicyclic hexahydroindole fused to a bicyclic quinoline group (lysergic acid). At carbon 8 of the quinoline, an acetamide group is bound. LSA is additionally substituted at carbon 6 with a methyl group.
LSA is a chiral compound with two stereocenters at R5 and R8. LSA, also called (+)-D-LSA, has an absolute configuration of (5R, 8R). The three other stereoisomers of LSA do not have psychoactive properties. LSA is structurally analogous to LSD, with the exception being that LSA lacks the diethyl substitution of LSD at RN of its carboxamide group. It can be used as a precursor to LSD.
LSA's psychedelic effects are believed to come from its efficacy at the 5-HT2A receptor as a partial agonist. However, the role of these interactions and how they result in the psychedelic experience remains the subject of scientific investigation.
The notion that LSA is the primary psychedelic constituent in morning glory and Hawaiian baby woodrose seeds has been challenged as the effects of isolated synthetic LSA are reported to be only slightly psychedelic in nature. Therefore, it has been proposed that the overall experience may possibly be produced by a mixture of various lysergamide alkaloids (including iso-LSA and LSH) within these plant materials instead of a single psychoactive compound.
The effects listed below are based upon the subjective effects index and personal experiences of PsychonautWiki contributors. These effects should be taken with a grain of salt and will rarely (if ever) occur all at once, but heavier doses will increase the chances of inducing a full range of effects. Likewise, adverse effects become much more likely on higher doses and may include serious injury or death.
- Sedation - LSA is predominantly sedating; however, this can be setting dependent. For example, when taken in settings with large amounts of stimuli or during physically strenuous activities such as walking, running, climbing or dancing, LSA is capable of becoming stimulating and energetic. In contrast, when taken in calm environments such as darkened rooms with comfortable seating, it tends to be relaxing, sedating.
- Spontaneous bodily sensations - The "body high" of LSA can be described as a mild yet pleasurable and soft tingling sensation. This is largely noticed in high doses and is accompanied by strong waves of physical euphoria which are usually manifested spontaneously at different unpredictable points throughout the trip but can also maintain a consistent presence. Compared to LSD, the physical effects of LSA tend to predominate the experience relative to its visual and cognitive effects.
- Perception of bodily heaviness
- Physical euphoria - This effect is reported to be more readily able to be produced by LSA than LSD. However, it can be masked by strong, uncomfortable feelings of nausea and vasoconstriction, particularly when LSA-containing seeds are consumed directly before any extraction has been performed.
- Motor control loss - This effect becomes far more present at high doses than lower doses. It can be compared to the loss of motor control experienced with alcohol-induced inebriation and is strengthened by the perception of bodily heaviness.
- Temperature regulation suppression
- Nausea - The nauseating effects of LSA is thought to be mostly caused by the other components of the seeds (e.g. morning glory, Hawaiian baby woodrose, etc.) and not LSA itself. Various extraction methods can be used to significantly reduce if not eliminate the nausea that can be produced by this substance. Anecdotal reports also suggest that ginger tea or cannabis may be helpful in counteracting nausea.
- Vasoconstriction - LSA is commonly reported to produce strong and pronounced feelings of vasoconstriction. This varies in its intensity between individuals but is often considered moderately to extremely uncomfortable in comparison to other psychedelics. This effect is commonly reported to cause joint and limb pains.
- Increased heart rate
- Increased blood pressure or Decreased blood pressure - LSA has been reported as being capable of producing both an increase and a decrease in blood pressure, sometimes alternating at different points in the experience, such as during the come up or offset, although it is unclear how much of this is dependent on the seeds and variations in alkaloid contents.
- Muscle contractions & Muscle relaxation
- Muscle spasms
- Headaches
- Appetite suppression
- Gustatory enhancement
- Orgasm suppression
- Excessive yawning
- Pupil dilation
- Increased perspiration
- Difficulty urinating
The visual effects of LSA are mostly present when large doses have been consumed. When compared to LSD and psilocin, the visual effects of LSA are proportionally mild in comparison to the intensity of its accompanying cognitive and physical effects.
The visual distortions and alterations are significantly more simplistic than open eye distortions found with other psychedelics. The effects experienced are detailed below:
- Depth perception distortions
- Drifting (melting, breathing, morphing and flowing) - In comparison to other psychedelics, this effect can be described as mild but highly detailed and cartoon-like in appearance. The distortions are fast yet smooth in motion and fleeting in permanence. This is an inconsistently manifested effect with some people never reporting such effects.
- Colour shifting
- Scenery slicing
- Symmetrical texture repetition
The visual geometry produced by LSA can be described as more similar in appearance to that of 4-AcO-DMT and ayahuasca than LSD or 2C-B. It can be described through its variations as primarily intricate in complexity, abstract in form, organic in appearance, unstructured in organization, dimly lit, multicolored in scheme, glossy in shading, soft in edges, small in size, slow in speed, smooth in motion, rounded in corners, non-immersive in depth and consistent in intensity. At higher doses, it is significantly more likely to produce 8B geometry over 8A geometry.
LSA is capable of consistently producing a full range of high-level hallucinatory states when it is taken in large doses. However, the doses required to achieve these states are likely to produce very uncomfortable, and potentially dangerous, side effects. These states include:
- Transformations - These are extremely common within LSA and partially follow the content of the user's current thought process.
- Internal hallucination (autonomous entities; settings, sceneries, and landscapes; perspective hallucinations and scenarios and plots) - Unlike LSD, LSA consistently produces moderate to high level hallucinatory states in high doses. This particular effect can be compared to a lucid dream state. The hallucinations are more common within dark environments and can be comprehensively described through their variations as lucid in believability, interactive in style, new experiences in content, controllable and almost exclusively of a personal, religious, spiritual, science-fiction, fantasy, surreal, nonsensical or transcendental nature in their overall theme.
- External hallucination (autonomous entities; settings, sceneries, and landscapes; perspective hallucinations and scenarios and plots) - This effect occurs far more rarely and infrequently than with other hallucinogens. However, they can occasionally occur at heavier dosages. They can be described through their variations as lucid in believability, autonomous in controllability, and solid in style.
- Peripheral information misinterpretation
The cognitive effects of LSA are described by many as extremely relaxing yet lucid and clear-headed in style when compared to other commonly used psychedelics such as LSD or psilocin. Although it is primarily sedating, it can produce fast-paced bursts of thought and stimulation at random intervals.
LSA produces a large number of psychedelic cognitive effects. The most prominent of these typical effects include:
- Analysis enhancement - This effect is introspection dominant.
- Anxiety or Anxiety suppression
- Conceptual thinking
- Cognitive euphoria
- Déjà vu
- Emotion enhancement
- Empathy, affection and sociability enhancement
- Increased music appreciation - Listening to music can strongly intensify the overall experience.
- Immersion enhancement
- Language suppression - Mild compared to language suppression on classical psychedelics like LSD.
- Increased sense of humor
- Memory suppression
- Novelty enhancement
- Autonomous voice communication
- Thought acceleration
- Thought connectivity
- Thought loops
- Time distortion
- Cannabis - Cannabis can immensely intensify the sensory and cognitive effects of LSA. Extreme caution is advised when mixing these substances as it can significantly increase the chances of a negative psychological reaction like anxiety, confusion and psychosis. Those who use this combination are advised to start off with only a fraction of their usual cannabis dose and take long breaks between hits in order to avoid a negative reaction.
- Dissociatives - Dissociatives greatly enhance the cognitive, visuals and general hallucinatory effects of LSA. Dissociative-induced holes, spaces, and voids while under the influence of LSA have significantly more vivid visuals than dissociatives alone, as well as more intense internal hallucinations and correspondingly increased risk of confusion, delusions and psychosis.
- Alcohol - Alcohol's central depressant effects can be used to reduce some of the anxiety and tension produced by LSA. However, alcohol can cause dehydration, nausea and physical fatigue which can significantly worsen the experience. If using alcohol, it is advised to pace oneself and drink just a fraction of the usual amount.
- Benzodiazepines - Depending on the dose, benzodiazepines can slightly to completely reduce the intensity of the cognitive, physical and visual effects of an LSA trip. They are very efficient at stopping "bad trips" at the cost of amnesia and reduced trip intensity. Caution is advised when acquiring them for this purpose as they are very easy to abuse.
- Psychedelics - When used in combination with other psychedelics, each substance's physical, cognitive and visual effects intensify and synergize strongly. The synergy between those substances is unpredictable, and for this reason generally not advised. If choosing to combine psychedelics, it is recommended to start with significantly lower dosages than one would take for either substance individually.
Anecdotal reports which describe the effects of this compound within our experience index include:
- Experience:1000 Morning Glory seeds - Rediscovering the Self
- Experience:250 seeds - Harsh body load
- Experience:800 seeds LSA - My First Trip Ever
- Experience:Hawaiian Baby Woodrose (5 seeds) - Five seeds from hell
- Experience:LSA (20 HWBR seeds) – A pleasant adventure with a harsh body load
Additional experience reports can be found here:
Natural plant sources
Although LSA is illegal in some countries, various seeds which contain it are readily available in many gardening stores. However, the seeds from commercial sources are often coated in some form of pesticide or methylmercury which can result in extreme nausea and bodily discomfort if ingested. Methods for cleaning or de-coating the seeds are available, but are typically ineffective. Typically, the seeds have a earthy, dirt-like taste that can linger. Seeds that have any other flavor should be spit out so as to avoid hazardous coatings. The seed types listed below can be purchased without pesticide coatings online.
Morning glory seeds (MGS)
- Threshold: 20 - 50 seeds / 1.5 g
- Light: 50 - 100 seeds / 1.5 - 3 g
- Common: 100 - 250 seeds / 3 - 6 g
- Strong: 250 - 400 seeds / 6 - 10 g
- Heavy: 400 seeds + / 10 g +
Hawaiian baby woodrose seeds (HBWR)
Hawaiian baby woodrose is a perennial climbing vine that is native to the Indian subcontinent and has since been introduced to numerous areas worldwide including Hawaii, Africa and the Caribbean. Its seeds may be consumed for their various lysergamide alkaloids such as LSA. Typical oral doses for Hawaiian baby woodrose seeds are as follows:
- Threshold: 1 - 3 seeds
- Light: 3 - 5 seeds
- Common: 5 - 7 seeds
- Strong: 7 - 12 seeds
- Heavy: 12 seeds +
LSA containing seeds can be prepared using a number of methods. Some of these methods are listed in our tutorial index and include:
Toxicity and harm potential
This toxicity and harm potential section is a stub.
As such, it may contain incomplete or even dangerously wrong information. You can help by expanding or correcting it.
The toxicity and long-term health effects of recreational LSA use have not been studied in any scientific context and the exact toxic dose is unknown.
Anecdotal evidence suggests that there are no negative health effects attributed to simply trying LSA by itself at low to moderate doses and using it very sparingly (but nothing can be completely guaranteed). Independent research should always be done to ensure that a combination of two or more substances is safe before consumption.
It is strongly recommended that one use harm reduction practices when using this substance.
LSA should not be used regularly for long periods of time. When used repeatedly over a short period of time, LSA's vasoconstrictive effects build up while the psychoactive effects get weaker. A common sign of vasoconstriction build up can be described as a feeling of painful or uncomfortable legs. This happens as a result of an insufficient amount of blood getting to the muscles. The upper leg muscles are the largest, most energy consuming muscles in the body and will feel sore if blood flow to them is lowered even slightly.
When HBWR, morning glory seeds or pure LSA seeds are consumed and sore legs are experienced, a break has been reported to be helpful. With LSA it can take up to 3 days of abstinence to get back to vasoconstriction baseline.
Dependence and abuse potential
LSA is considered to be non-addictive with a low abuse potential. There are no literature reports of successful attempts to train animals to self-administer LSA, an animal model predictive of abuse liability, indicating that it does not possess the necessary pharmacology to either initiate or maintain dependence. There is virtually no withdrawal syndrome when use is stopped.
Tolerance to the effects of LSA forms almost immediately after ingestion. After that, it takes about 7 days for the tolerance to return to baseline (in the absence of further consumption). LSD produces cross-tolerance with all psychedelics, meaning that after the use of LSA all psychedelics will have a reduced effect.
Although many psychoactive substances are reasonably safe to use on their own, they can quickly become dangerous or even life-threatening when taken with other substances. The following lists some known dangerous combinations, but cannot be guaranteed to include all of them. Independent research should always be conducted to ensure that a combination of two or more substances is safe to consume. Some interactions listed have been sourced from TripSit.
- Tramadol - Tramadol lowers the seizure threshold and psychedelics may act as triggers for seizures, particularly in those who are predisposed to them.
- Stimulants - Stimulants affect many parts of the brain. Combined with psychedelics, stimulation can turn into uncontrollable anxiety, panic, thought loops and paranoia. This interaction may cause elevated risk of psychosis.
- Lithium - Lithium is often used as treatment for bipolar disorder. A large body of reports indicate that it can highly elevate risk of seizures and psychosis when combined with psychedelics, possibly due to its glutaminergic and GABAergic effects.
- Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) - SSRIs are reported to suppress the visual and cognitive effects of LSA.
- MAOIs - MAO inhibitors, such as passionflower and syrian rue potentiate the visual and introspective effects of psychedelics. It is advised to take caution when combining MAOIs with psychedelics because they can increase the chance of having a bad trip and may dangerously interact with other substances, such as SSRIs and stimulants, as well as some psychedelics such as MDA.
- Australia: LSA is illegal to produce, sell, and consume in Australia.
- Austria: LSA containing seeds are not regulated, thus are legal to possess, produce and sell.
- Latvia: LSA itself is controlled as a structural analog of LSD. However, there is no information about LSA-containing seeds. In Latvia, plants are only illegal if they contain Schedule I controlled substances and LSA is not a Schedule 1 controlled substance.
- The Netherlands: LSA is illegal to consume, sell, and possess.
- New Zealand: LSA is illegal to consume, sell, and possess. The plants and seeds of morning glory species are legal to possess, cultivate, buy and distribute.
- Sweden: LSA is illegal to consume, sell, and possess.
- Turkey: LSA is illegal to consume, sell, and possess. The plants and seeds of morning glory species are legal to possess, cultivate, buy and distribute.
- United Kingdom: LSA is a Class A drug and categorized as a precursor to LSD.
- United States: As a precursor to LSD, LSA is a DEA Schedule III drug. However, seeds containing LSA can be purchased legally on the internet and from gardening stores.
- Germany: LSA is legal, as long as not intended for human consumption. There is a draft by the Federal Ministry of Health, adding it to the NpSG, that will enter into force when the regulation is promulgated.
- Smith, S., & Timmis, G. M. (1932). 98. The alkaloids of ergot. Part III. Ergine, a new base obtained by the degradation of ergotoxine and ergotinine. Journal of the Chemical Society (Resumed), 763-766.
- #26. LSD-25 (LA-111, ergine, d-lysergamide) - TIHKAL | http://www.erowid.org/library/books_online/tihkal/tihkal26.shtml
- Miller, M. D. (1970). Isolation and identification of lysergic acid amide and isolysergic acid amide as the principal ergoline alkaloids in Argyreia nervosa, a tropical wood rose. J AOAC, 53(1), 123-128.
- Borsutzky, M., Passie, T., Paetzold, W., Emrich, H. M., & Schneider, U. (2002). Hawaiian baby woodrose:(Psycho-) pharmacological effects of the seeds of Argyreia nervosa. A case-orientated demonstration. Der Nervenarzt, 73(9), 892-896.
- Lüscher, C., & Ungless, M. A. (2006). The Mechanistic Classification of Addictive Drugs, 3(11). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.0030437
- Strassman, R. J. (1984). Adverse Reactions to Psychedelic Drugs: A Review of the Literature. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 172(10), 577-595. PMID: 6384428
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