DOM

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Summary sheet: DOM
DOM
DOM.svg
Chemical Nomenclature
Common names DOM, STP (Serenity, Tranquility, and Peace)
Substitutive name 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-methylamphetamine
Systematic name 1-(2,5-Dimethoxy-4-methylphenyl)-2-aminopropane
Class Membership
Psychoactive class Psychedelic
Chemical class Amphetamine
Routes of Administration

WARNING: Always start with lower doses due to differences between individual body weight, tolerance, metabolism, and personal sensitivity. See responsible use section.



Oral
Dosage
Threshold 0.5 - 1 mg
Light 1 - 3 mg
Common 3 - 5 mg
Strong 5 - 10 mg
Heavy 10 mg +
Duration
Total 12 - 16 hours
Onset 1 - 2 hours
Come up 2 - 3 hours
Peak 6 - 8 hours
Offset 3 - 5 hours
After effects 4 - 16 hours









DISCLAIMER: PW's dosage information is gathered from users and resources for educational purposes only. It is not a recommendation and should be verified with other sources for accuracy.

Interactions


2,5-Dimethoxy-4-methylamphetamine (also known as DOM and STP or "Serenity, Tranquility and Peace") is a lesser-known psychedelic substance of the amphetamine class. DOM is a member of the DOx family of compounds which are known for their high potency, long duration, and mixture of psychedelic and stimulant effects. It produces its effects by acting on serotonin receptors in the brain.

DOM was first synthesized and tested in 1963 by Alexander Shulgin.[1] It attained some popularity during the summer of 1967 under the name "STP" ("Serenity, Tranquility, and Peace"),[2] but its use was short-lived due to its side effects. In 1991, the synthesis and pharmacology of DOM was published in Shulgin's book PiHKAL ("Phenethylamines I Have Known And Loved").[3].

Over the years, DOM has gained a reputation for being a highly dose-sensitive psychedelic that is often sold on blotting paper and known for its strong visuals, body load and neutral, analytical headspace. Many reports also indicate that the effects of this chemical may be overly difficult to use for those who are not already experienced with psychedelics.

History and culture

DOM was first synthesized and tested in 1963 by Alexander Shulgin, who was investigating the effect of 4-position substitutions on psychedelic amphetamines.[1] DOM is part of the so-called "magical half-dozen" which refers to Shulgin's self-rated most important phenethylamine compounds, all of which except mescaline he developed and synthesized himself. They are found within the first book of PiHKAL and are as follows: Mescaline, DOM, 2C-B, 2C-E, 2C-T-2 and 2C-T-7.

In mid-1967, tablets containing 20 mg (later 10 mg) of DOM were widely distributed in the Haight-Ashbury District of San Francisco under the name of "STP" (short for "Serenity, Tranquility, and Peace").[citation needed] This short-lived appearance of DOM on the black market proved disastrous for several reasons. First, the tablets contained an excessively high dose of the chemical. This, combined with DOM’s slow onset of action (which encouraged some users, familiar with substances that have quicker onsets, such as LSD, to re-dose) and its remarkably long duration, caused many users to panic and sent some to the emergency room. Second, treatment of such overdoses was complicated by the fact that it was unknown at the time that the tablets called "STP" were DOM.[citation needed]

Chemistry

DOM, or 4-methyl-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamine, is a molecule of the substituted amphetamine class. Amphetamines are substituted phenethylamines containing a phenyl ring bound to an amino (NH2) group through an ethyl chain and a methyl group bound to the alpha carbon Rα. DOM contains methoxy functional groups (OCH3) attached to carbons R2 and R5 and a methyl group attached to carbon R4 of the phenyl ring.

DOM is the amphetamine analogue of the phenethylamine 2C-D.[4][5]

Pharmacology

Further information: Serotonergic psychedelic

DOM is a selective partial agonist at the 5-HT2 receptor family. Its psychedelic effects are mediated by its agonistic properties at the 5-HT2A and 5-HT2B receptors, but less so on the 5-HT2C receptor. Due to its selectivity, DOM is often used in scientific research when studying the 5-HT2 receptor subfamily.

DOM is a chiral molecule, and R-(-)-DOM is the more active enantiomer, functioning as a potent agonist of the serotonin family of receptors (mainly of the 5-HT2 subtype).[6]

However, the role of these interactions and how they result in the psychedelic experience continues to remain elusive.

Subjective effects

User reports suggest that DOM is relatively clear-headed and absent of side-effects in comparison to DOC or DOB. Disclaimer: The effects listed below are taken from the subjective effect index, which is based on anecdotal reports and the personal experiences of PsychonautWiki contributors. As a result, they should be treated with a healthy degree of skepticism. It is worth noting that these effects will rarely (if ever) occur all at once, although higher doses will increase the chances of inducing a full range of effects. Likewise, adverse effects become much more likely on higher doses and may include serious injury or death.

Physical effects
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Visual effects
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Cognitive effects
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Multi-sensory effects
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Transpersonal effects
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Experience reports

Anecdotal reports which describe the effects of this compound within our experience index include:

Additional experience reports can be found here:

Toxicity and harm potential

The toxicity and long-term health effects of recreational DOM use do not seem to have been studied in any scientific context and the exact toxic dose is unknown.

Anecdotal evidence suggests that there are no negative health effects attributed to simply trying the substance by itself at low to moderate doses and using it very sparingly (but nothing can be completely guaranteed). Independent research should always be done to ensure that a combination of two or more substances is safe before consumption.

It is strongly recommended that one use harm reduction practices when using this substance.

Tolerance and addiction potential

DOM is not habit-forming and the desire to use it can decrease with use. It is most often self-regulating.

Tolerance to the effects of DOM are built almost immediately after ingestion. After that, it takes about 3 days for the tolerance to be reduced to half and 7 days to be back at baseline (in the absence of further consumption). DOM presents cross-tolerance with all psychedelics, meaning that after the consumption of DOM all psychedelics will have a reduced effect.

Overdose

The risk of a DOx overdose is present starting in or past the heavy dose range with sensitive people, or when a DOx is mixed with other substances, particularly stimulants or MAOIs. Non-oral routes also seem to exhibit a higher chance of overdosing, perhaps owing to differences in bioavailability, potency and unpredictability of dosage and effects. The effects of a DOx overdose typically include bizarre, delusional and sometimes violent behavior, amnesia, numbness, confusion and anxiety. The user may not be able to communicate and can be severely agitated. At appropriately high doses, more serious side effects such as psychosis, panic attacks and seizures which in turn further affect a dangerously elevated heart rate, blood pressure and vasoconstriction may occur.[citation needed] Severe vasoconstriction typically develops to its peak several hours into the intoxication and may require medical assistance if blood flow is significantly cut off for extended periods of time.

In the event of an overdose, benzodiazepines or antipsychotics can be administered to mitigate the hyperagitative effects.[citation needed] A powerful vasodilator may also need to be administered to prevent a hypertensive emergency, or in more serious cases, necrosis, organ failure and death from the resulting hypoxia.[citation needed] As a result, emergency medical services should always be sought in the event of a DOx overdose.

Dangerous interactions

Although many psychoactive substances are reasonably safe to use on their own, they can quickly become dangerous or even life-threatening when taken with other substances. The following lists some known dangerous combinations, but cannot be guaranteed to include all of them. Independent research should always be conducted to ensure that a combination of two or more substances is safe to consume. Some interactions listed have been sourced from TripSit.

Legal status

  • Australia: Australia has a blanket ban over all substituted phenethylamines including the entire DOx family.[8]
  • Austria: DOM is illegal to possess, produce and sell under the SMG (Suchtmittelgesetz Österreich).[citation needed]
  • Brazil: Possession, production and sale is illegal as it is listed on Portaria SVS/MS nº 344 as "STP".[9]
  • Belgium: DOM is a Schedule I drug.[citation needed]
  • Canada: DOM is a Schedule I drug.[citation needed]
  • Germany: DOM is controlled under BtMG Anlage I, making it illegal to manufacture, import, possess, sell, or transfer it without a license.[10]
  • Latvia: DOM is a Schedule I controlled substance.[11]
  • New Zealand: DOM is a Class A drug.[citation needed]
  • Switzerland: Possession, production and sale is illegal.[12]
  • United Kingdom: DOM is a Class A drug.[citation needed]
  • United States: DOM is a Schedule I drug.[citation needed]
  • Germany: DOM is controlled under BtMG Anlage I, making it illegal to manufacture, import, possess, sell, or transfer it without a license.[13]

See also

External links

Discussion

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 Shulgin, Alexander (1991). PiHKAL: A Chemical Love Story. Berkeley, CA: Transform Press. pp. 53–56.
  2. "STP's faster, here's why". Berkeley Barb, June 16-22, 1967. 3-5 (Independent Voices) | http://voices.revealdigital.com/cgi-bin/independentvoices?a=d&d=BFBJFGD19670616.1.3
  3. http://www.erowid.org/library/books_online/pihkal/pihkal.shtml
  4. http://isomerdesign.com/PiHKAL/read.php?domain=pk&id=62
  5. http://isomerdesign.com/PiHKAL/read.php?domain=pk&id=68
  6. Sanders-Bush, Burris, KD; Knoth, K, (September 1988). "Lysergic acid diethylamide and 2,5-dimethoxy-4-methylamphetamine are partial agonists at serotonin receptors linked to phosphoinositide hydrolysis" http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2843634
  7. Talaie, H., Panahandeh, R., Fayaznouri, M. R., Asadi, Z., & Abdollahi, M. (2009). Dose-independent occurrence of seizure with tramadol. Journal of medical toxicology, 5(2), 63-67. doi:10.1007/BF03161089
  8. New Psychoactive Substances (National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre 2014) | https://comorbidity.edu.au/sites/default/files/cre/page/New%20Psychoactive%20Substances.pdf
  9. http://portal.anvisa.gov.br/documents/10181/3115436/%281%29RDC_130_2016_.pdf/fc7ea407-3ff5-4fc1-bcfe-2f37504d28b7
  10. http://www.gesetze-im-internet.de/btmg_1981/anlage_i.html
  11. Noteikumi par Latvijā kontrolējamajām narkotiskajām vielām, psihotropajām vielām un prekursoriem (2,5-Dimetoksifeniletānamīni) | http://likumi.lv/doc.php?id=121086
  12. https://www.admin.ch/opc/de/classified-compilation/20101220/201512010000/812.121.11.pdf
  13. https://www.gesetze-im-internet.de/btmg_1981/anlage_i.html