Psychosis

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Psychosis is as an abnormal condition of the mind and a general psychiatric term for a mental state in which one experiences a "loss of contact with reality."[1][2][3] People with psychosis are described as "psychotic".[4] Those who are experiencing psychosis may exhibit some personality changes and thought disorder. Depending on its severity, this may also be accompanied by unusual or bizarre behaviour as well as difficulty with social interaction and a general impairment in carrying out daily life activities.

Within the context of clinical psychology, psychosis is a very broad term that can mean anything from relatively mild delusions to the complex and catatonic expressions of schizophrenia and bipolar type 1 disorder.[5][6][7] Generally speaking, however, psychosis involves noticeable deficits in cognitive functioning and diverse types of hallucinations or delusional beliefs, particularly those that are in regard to the relation between self and others such as delusions of grandiosity, paranoia, or conspiracy. The most common of these signs and symptoms of psychosis are listed as separate subcomponents below:

Psychosis is most commonly induced under the influence of moderate dosages of hallucinogenic compounds, such as deliriants,[8][9] psychedelics,[10] dissociatives,[11][12] and cannabinoids[13][14]. However, it can also occur under the influence of stimulants,[15][16] particularly during the comedown or as a result of prolonged binges. It may also manifest from abrupt discontinuation of long term or heavy usage of certain drugs such as benzodiazepines[17] or alcohol[18]; this is known as delirium tremens (DTs). Aside from substance abuse it may also occur as a result of sleep deprivation,[19] emotional trauma, urinary tract infections, and various other medical conditions.[citation needed]

Psychoactive substances

Compounds within our psychoactive substance index which may cause this effect include:


See also

External links

References

  1. Psychosis definition (AlleyDog) | https://www.alleydog.com/glossary/definition.php?term=Psychosis
  2. What is Psychosis? (National Institute of Mental health) | https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/topics/schizophrenia/raise/what-is-psychosis.shtml
  3. Kapur, S. (2003). Psychosis as a state of aberrant salience: a framework linking biology, phenomenology, and pharmacology in schizophrenia. American journal of Psychiatry, 160(1), 13-23. https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.160.1.13
  4. Psychotic - Dictionary definition | http://www.dictionary.com/browse/psychotic
  5. American Psychiatric Association, 1994 The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual Revision IV (DSM-IV)
  6. Gelder, Michael G.; Mayou, Richard; Geddes, John (2005). Psychiatry. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 12. ISBN 978-0-19-852863-0.
  7. "Throughout History, Defining Schizophrenia Has Remained a Challenge (Timeline)". Scientific American Mind | https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/throughout-history-defining-schizophrenia-has-remained-challenge/
  8. Jones, J., Dougherty, J., & Cannon, L. (1986). Diphenhydramine-induced toxic psychosis. The American journal of emergency medicine, 4(4), 369-371. https://doi.org/10.1016/0735-6757(86)90312-8
  9. Hall, R. C., Popkin, M. K., & McHenry, L. E. (1977). Angel’s Trumpet psychosis: a central nervous system anticholinergic syndrome. Am J Psychiatry, 134(3), 312-314. https://doi.org/10.1176/ajp.134.3.312
  10. Strassman, R. J. (1984). Adverse reactions to psychedelic drugs. A review of the literature. J Nerv Ment Dis, 172(10), 577-595. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6384428
  11. Luisada, P. V. (1978). The phencyclidine psychosis: phenomenology and treatment. NIDA Res Monogr, 21(21), 241-253.
  12. Lahti, A. C., Holcomb, H. H., Medoff, D. R., & Tamminga, C. A. (1995). Ketamine activates psychosis and alters limbic blood flow in schizophrenia. Neuroreport, 6(6), 869-872. https://europepmc.org/abstract/med/7612873
  13. Hall, W., & Degenhardt, L. (2000). Cannabis use and psychosis: a review of clinical and epidemiological evidence. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 34(1), 26-34. https://doi.org/10.1046%2Fj.1440-1614.2000.00685.x
  14. Hurst, D., Loeffler, G., & McLay, R. (2011). Psychosis associated with synthetic cannabinoid agonists: a case series. American Journal of Psychiatry, 168(10), 1119-1119. https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2011.11010176
  15. Glasner-Edwards, S., & Mooney, L. J. (2014). Methamphetamine psychosis: epidemiology and management. CNS drugs, 28(12), 1115-1126. https://dx.doi.org/10.1007%2Fs40263-014-0209-8
  16. Bramness, J. G., Gundersen, Ø. H., Guterstam, J., Rognli, E. B., Konstenius, M., Løberg, E. M., ... & Franck, J. (2012). Amphetamine-induced psychosis-a separate diagnostic entity or primary psychosis triggered in the vulnerable?. BMC psychiatry, 12(1), 221. https://dx.doi.org/10.1186%2F1471-244X-12-221
  17. Preskorn, S. H., & Denner, L. J. (1977). Benzodiazepines and withdrawal psychosis: report of three cases. Jama, 237(1), 36-38. https://www.doi.org/10.1001/jama.1977.03270280038018
  18. Kathmann, N., Soyka, M., Bickel, R., & Engel, R. R. (1996). ERP changes in alcoholics with and without alcohol psychosis. Biological psychiatry, 39(10), 873-881. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4684-2937-4_6
  19. Coren, S. (1998). Sleep deprivation, psychosis and mental efficiency. Psychiatric Times, 15(3), 1-3. http://www.psychiatrictimes.com/sleep-disorders/sleep-deprivation-psychosis-and-mental-efficiency