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Psychosis is defined as an abnormal condition of the mind and a general psychiatric term for a mental state in which one experiences a "loss of contact with reality."[1] The features of psychoticism are characterized by delusions, hallucinations, and formal thought disorders exhibiting a wide range of culturally incongruent, odd, eccentric, or unusual behaviors and cognitions, including both process (e.g., perception, dissociation) and content (e.g., beliefs).[2] Depending on its severity, this may also be accompanied by difficulty with social interaction and a general impairment in carrying out daily life activities.

Within the context of clinical psychology, psychosis is a very broad term that can mean anything from relatively mild delusions to the complex and catatonic expressions of schizophrenia and bipolar type 1 disorder. Generally speaking, however, psychosis involves noticeable deficits in cognitive functioning and diverse types of hallucinations or delusional beliefs, particularly those that are in regard to the relation between self and others such as delusions of grandiosity, paranoia, or conspiracy. The most common of these signs and symptoms of psychosis are listed as separate subcomponents below:

Psychosis is most commonly induced under the influence of moderate dosages of hallucinogenic compounds, such as deliriants,[3][4] psychedelics,[5] dissociatives,[6] and cannabinoids[7][8]. However, it can also occur under the influence of stimulants,[9][10] particularly during the comedown or as a result of prolonged binges. It may also manifest from abrupt discontinuation of long term or heavy usage of certain drugs such as benzodiazepines[11] or alcohol[12]; this is known as delirium tremens (DTs). Aside from substance abuse it may also occur as a result of sleep deprivation, emotional trauma, urinary tract infections, and various other medical conditions.[citation needed]

Psychoactive substances

Compounds within our psychoactive substance index which may cause this effect include:

Experience reports

Anecdotal reports which describe this effect with our experience index include:

See also

External links


  1. Kapur, S. (January 2003). "Psychosis as a State of Aberrant Salience: A Framework Linking Biology, Phenomenology, and Pharmacology in Schizophrenia". American Journal of Psychiatry. 160 (1): 13–23. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.160.1.13. ISSN 0002-953X. 
  2. A"Glossary of Technical Terms". Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.): 827–8. 2013. doi:10.1176/appi.books.9780890425596.GlossaryofTechnicalTerms. 
  3. Jones, J., Dougherty, J., Cannon, L. (July 1986). "Diphenhydramine-induced toxic psychosis". The American Journal of Emergency Medicine. 4 (4): 369–371. doi:10.1016/0735-6757(86)90312-8. ISSN 0735-6757. 
  4. "Angel's Trumpet psychosis: a central nervous system anticholinergic syndrome". American Journal of Psychiatry. 134 (3): 312–314. March 1977. doi:10.1176/ajp.134.3.312. ISSN 0002-953X. 
  5. Strassman, R. J. (October 1984). "Adverse reactions to psychedelic drugs. A review of the literature". The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease. 172 (10): 577–595. doi:10.1097/00005053-198410000-00001. ISSN 0022-3018. 
  6. Lahti, A. C., Holcomb, H. H., Medoff, D. R., Tamminga, C. A. (1 April 1995). "Ketamine activates psychosis and alters limbic blood flow in schizophrenia". Neuroreport. 6 (6): 869–872. doi:10.1097/00001756-199504190-00011. ISSN 1473-558X. 
  7. Hall, W., Degenhardt, L. (February 2000). "Cannabis Use and Psychosis: A Review of Clinical and Epidemiological Evidence". Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry. 34 (1): 26–34. doi:10.1046/j.1440-1614.2000.00685.x. ISSN 0004-8674. 
  8. Hurst, D., Loeffler, G., McLay, R. (October 2011). "Psychosis Associated With Synthetic Cannabinoid Agonists: A Case Series". American Journal of Psychiatry. 168 (10): 1119–1119. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.2011.11010176. ISSN 0002-953X. 
  9. Glasner-Edwards, S., Mooney, L. J. (1 December 2014). "Methamphetamine Psychosis: Epidemiology and Management". CNS Drugs. 28 (12): 1115–1126. doi:10.1007/s40263-014-0209-8. ISSN 1179-1934. 
  10. Bramness, J. G., Gundersen, Ø. H., Guterstam, J., Rognli, E. B., Konstenius, M., Løberg, E.-M., Medhus, S., Tanum, L., Franck, J. (5 December 2012). "Amphetamine-induced psychosis - a separate diagnostic entity or primary psychosis triggered in the vulnerable?". BMC Psychiatry. 12 (1): 221. doi:10.1186/1471-244X-12-221. ISSN 1471-244X. 
  11. Preskorn, S. H., Denner, L. J. (3 January 1977). "Benzodiazepines and Withdrawal Psychosis: Report of Three Cases". JAMA. 237 (1): 36–38. doi:10.1001/jama.1977.03270280038018. ISSN 0098-7484. 
  12. Gross, M. M., Lewis, E., Hastey, J. (1974). "The Biology of Alcoholism". In Kissin, B., Begleiter, H. Acute Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome. Springer US. pp. 191–263. doi:10.1007/978-1-4684-2937-4_6. ISBN 9781468429398.