ALD-52

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Summary sheet: ALD-52


ALD-52
ALD-52.svg
Chemical Nomenclature
Common names ALD-52, 1-Acetyl-LSD, 1A-LSD, 1A-LAD, "Orange Sunshine"
Substitutive name 1-Acetyl-N,N-diethyllysergamide
Systematic name (6aR,9R)-4-Acetyl-N,N-diethyl-7-methyl-4,6,6a,7,8,9-hexahydroindolo-[4,3-fg]-quinoline-9-carboxamide
Class Membership
Psychoactive class Psychedelic
Chemical class Lysergamide
Routes of Administration

WARNING: Always start with lower doses due to differences between individual body weight, tolerance, metabolism, and personal sensitivity. See responsible use section.



Oral
Dosage
Threshold 30 µg
Light 30 - 100 µg
Common 100 - 175 µg
Strong 175 - 325 µg
Heavy 325 µg +
Duration
Total 8 - 14 hours
Onset 20 - 40 minutes
Come up 1 - 2 hours
Peak 3 - 5 hours
Offset 3 - 5 hours
After effects 4 - 24 hours









DISCLAIMER: PW's dosage information is gathered from users and resources for educational purposes only. It is not a recommendation and should be verified with other sources for accuracy.

1-Acetyl-N,N-diethyllysergamide (also known as ALD-52, 1-Acetyl-LSD, 1A-LSD, 1A-LAD, and mistakenly as Orange Sunshine) is a lesser-known psychedelic substance of the lysergamide class that produces LSD-like psychedelic effects when administered. It is structurally related to psychedelic lysergamides like LSD and 1P-LSD and is reported to produce largely indistinguishable effects.

ALD-52 was originally discovered by Albert Hofmann in his study of LSD analogs,[citation needed] but it did not enter mainstream awareness until the 1960s Western youth counterculture. ALD-52 gained public notoriety when it was supposedly distributed as LSD in the 1960s under the now-famous name "Orange Sunshine." This was later disproven (see section below).

Alexander Shulgin touches briefly on the subject of ALD-52 in the commentary section of LSD-25 in the book TiHKAL ("Tryptamines I have Known and Loved").[1] His writings are based on second-hand accounts which state that doses in the 50-175 µg range result in various effects that are not particularly distinct from LSD. His reports indicate that it produces less visual distortion than with LSD as well as less anxiety and tenseness, while also being somewhat less potent than LSD. Another report found the two substances to be indistinguishable.[1]

As with LSD itself, ALD-52 does not meet the criteria to be considered addictive or toxic by the scientific community.[2][3] Nevertheless, unpredictable adverse reactions such as anxiety, paranoia, delusions and psychosis are always possible, particularly among those who are predisposed to psychiatric disorders.[4] While these negative reactions or "bad trips" can often be attributed to factors like user inexperience or improper preparation of set and setting, they are known to happen spontaneously among even highly experienced users as well. It is highly advised to approach this very potent, long-lasting hallucinogenic substance with the proper amount of preparation, and harm reduction practices if using it.

History and culture

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In 1968 and 1969, a famous batch of LSD known as "Orange Sunshine" was synthesized by Nick Sands and Tim Scully and made widely available in California. This "Orange Sunshine" was long held by the hippie generation to be ALD-52 until 2005, when it was revealed by Nick Sands that "Orange Sunshine" was just a particularly well made batch of LSD dosed at 300 micrograms per unit. This was confirmed by Tim Scully in a 2017 Reddit AMA, where Scully explained that the claim that "Orange Sunshine" was technically not LSD arose from an "ill-advised desperate defense strategy that failed miserably" during his trial for LSD manufacture.[5]

Chemistry

ALD-52, or 1-Acetyl-N,N-diethyllysergamide, is a semisynthethic molecule of the lysergamide chemical class. ALD-52 is a substituted derivative of lysergic acid. ALD-52's structure contains four rings, a bicyclic hexahydroindole fused to a bicyclic quinoline group. This core structure of ALD-52 is an ergoline derivative, and has tryptamine and phenethylamine structures embedded within it. ALD-52 contains a N,N-diethylcarboxamide functional group bound to R8 of the chemical structure. It is additionally substituted at carbon 6 with a methyl group.

ALD-52 is homologous to 1P-LSD, which contains a propionyl group bound to CH3CO- instead of the acetyl group bound to the same location. It is unknown how these differences account for differences in the two compound's activity.

Pharmacology

Further information: Serotonergic psychedelic

ALD-52 likely acts as a 5-HT2A partial agonist. The psychedelic effects are believed to come from ALD-52's efficacy at the 5-HT2A receptors. However, the role of these interactions and how they result in the psychedelic experience continues to remain elusive.

ALD-52, alongside with 1P-LSD, is believed to act as a prodrug to LSD, though it is unclear as to whether it is capable of exerting its own effects.[citation needed]

Subjective effects

Anecdotal reports from many users suggest that the effects of ALD-52 are virtually identical to LSD. In comparison to other psychedelics such as psilocin, LSA and ayahuasca, ALD-52 is significantly more stimulating and fast-paced regarding the specific style of its physical and cognitive effects, as is the case with other lysergamides.

Anecdotal reports from the community tend to report ALD-52 as being slightly less potent and visual, with a mellower, less anxiety-provoking headspace that comes at the expense of less depth, giving it the reputation for being a more recreational variant of LSD. It has been speculated that this is due to a slightly extended, less jarring come up period that allows the user to become more acclimated to the changes in head space. As one increases the dose, it is reported to lose this character and converge with the effects of a high-dose LSD experience.

The effects listed below are based upon the subjective effects index and personal experiences of PsychonautWiki contributors. These effects should be taken with a grain of salt and will rarely (if ever) occur all at once, but heavier doses will increase the chances of inducing a full range of effects. Likewise, adverse effects become much more likely on higher doses and may include serious injury or death.

Physical effects
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Visual effects
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Cognitive effects
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Multi-sensory effects
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Combination effects=

  • Alcohol - Alcohol's central depressant effects can counteract some of the anxiety and bodily tension produced by ALD-52. However, alcohol can cause dehydration, nausea and physical fatigue which can negatively impact the tone of the trip. Users are advised to pace themselves and drink a portion of their usual amount.
  • Benzodiazepines - Benzodiazepines are highly effective at reducing the intensity of ALD-52's effects through the general suppression of brain activity.
  • Cannabis - Cannabis strongly intensifies the sensory and cognitive effects of ALD-52. Extreme caution is advised when using this combination as it can significantly increase the chances of a negative psychological reaction like anxiety, confusion and psychosis. Users are advised to start off with only a fraction of their usual cannabis dose and take long breaks between hits to avoid over intake.
  • Dissociatives - ALD-52 enhances the cognitive, visual and general hallucinatory effects of dissociatives. Dissociative-induced holes, spaces, and voids and internal hallucinations become more vivid and intense on ALD-52. These effects correspond with an increased risk of confusion, delusions, and psychosis.
  • MDMA - ALD-52 and MDMA are highly synergistic and mutually enhance each other's physical, cognitive, and visual effects. The synergy between these substances is unpredictable so it is advised to start with markedly lower doses than one would take for each individually. There is some evidence that suggests that co-administration of LSD with MDMA increases the neurotoxicity of the latter,[6][7][8] and this may extend to ALD-52.

Experience reports

Anecdotal reports which describe the effects of this compound within our experience index include:

Additional experience reports can be found here:

Toxicity and harm potential

The toxicity and long-term health effects of recreational ALD-52 use do not appear to have been studied in any scientific context and the exact toxic dose is unknown. This is because ALD-52 is a research chemical with a very limited history of human use.

Anecdotal evidence from people within the community who have tried ALD-52 suggests that there are no negative health effects attributed to simply trying the drug by itself at low to moderate doses and using it very sparingly (although nothing can be completely guaranteed). Independent research should always be conducted to ensure that a combination of two or more substances is safe before consumption.

As with other psychedelic substances, there are relatively few physical side effects that have been reported associated with acute ALD-52 exposure. Although no formal studies have been conducted, it is likely that as with LSD itself,[9] ALD-52 is able to be considered non-addictive, with an extremely low toxicity relative to dose. It is also likely that as with LSD, there are little to no negative physical, cognitive, psychiatric or other toxic consequences associated with acute ALD-52 exposure.

However, as with LSD and psychedelics in general, it is possible that ALD-52 can act as a potential trigger for those with underlying psychiatric conditions. Those with a personal or family history of mental illness are generally advised not to use this substance, particularly outside of a supervised medical setting.

It is strongly recommended that one uses harm reduction practices when using this substance.

Tolerance and addiction potential

Although no formal studies have been conducted, it is not unreasonable to assume that like LSD itself, ALD-52 is not habit-forming and that the desire to use it can actually decrease with use.

Tolerance to the effects of ALD-52 are built almost immediately after ingestion. After that, it takes about 5-7 days for the tolerance to be reduced to half and 14 days to be back at baseline (in the absence of further consumption). ALD-52 presents cross-tolerance with all psychedelics, meaning that after the use of ALD-52 all psychedelics will have a reduced effect.

Overdose

The LD50 of ALD-52 is unknown. Adverse psychological reactions are common especially at higher doses. Some of these include anxiety, delusions, panic attacks and more rarely seizures. Medical attention is usually only needed if suspected of severe psychotic episodes or “fake acid” (such as 25i-NBOMe or DOB). Administration of benzodiazepines or antipsychotics can help to relieve the negative cognitive effects.

Dangerous interactions

Although many psychoactive substances are safe to use on their own, they can quickly become dangerous or even life-threatening when combined with other substances. The following lists some known dangerous combinations, but may not include all of them. A combination that appears to be safe in low doses can still increase the risk of injury or death. Independent research should always be conducted to ensure that a combination of two or more substances is safe to consume.

Legal status

ALD-52 is currently a gray area compound within many parts of the world. This means that it is not known to be specifically illegal within most countries, but people may still be charged for its possession under certain circumstances such as under analog laws and with the intent to sell or consume.

  • Austria: ALD-52 is technically not illegal but it may fall in the NPSG (Neue-Psychoaktive-Substanzen-Gesetz Österreich) as an analogue of LSD.[citation needed]
  • Latvia: ALD-52 is illegal in Latvia. Although it isn't officially scheduled, it is controlled as an LSD structural analog due to an amendment made on June 1, 2015.[11]
  • United Kingdom: As of January 7th, 2015, ALD-52 is specifically named in the U.K. Misuse of Drugs Act as a Class A drug.[12]
  • United States: ALD-52 is unscheduled in the United States. It may be considered an analogue of LSD, a Schedule I drug under the Controlled Substances Act. As such, the sale for human consumption or the use for illicit non-medical or scientific research could be prosecuted as crimes under the Federal Analogue Act.[citation needed]

See also

External links

Discussion

Literature

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 Shulgin, A., & Shulgin, A. (1991). Erowid Online Books: "TIHKAL" - #26 LSD-25. Retrieved April 14, 2017.
  2. Lüscher, C., & Ungless, M. A. (2006). The Mechanistic Classification of Addictive Drugs, 3(11). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.0030437
  3. Nichols, D. E. (2016). "Psychedelics." Pharmacological Reviews, 68(2), 264-355. https://doi.org/10.1124/pr.115.011478
  4. Strassman, R. J. (1984). Adverse Reactions to Psychedelic Drugs: A Review of the Literature. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 172(10), 577-595. PMID: 6384428
  5. Ask Erowid: ID 3189 : Was Orange Sunshine actually ALD-52? | https://erowid.org/ask/ask.php?ID=3189
  6. Armstrong, B. D., Paik, E., Chhith, S., Lelievre, V., Waschek, J. A., & Howard, S. G. (2004). Potentiation of (DL)‐3, 4‐methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)‐induced toxicity by the serotonin 2A receptor partial agonist d‐lysergic acid diethylamide (ALD-52), and the protection of same by the serotonin 2A/2C receptor antagonist MDL 11,939. Neuroscience Research Communications, 35(2), 83-95. https://doi.org/10.1002/nrc.20023
  7. Potentiation of MDMA-induced dopamine release and serotonin neurotoxicity by 5-HT2 receptor agonists | https://indiana.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/potentiation-of-34-methylenedioxymethamphetamine-induced-dopamine
  8. Ecstasy induces apoptosis via 5-HT(2A)-receptor stimulation in cortical neurons. | https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17572501
  9. Passie, T., Halpern, J. H., Stichtenoth, D. O., Emrich, H. M., & Hintzen, A. (2008). The Pharmacology of Lysergic Acid Diethylamide: A Review, 14, 295–314. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1755-5949.2008.00059.x
  10. Talaie, H., Panahandeh, R., Fayaznouri, M. R., Asadi, Z., & Abdollahi, M. (2009). Dose-independent occurrence of seizure with tramadol. Journal of medical toxicology, 5(2), 63-67. doi:10.1007/BF03161089
  11. Noteikumi par Latvijā kontrolējamajām narkotiskajām vielām, psihotropajām vielām un prekursoriem (2.4.punkts) | http://likumi.lv/doc.php?id=121086
  12. ACMD (10 June 2014). "Update of the Generic Definition for Tryptamines" (PDF). UK Home Office. p. 12. Retrieved 10 June 2014.