Cannabis

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Summary sheet: Cannabis
Cannabis
Drawing of Cannabis sativa
Chemical Nomenclature
Common names Cannabis, Marijuana, Weed, Pot, Mary Jane, Grass, Herb, Green, Bud, Tree. More names.
Routes of Administration

WARNING: Always start with lower doses due to differences between individual body weight, tolerance, metabolism, and personal sensitivity. See responsible use section.


Smoked
Dosage
Threshold 25 mg
Light 33 - 66 mg
Common 66 - 100 mg
Strong 100 - 150 mg
Heavy 150 mg +
Duration
Total 1 - 4 hours
Onset 0 - 10 minutes
Peak 15 - 30 minutes
After effects 45 - 180 minutes
Oral
Dosage
Threshold 1 - 2.5 mg
Light 2.5 - 5 mg
Common 5 - 10 mg (THC)
Strong 10 - 25 mg (THC)
Heavy 25 - 50+ mg (THC)
Duration
Total 4 - 10 hours
Onset 20 - 120 minutes
Peak 2 - 5 hours
After effects 6 - 12 hours









DISCLAIMER: PW's dosage information is gathered from users and resources for educational purposes only. It is not a recommendation and should be verified with other sources for accuracy.

Interactions
Arrayc-t-x
Arrayc-x
5-meo-xxt
amphetamines
amt
cocaine
dmt
dox
lsd
mescaline
mushrooms
nbomes


Cannabis (also known as marijuana,[1] weed,[2] pot,[3], grass,[4] herb,[5] and many others) is a preparation of the cannabis plant that produces psychoactive effects when consumed (via smoking, vaporizing, or ingestion). The principal psychoactive constituent of cannabis is tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which makes up one of 483 known compounds in the plant,[6] including at least 84 other cannabinoids such as cannabidiol (CBD), cannabinol (CBN), tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV),[7][8] and cannabigerol (CBG).

The genus cannabis is indigenous to central Asia and the Indian subcontinent.[9] The earliest recorded uses of cannabis date from the 3rd millennium BC.[10] At least three species are recognized: Cannabis sativa, Cannabis indica, and Cannabis ruderalis. In modern times, cannabis is used for recreational or medicinal and religious or spiritual purposes.[citation needed]

Since the early 20th century, cannabis has been subject to legal restrictions with the possession, use, and sale of cannabis preparations containing psychoactive cannabinoids currently illegal in most countries. However, there is a recent growing trend towards decriminalization and legalization and the plant is legal in some states and countries such as Amsterdam. According to a United Nations report, cannabis is the most used illicit drug in the world.[11][12] In 2004, the U.N. estimated that global consumption patterns of cannabis indicated that approximately 4% of the adult world population (162 million people) used cannabis annually and that approximately 0.6% (22.5 million) of people used cannabis daily.[13]

History and culture

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As a result, it may contain incomplete or wrong information. You can help by expanding it.

Tombs in China reveal humans were smoking cannabis 2500 years ago.[14]

The potency of illicit cannabis plant material has consistently increased over time since 1995 from ~4% in 1995 to ~12% in 2014. The cannabidiol content has decreased on average from ~.28% in 2001 to <.15% in 2014, resulting in a change in the ratio of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol to cannabidiol from 14 times in 1995 to ~80 times in 2014.[15][16]

Chemistry

Cannabis plants contain a number of different specific compounds at various ratios. Cannabis contains more than 460 compounds;[17] at least 80 of these are cannabinoids,[18][19] chemical compounds that interact with cannabinoid receptors in the brain.[20] The most common cannabinoids are listed below:

Others

  • CBN (Cannabinol)
  • CBG (Cannabigerol)
  • CBC (Cannabichromene)
  • CBL (Cannabicyclol)
  • CBV (Cannabivarin)
  • THCV (Tetrahydrocannabivarin)
  • CBDV (Cannabidivarin)
  • CBCV (Cannabichromevarin)
  • CBGV (Cannabigerovarin)
  • CBGM (Cannabigerol Monomethyl Ether)

Pharmacology

The most psychoactive cannabinoid found in the cannabis plant is tetrahydrocannabinol (or delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol), commonly known as THC.[21] Other cannabinoids include delta-8-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol (CBD), cannabinol (CBN), cannabicyclol (CBL), cannabichromene (CBC) and cannabigerol (CBG); they have less psychotropic effects than THC, but may play a role in the overall effect of cannabis.[22] The most studied are THC, CBD and CBN.[23] The entourage effect is a proposed mechanism by which compounds present in cannabis which are largely non-psychoactive by themselves modulate the overall psychoactive effects of the plant (these resulting principally from the action of the main psychoactive component of cannabis, tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)).

THC appears to alter mood and cognition through its agonist actions on the CB1 receptors, which inhibit a secondary messenger system (adenylate cyclase) in a dose dependent manner. Via CB1 activation, THC indirectly increases dopamine release and produces psychotropic effects. Cannabidiol acts as an allosteric modulator of the mu and delta opioid receptors.[24] THC also potentiates the effects of the glycine receptors.[25] However, the role of these interactions and how they result in the cannabis high remains subject to on-going scientific investigation.

Drugs that activate the CB1 and CB2 receptors are known to upregulate and enhance 5-HT2A receptor activity.[26] The ERK1/ERK2 signaling pathway has been shown to mediate this effect, but the exact biochemical mechanism is unknown. This upregulation and enhancement of the 5-HT2A receptor is why cannabis potentiates the effects of psychedelic drugs.

Subjective effects

The effects listed below are based on the subjective effect index, which is based on anecdotal reports and the personal experiences of PsychonautWiki contributors. As a result, they should be treated with a healthy amount of skepticism. It is worth noting that these effects will rarely (if ever) occur all at once but heavier doses will increase the chances of inducing a full range of effects. Likewise, adverse effects become much more likely on higher doses and may include serious injury or death.

Physical effects
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Visual effects
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Cognitive effects
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Auditory effects
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Multi-sensory effects
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Combination effects

Experience reports

Anecdotal reports which describe the effects of this compound within our experience index include:

Additional experience reports can be found here:

Strains and forms

Strains

Types of cannabis

Sativa and indica are the two major types of cannabis plants which can mix together to create hybrid strains. Each strain has its own range of effects on the body and mind, resulting in a wide range of medicinal benefits.

Indica plants typically grow short and wide compared to sativa plants which grow tall and thin. Indica plants are better suited for indoor growing because of their short growth and sativa plants are better suited for outdoor growing because some strains can reach over 25 ft. in height.

The high produced from smoking indica bud is a strong physical "body high" that will make one sleepy or sedated and provides a deep relaxation feeling compared to a sativa high, which is known to be more energetic and uplifting.

Marijuana strains range from pure sativas to pure indicas with hybrid strains consisting of both indica and sativa (for example, 30% indica – 70% sativa, 50% – 50% combinations, or 80% indica – 20% sativa). Because sativa and indica buds have very different medicinal benefits and effects, certain strains can be targeted to better treat specific illnesses.

Forms

Common usage

Consumption methods

Cannabis is consumed in many different ways:[55]

  • Smoking typically involves inhaling vaporized cannabinoids ("smoke") from small pipes, bongs (portable versions of hookahs with water chamber), paper-wrapped joints, tobacco-leaf-wrapped blunts, and other items.[56]
  • Vaporizers heat herbal cannabis to 165–190 °C (329–374 °F), causing the active ingredients to evaporate into a vapor without burning the plant material (the boiling point of THC is 157 °C (315 °F) at 760 mmHg pressure).[57]
  • Cannabis tea contains relatively small concentrations of THC because THC is an oil (lipophilic) and is only slightly water-soluble (with a solubility of 2.8 mg per liter).[58] Cannabis tea is made by first adding a saturated fat to hot water (e.g., cream or any milk except skim) with a small amount of cannabis.[59]
  • Edibles are cannabis added as an ingredient to one of a variety of foods.
  • Sublingual/buccal consumption typically involves the absorption of cannabinoids through the membranes inside the mouth (usually through a candy or tincture).
  • Tincture
  • Topical consumption typically involves the use of either a cream or lip balm containing cannabinoids absorbed through the skin.

Preparation methods

Preparation methods for this compound within our tutorial index include:

Medical use

Cannabis is an emerging treatment option for those suffering from many serious diseases, including cancer. Due to its pain relieving, nausea suppressing effects, cannabis can be useful for those undergoing radiation therapy and chemotherapy.[citation needed] Oral doses of cannabis are more effective in reducing nausea and vomiting[60].

In addition to the anti-nausea effects, the appetite enhancement effects of cannabis can combine with the antiemetic effects and make it more likely that the patient will gain or maintain weight through cancer treatment.[61]

Toxicity and harm potential

Radar plot showing relative physical harm, social harm, and dependence of cannabis[62]

Cannabis is not known to cause brain damage, and has an extremely low toxicity relative to dose. There are relatively few physical side effects associated with acute cannabis exposure. Various studies have shown that in reasonable doses in a responsible context, cannabis produces little to no negative cognitive, psychiatric or physical consequences.[citation needed]

It is advised that those with severe pre-existing mental conditions should not ingest cannabis due to the way it strongly amplifies the user's current state of mind and emotions. The prolonged usage of THC and other cannabinoids may also increase one's disposition to mental illness and psychosis,[63] particularly in vulnerable individuals with risk factors for psychotic illnesses (like a past or family history of schizophrenia).[64][65][66]

It is strongly recommended that one use harm reduction practices when using this substance.

Lethal dosage

No fatal overdoses associated with cannabis use have been reported as of 2010.[67] A review published in the British Journal of Psychiatry in February 2001 said that "no deaths directly due to acute cannabis use have ever been reported."[68]

THC, the principal psychoactive constituent of the cannabis plant, has an extremely low toxicity and the amount that can enter the body through the consumption of cannabis plants poses no threat of death. In lab animal tests, scientists have had much difficulty administering a dose of THC that is high enough to be lethal. The dose of THC needed to kill 50% of tested rodents is very high,[69] 2.594 mol/kg, about 815.7 grams of THC per kilogram of body weight,[70] and human deaths from overdose are unheard of.[71]

At present, it is estimated that the LD50 of cannabis is around 1:20,000 or 1:40,000. This means that, in order to induce death, a cannabis smoker would have to consume 20,000 to 40,000 times as much cannabis as is contained in one cannabis cigarette. A user would theoretically have to smoke nearly 1,500 pounds of cannabis within about 15 minutes to induce a lethal response.

Dependence and abuse potential

Cannabis is moderately habit-forming. Research has shown the overall dependence potential for cannabis to be less than that for caffeine, tobacco, alcohol, cocaine or heroin, but higher than that for psilocybin, mescaline, or LSD.[72]

Dependence on cannabis is more common amongst heavy users. Cannabis use can lead to increased tolerance[73][74] and withdrawal symptoms upon stopping usage.[75][76][77] Prolonged cannabis usage requires the user to consume higher doses of the substance to achieve a common desirable effect, and reinforce the body's metabolic systems for synthesizing and eliminating it more efficiently.[78]

Tolerance to many of the effects of cannabis develops with prolonged and repeated use. This results in users having to administer increasingly large doses to achieve the same effects. After that, it takes about 1 - 2 weeks for the tolerance to be reduced to half and 2 - 3 weeks to be back at baseline (in the absence of further consumption). THC has been detected in heavy cannabis users after 77 days of drug abstinence (Ellis et al., 1985).[79]

Cannabis produces cross-tolerance with all cannabinoids, meaning that after the consumption of cannabis all cannabinoids will have a reduced effect. The mechanisms that create this tolerance to THC are thought to involve changes in cannabinoid receptor function.

Dangerous interactions

Although many psychoactive substances are reasonably safe to use on their own, they can quickly become dangerous or even life-threatening when taken with other substances. The following lists some known dangerous combinations, but cannot be guaranteed to include all of them. Independent research should always be conducted to ensure that a combination of two or more substances is safe to consume. Some interactions listed have been sourced from TripSit.

  • 2c-t-x
  • 2c-x
  • 5-meo-xxt
  • amphetamines - Stimulants increase anxiety levels and the risk of thought loops which can lead to negative experiences
  • amt
  • cocaine - Stimulants increase anxiety levels and the risk of thought loops which can lead to negative experiences
  • dmt
  • dox
  • lsd
  • mescaline
  • mushrooms
  • nbomes

Legal status

Map showing cannabis laws worldwide
  Legal or essentially legal
  Illegal but decriminalized
  Illegal but often unenforced
  Illegal
  No information

See also

External links

Further reading

References

  1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marijuana_(word)
  2. http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/weed
  3. http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/pot
  4. http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/grass
  5. http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/herb
  6. Ethan B Russo (2013). Cannabis and Cannabinoids: Pharmacology, Toxicology, and Therapeutic Potential. Routledge. p. 28. ISBN 978-1-136-61493-4. | http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=qH-2Lj9x7L4C&pg=PP28&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q&f=false
  7. Antidepressant-like effect of ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol and other cannabinoids isolated from Cannabis sativa L (PubMed.gov / NCBI) | http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2866040/
  8. Distinct Effects of ?9-Tetrahydrocannabinol and Cannabidiol on Neural Activation During Emotional Processing | http://archpsyc.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=482939
  9. A. ElSohly, Mahmoud (2007). Marijuana and the Cannabinoids. Humana Press. p. 8. ISBN 1-58829-456-0. Retrieved 2 May 2011.
  10. Martin Booth (2003). Cannabis: A History. Transworld. p. 36. ISBN 978-1-4090-8489-1.
  11. http://www.erowid.org/plants/cannabis/cannabis_law.shtml
  12. http://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/data-and-analysis/WDR-2010.html
  13. http://www.unodc.org/pdf/WDR_2006/wdr2006_chap2_biggest_market.pdf
  14. https://advances.sciencemag.org/content/5/6/eaaw1391
  15. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0006322316000457
  16. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4987131/
  17. Cannabinoids in medicine: A review of their therapeutic potential | http://www.doctordeluca.com/Library/WOD/WPS3-MedMj/CannabinoidsMedMetaAnalysis06.pdf
  18. Phytocannabinoids, CNS cells and development: A dead issue? | http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1465-3362.2009.00102.x/abstract
  19. Cannabinoid Analgesia as a Potential New Therapeutic Option in the Treatment of Chronic Pain | http://aop.sagepub.com/content/40/2/251
  20. The Pharmacologic and Clinical Effects of Medical Cannabis | http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/phar.1187/abstract
  21. Cannabinoids in medicine: A review of their therapeutic potential | http://www.doctordeluca.com/Library/WOD/WPS3-MedMj/CannabinoidsMedMetaAnalysis06.pdf
  22. Cannabinoids in medicine: A review of their therapeutic potential | http://www.doctordeluca.com/Library/WOD/WPS3-MedMj/CannabinoidsMedMetaAnalysis06.pdf
  23. Medical Consequences of Marijuana Use: A Review of Current Literature | http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11920-013-0419-7
  24. Cannabidiol is an allosteric modulator at mu- and delta-opioid receptors
  25. 9-Tetrahydrocannabinol and Endogenous Cannabinoid Anandamide Directly Potentiate the Function of Glycine Receptors | http://molpharm.aspetjournals.org/content/69/3/991
  26. Franklin JM, Carrasco GA. Cannabinoid receptor agonists upregulate and enhance serotonin 2A (5-HT(2A)) receptor activity via ERK1/2 signaling. Synapse. 2012;67(3):145-59.
  27. 27.0 27.1 27.2 27.3 Robson, P. (2001). "Therapeutic aspects of cannabis and cannabinoids". The British Journal of Psychiatry. 178 (2): 107–115. doi:10.1192/bjp.178.2.107. ISSN 0007-1250. 
  28. Mechoulam, Raphael; Parker, Linda A.; Gallily, Ruth (2002). "Cannabidiol: An Overview of Some Pharmacological Aspects". The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. 42 (S1): 11S–19S. doi:10.1002/j.1552-4604.2002.tb05998.x. ISSN 0091-2700. 
  29. Mechoulam, R. (1984). Cannabinoids as therapeutic agents. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. ISBN 0-8493-5772-1.
  30. Investigating the Neuroendocrine and Behavioral Controls of Cannabis-Induced Feeding Behavior. JF Davis, PQ Choi, J Kunze, P Wahl, Washington State University Pullman, WA, USA. Presented July 2018, Society for the Study of Ingestive Behavior, Bonita Springs, FL.
  31. Tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV): A Cannabinoid Fighting Obesity | https://www.medicaljane.com/2013/08/27/tetrahydrocannabivarin-thcv-a-cannabinoid-fighting-obesity/
  32. The Pharmacologic and Clinical Effects of Medical Cannabis | http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/phar.1187/abstract;jsessionid=1E004D7B7E2B5CA792E75A6E83EEC59C.f03t01
  33. The Therapeutic Potential of Cannabis and Cannabinoids | http://www.aerzteblatt.de/int/archive/article?id=127603
  34. Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Cannabis Treatment for Chronic Pain | http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1526-4637.2009.00703.x/abstract
  35. Cannabinoids for treatment of chronic non-cancer pain; a systematic review of randomized trials | http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-2125.2011.03970.x/abstract
  36. Charlotte Figi: The Girl Who is Changing Medical Marijuana Laws Across America | http://www.ibtimes.co.uk/charlotte-figi-girl-who-changing-medical-marijuana-laws-across-america-1453547
  37. On the frontier of medical pot to treat boy's epilepsy | http://articles.latimes.com/2012/sep/13/local/la-me-customized-marijuana-20120914
  38. Report of a parent survey of cannabidiol-enriched cannabis use in pediatric treatment-resistant epilepsy (PubMed.gov / NCBI) | http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4157067/
  39. Cannabidiol displays antiepileptiform and antiseizure properties in vitro and in vivo. (PubMed.gov / NCBI) | http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19906779/
  40. An electrophysiological analysis of the anticonvulsant action of cannabidiol on limbic seizures in conscious rats. (PubMed.gov / NCBI) | http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/477630
  41. Δ⁹-Tetrahydrocannabivarin suppresses in vitro epileptiform and in vivo seizure activity in adult rats. (PubMed.gov / NCBI) | http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20196794
  42. Cannabinoids: Defending the Epileptic Brain (PubMed.gov / NCBI) | http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1176332/
  43. Cardiovascular Effects of Cannabis | http://www.idmu.co.uk/canncardio.htm
  44. Is Marijuana an Effective Treatment for Glaucoma? | http://medicalmarijuana.procon.org/view.answers.php?questionID=000140
  45. http://europepmc.org/abstract/med/1147519
  46. Feinberg, I., Jones, R, Walker JM, Cavness, C, March, J. (1975). Effects of high dosage delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol on sleep patterns in man. Clin Parmacol Ther. 1975; 17(4):458-66.
  47. Causal association between cannabis and psychosis: examination of the evidence - The British Journal of Psychiatry Jan 2004, 184 (2) 110-117 | http://bjp.rcpsych.org/content/184/2/110.short
  48. Every-Palmer, S. Synthetic cannabinoid use and psychosis: an explorative study. Journal of Drug and Alcohol Dependence 2011.
  49. “Spice” Girls: Synthetic Cannabinoid Intoxication - The Journal of Emergency Medicine Volume 40, Issue 3, March 2011, Pages 296–299 (ScienceDirect) | http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0736467910008802
  50. A Teenager With Agitation: Higher Than She Should Have Climbed - Pediatric Emergency Care: June 2010 - Volume 26 - Issue 6 - pp 462-465 | http://journals.lww.com/pec-online/Abstract/2010/06000/A_Teenager_With_Agitation__Higher_Than_She_Should.16.aspx
  51. High Times in Ag Science: Marijuana More Potent Than Ever | http://www.wired.com/2008/12/high-times-in-a/
  52. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/Marijuana
  53. http://www.cannabisculture.com/articles/4220.html
  54. http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=x9Z1QZ5NIEIC&pg=PA78&redir_esc=y
  55. The Cultural/Subcultural Contexts of Marijuana Use at the Turn of the Twenty-First Century | http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=KFMtFv2tmbYC&pg=PA82&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q&f=false
  56. Allan Tasman; Jerald Kay; Jeffrey A. Lieberman; Michael B. First, Mario Maj (2011). Psychiatry. John Wiley & Sons. p. 9. ISBN 978-1-119-96540-4. | http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=vVG7zz7eaxcC&pg=RA9-PT2217&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q&f=false
  57. Cannabis and Cannabis Extracts: Greater Than the Sum of Their Parts? | http://www.cannabis-med.org/data/pdf/2001-03-04-7.pdf
  58. Dronabinol | http://chem.sis.nlm.nih.gov/chemidplus/rn/1972-08-3
  59. Marijuana medical handbook | http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=OuAHxDKcpS8C&pg=PA182&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q&f=false
  60. "Antiemetic Effect of Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol in Patients Receiving Cancer Chemotherapy" Stephen E. Sallan, M.D., Norman E. Zinberg, M.D., and Emil Frei, III, M.D. DOI: 10.1056/NEJM197510162931603 http://www.nejm.org/doi/pdf/10.1056/NEJM197510162931603
  61. American College of Physicians. Supporting Research into the Therapeutic Role of Marijuana. Philadelphia: American College of Physicians; 2008: Position Paper. (Available from American College of Physicians, 190 N. Independence Mall West, Philadelphia, PA19106.) https://www.acponline.org/system/files/documents/advocacy/current_policy_papers/assets/medmarijuana.pdf
  62. Development of a rational scale to assess the harm of drugs of potential misuse (ScienceDirect) | http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0140673607604644
  63. Causal association between cannabis and psychosis: examination of the evidence - The British Journal of Psychiatry Jan 2004, 184 (2) 110-117 | http://bjp.rcpsych.org/content/184/2/110.short
  64. Every-Palmer, S. Synthetic cannabinoid use and psychosis: an explorative study. Journal of Drug and Alcohol Dependence 2011.
  65. “Spice” Girls: Synthetic Cannabinoid Intoxication - The Journal of Emergency Medicine Volume 40, Issue 3, March 2011, Pages 296–299 (ScienceDirect) | http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0736467910008802
  66. A Teenager With Agitation: Higher Than She Should Have Climbed - Pediatric Emergency Care: June 2010 - Volume 26 - Issue 6 - pp 462-465 | http://journals.lww.com/pec-online/Abstract/2010/06000/A_Teenager_With_Agitation__Higher_Than_She_Should.16.aspx
  67. Does cannabis use increase the risk of death? Systematic review of epidemiological evidence on adverse effects of cannabis use | http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1465-3362.2009.00149.x/abstract
  68. Pharmacology and effects of cannabis: a brief review | http://bjp.rcpsych.org/content/178/2/101
  69. Adverse effects of cannabis | http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(98)05021-1/fulltext
  70. https://www.drugbank.ca/drugs/DB00470
  71. Tetrahydrocannabinols in clinical and forensic toxicology (PubMed.gov / NCBI) | http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16225128
  72. Lopez-Quintero C, Pérez de los Cobos J, Hasin DS, et al.: Probability and predictors of transition from first use to dependence on nicotine, alcohol, cannabis, and cocaine: results of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). Drug Alcohol Depend 2011; 115: 120–30 | https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3069146/
  73. The Pharmacologic and Clinical Effects of Medical Cannabis | http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/phar.1187/abstract
  74. The Effect of Cannabis Compared with Alcohol on Driving | http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1080/10550490902786934/abstract
  75. Medical Consequences of Marijuana Use: A Review of Current Literature | http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11920-013-0419-7
  76. State of the Art Treatments for Cannabis Dependence (ScienceDirect) | http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0193953X12000202
  77. Cannabinoid tolerance and dependence | http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16596793
  78. MARIJUANA AND MEDICINE Assessing the Science Base | http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=6376
  79. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3902318