Appetite suppression

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Appetite suppression can be described as the experience of a distinct decrease in a person's sense of hunger and appetite in a manner which can result in both a lesser desire to eat food and a decreased enjoyment of its taste.[1] This typically results in the person undergoing prolonged periods of time without eating food.

Depending on the intensity, this effect can result in a sense of complete disinterest or even disgust concerning food. At times, it can often result in physical discomfort (such as Nausea) when attempting to eat food. In cases of severe appetite suppression, it is often easier for a person to consume liquid food, such as protein shakes, in order to receive the nutrition needed to function.

Appetite suppression is often accompanied by other coinciding effects such as stimulation or pain relief in a manner which can lead to feeling as if one either has enough energy to not need food or has enough anaesthesthia to not feel the pain of hunger. It is most commonly induced under the influence of moderate dosages of stimulant[2] compounds, such as amphetamine[3], methylphenidate,[4] nicotine,[5] MDMA,[6] and cocaine. However, it may also occur under the influence of other compounds such as opioids, psychedelics, and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). It is worth noting that if these substances are used for prolonged periods of time, weight loss often occurs as a result.

Psychoactive substances

Compounds within our psychoactive substance index which may cause this effect include:

... further results

Experience reports

Anecdotal reports which describe this effect within our experience index include:

Adverse effects

Refeeding syndrome

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Refeeding syndrome if severe enough, may result in death

Refeeding syndrome (RFS) is a metabolic disturbance which occurs as a result of reinstitution of nutrition in people and animals who are starved, severely malnourished, or metabolically stressed because of severe illness. When too much food or liquid nutrition supplement is eaten during the initial four to seven days following a malnutrition event, the production of glycogen, fat and protein in cells may cause low serum concentrations of potassium (hypokalemia), magnesium (magnesium deficiency) and phosphate (hypophosphatemia).[7][8] The electrolyte imbalance may cause neurologic, pulmonary, cardiac, neuromuscular, and hematologic symptoms—many of which, if severe enough, may result in death.

Refeeding syndrome can occur when someone does not eat for several days at a time usually beginning after 4–5 days with no food.[9]

Stimulants like amphetamines, methylphenidate, and cocaine, along with opiates, contribute to appetite suppression. This can lead to prolonged periods of inadequate calorie intake, mimicking anorexia nervosa. Individuals with drug abuse who begin to reintroduce normal eating habits after a period of malnutrition may be at increased risk for refeeding syndrome.[10]

See also

External links


  1. Silverstone, T. (June 1992). "Appetite Suppressants: A Review". Drugs. 43 (6): 820–836. doi:10.2165/00003495-199243060-00003. ISSN 0012-6667. 
  2. Poulton, A. S., Hibbert, E. J., Champion, B. L., Nanan, R. K. H. (2016). "Stimulants for the Control of Hedonic Appetite". Frontiers in Pharmacology. 7. ISSN 1663-9812. 
  3. Hsieh, Y.-S., Yang, S.-F., Kuo, D.-Y. (April 2005). "Amphetamine, an appetite suppressant, decreases neuropeptide Y immunoreactivity in rat hypothalamic paraventriculum". Regulatory Peptides. 127 (1–3): 169–176. doi:10.1016/j.regpep.2004.11.007. ISSN 0167-0115. 
  4. Davis, C., Fattore, L., Kaplan, A. S., Carter, J. C., Levitan, R. D., Kennedy, J. L. (March 2012). "The suppression of appetite and food consumption by methylphenidate: the moderating effects of gender and weight status in healthy adults". The International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology. 15 (02): 181–187. doi:10.1017/S1461145711001039. ISSN 1461-1457. 
  5. Seeley, R. J., Sandoval, D. A. (July 2011). "Weight loss through smoking". Nature. 475 (7355): 176–177. doi:10.1038/475176a. ISSN 0028-0836. 
  6. Francis, H. M., Kraushaar, N. J., Hunt, L. R., Cornish, J. L. (February 2011). "Serotonin 5-HT4 receptors in the nucleus accumbens are specifically involved in the appetite suppressant and not locomotor stimulant effects of MDMA ('ecstasy')". Psychopharmacology. 213 (2–3): 355–363. doi:10.1007/s00213-010-1982-9. ISSN 0033-3158. 
  7. Mehanna HM, Moledina J, Travis J (June 2008). "Refeeding syndrome: what it is, and how to prevent and treat it". BMJ. 336 (7659): 1495–8. doi:10.1136/bmj.a301. PMC 2440847Freely accessible. PMID 18583681. 
  8. Doig, GS; Simpson, F; Heighes; Bellomo, R; Chesher, D; Caterson, ID; Reade, MC; Harrigan, PWJ (2015-12-01). "Restricted versus continued standard caloric intake during the management of refeeding syndrome in critically ill adults: a randomised, parallel-group, multicentre, single-blind controlled trial". The Lancet Respiratory Medicine. 3 (12): 943–952. doi:10.1016/S2213-2600(15)00418-X. ISSN 2213-2619. PMID 26597128. 
  9. Webb GJ, Smith K, Thursby-Pelham F, Smith T, Stroud MA, Da Silva AN (2011). "Complications of emergency refeeding in anorexia nervosa: case series and review". Acute Medicine. 10 (2): 69–76. doi:10.52964/AMJA.0470Freely accessible. PMID 22041604. 
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