Confusion is defined as an impairment of abstract thinking demonstrated by an inability to think with one’s customary clarity and coherence. Within the context of substance use, it is commonly experienced as a persistent inability to grasp or comprehend concepts and situations which would otherwise be perfectly understandable during sobriety. The intensity of this effect seems to to be further increased with unfamiliarity in either setting or substance ingested.
Confusion is often accompanied by other coinciding effects such as delirium, delusions, and short term memory suppression in a manner which further increases the person's lack of comprehension. It is most commonly induced under the influence of heavy dosages of hallucinogenic compounds, such as psychedelics, dissociatives, synthetic cannabinoids, and deliriants. However, it can also occur to a lesser extent under the influence of heavy dosages of benzodiazepines and antipsychotics.
Compounds within our psychoactive substance index which may cause this effect include:
- Harmala alkaloid
- Psilocybin mushrooms
- Salvinorin A
Annectdotal reports which describe this effect with our experience index include:
- Experience:120µg LSD - First Bad Acid Trip, Psychosis
- Experience:17mg 3-MeO-PCP & Cannabis oil - Terrifying confusion
- Experience:24 mg Alprazolam - Into the Void
- Experience:5g Mushrooms - Failed attempt at a Terence Mckenna style trip.
- Experience:60mg 4-AcO-DMT Nonstop Quasi-Orgasmic Objectless Euphoria
- Experience:DXM and Cannabis: 100mg - Unexpected Strong Trip
- Experience:LSD (150µg) + Cannabis - 150µg lsd and a shitload of weed
- Experience:Mushrooms (~0.5 g) - Autonomous Voice
- Experience:Mushrooms and Snuff Films -- Trip Report (3.5 grams)
- Experience:The Dancing Invisible Men Come to Life!
- Experience:Unknown Dose DOC (Insufflated) - Overdosing and Terifying Ego Death
- Experience:~150mg MDA(oral) - a case of mistaken identity
- Responsible use
- Subjective effects index
- Psychedelics - Subjective effects
- Dissociatives - Subjective effects
- Deliriants - Subjective effects
- Burns, A (2004). "Delirium". Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry. 75 (3): 362–367. doi:10.1136/jnnp.2003.023366. ISSN 0022-3050.
- Sheehan, Peter W.; Lewis, Sue-Ellen (2016). "Subjects' Reports of Confusion in Consciousness and the Arousal of Imagery". Perceptual and Motor Skills. 38 (3): 731–734. doi:10.2466/pms.19188.8.131.521. ISSN 0031-5125.
- Lu, Lin; Krebs, Teri S.; Johansen, Pål-Ørjan (2013). "Psychedelics and Mental Health: A Population Study". PLoS ONE. 8 (8): e63972. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0063972. ISSN 1932-6203.
- Mozayani, A. (2003). Phencyclidine-Effects on Human Performance and Behavior. Forensic science review, 15(1), 61-74. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26256594
- Chase, Peter B.; Hawkins, Jeff; Mosier, Jarrod; Jimenez, Ernest; Boesen, Keith; Logan, Barry K.; Walter, Frank G. (2015). "Differential physiological and behavioral cues observed in individuals smoking botanical marijuana versus synthetic cannabinoid drugs". Clinical Toxicology. 54 (1): 14–19. doi:10.3109/15563650.2015.1101769. ISSN 1556-3650.
- Datura effects (Erowid) | https://erowid.org/plants/datura/datura_effects.shtml
- Kalisch Ellett, Lisa M.; Pratt, Nicole L.; Ramsay, Emmae N.; Barratt, John D.; Roughead, Elizabeth E. (2014). "Multiple Anticholinergic Medication Use and Risk of Hospital Admission for Confusion or Dementia". Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 62 (10): 1916–1922. doi:10.1111/jgs.13054. ISSN 0002-8614.
- Nicholson, Katherine L.; Balster, Robert L. (2001). "GHB: a new and novel drug of abuse". Drug and Alcohol Dependence. 63 (1): 1–22. doi:10.1016/S0376-8716(00)00191-5. ISSN 0376-8716.