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Confusion is defined as an impairment of abstract thinking demonstrated by an inability to think with one’s customary clarity and coherence.[1] Within the context of substance use, it is commonly experienced as a persistent inability to grasp or comprehend concepts and situations which would otherwise be perfectly understandable during sobriety. The intensity of this effect seems to to be further increased with unfamiliarity[2] in either setting or substance ingested.

Confusion is often accompanied by other coinciding effects such as delirium, delusions, and short term memory suppression in a manner which further increases the person's lack of comprehension. It is most commonly induced under the influence of heavy dosages of hallucinogenic compounds, such as psychedelics,[3] dissociatives,[4] synthetic cannabinoids,[5] and deliriants.[6] However, it can also occur to a lesser extent under the influence of heavy dosages of benzodiazepines[7] and antipsychotics[6].

Psychoactive substances

Compounds within our psychoactive substance index which may cause this effect include:

Experience reports

Annectdotal reports which describe this effect with our experience index include:

See also

External links


  1. Burns, A (2004). "Delirium". Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry. 75 (3): 362–367. doi:10.1136/jnnp.2003.023366. ISSN 0022-3050. 
  2. Sheehan, Peter W.; Lewis, Sue-Ellen (2016). "Subjects' Reports of Confusion in Consciousness and the Arousal of Imagery". Perceptual and Motor Skills. 38 (3): 731–734. doi:10.2466/pms.1974.38.3.731. ISSN 0031-5125. 
  3. Lu, Lin; Krebs, Teri S.; Johansen, Pål-Ørjan (2013). "Psychedelics and Mental Health: A Population Study". PLoS ONE. 8 (8): e63972. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0063972. ISSN 1932-6203. 
  4. Mozayani, A. (January 2003). "Phencyclidine - Effects on Human Performance and Behavior". Forensic Science Review. 15 (1): 61–74. ISSN 1042-7201. 
  5. Chase, Peter B.; Hawkins, Jeff; Mosier, Jarrod; Jimenez, Ernest; Boesen, Keith; Logan, Barry K.; Walter, Frank G. (2015). "Differential physiological and behavioral cues observed in individuals smoking botanical marijuana versus synthetic cannabinoid drugs". Clinical Toxicology. 54 (1): 14–19. doi:10.3109/15563650.2015.1101769. ISSN 1556-3650. 
  6. 6.0 6.1 Kalisch Ellett, Lisa M.; Pratt, Nicole L.; Ramsay, Emmae N.; Barratt, John D.; Roughead, Elizabeth E. (2014). "Multiple Anticholinergic Medication Use and Risk of Hospital Admission for Confusion or Dementia". Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 62 (10): 1916–1922. doi:10.1111/jgs.13054. ISSN 0002-8614. 
  7. Nicholson, Katherine L.; Balster, Robert L. (2001). "GHB: a new and novel drug of abuse". Drug and Alcohol Dependence. 63 (1): 1–22. doi:10.1016/S0376-8716(00)00191-5. ISSN 0376-8716.