Sleepiness

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Sleepiness (also known as drowsiness) is a state of near-sleep, or a strong desire for sleep without feeling a decrease in one's physical energy levels.[1][2][3] This state is independent of a circadian rhythm;[1] so, unlike sedation, this effect does not necessarily decrease physical energy levels but instead decreases wakefulness. It results in a propensity for tired, clouded, and sleep-prone behaviour. This can lead into a decreased motivation to perform tasks, as the increase in one's desire to sleep begins to outweigh other considerations. Prolonged exposure to this effect without appropriate rest can lead to cognitive fatigue and a range of other cognitive suppressions.

Sleepiness is most commonly induced under the influence of moderate dosages of a wide variety of compounds such as cannabinoids,[4] GABAergic depressants,[5][6] opioids,[7] antipsychotics,[8][9] some antihistamines,[10] and certain psychedelics. However, it is worth noting that the few compounds which selectively induce this effect without a number of other accompanying effects are referred to as hypnotics.

Psychoactive substances

Compounds within our psychoactive substance index which may cause this effect include:


See also

External links

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 "Glossary of Technical Terms". Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.): 829. 2013. doi:10.1176/appi.books.9780890425596.GlossaryofTechnicalTerms. 
  2. Guilleminault, C. (2001). "Excessive daytime sleepiness: A challenge for the practising neurologist". Brain. 124 (8): 1482–1491. doi:10.1093/brain/124.8.1482. ISSN 1460-2156. 
  3. Bereshpolova, Y.; Stoelzel, C. R.; Zhuang, J.; Amitai, Y.; Alonso, J.-M.; Swadlow, H. A. (2011). "Getting Drowsy? Alert/Nonalert Transitions and Visual Thalamocortical Network Dynamics". Journal of Neuroscience. 31 (48): 17480–17487. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2262-11.2011. ISSN 0270-6474. 
  4. Ware, M. A.; Wang, T.; Shapiro, S.; Robinson, A.; Ducruet, T.; Huynh, T.; Gamsa, A.; Bennett, G. J.; Collet, J.-P. (2010). "Smoked cannabis for chronic neuropathic pain: a randomized controlled trial". Canadian Medical Association Journal. 182 (14): E694–E701. doi:10.1503/cmaj.091414. ISSN 0820-3946. 
  5. Landauer, Ali A.; Howat, Peter (2007). "Low and moderate alcohol doses, psychomotor performance and perceived drowsiness". Ergonomics. 26 (7): 647–657. doi:10.1080/00140138308963386. ISSN 0014-0139. 
  6. Koch-Weser, Jan; Greenblatt, David J.; Shader, Richard I.; Abernethy, Darrell R. (1983). "Current Status of Benzodiazepines". New England Journal of Medicine. 309 (7): 410–416. doi:10.1056/NEJM198308183090705. ISSN 0028-4793. 
  7. Corey, PJ; Heck, Amy M; Weathermon, Ronnie A (2016). "Amphetamines to Counteract Opioid-Induced Sedation". Annals of Pharmacotherapy. 33 (12): 1362–1366. doi:10.1345/aph.19024. ISSN 1060-0280. 
  8. Van Putten, Theodore (1981). "Subjective Response to Antipsychotic Drugs". Archives of General Psychiatry. 38 (2): 187. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.1981.01780270073010. ISSN 0003-990X. 
  9. Artaloytia, Juan Francisco; Arango, Celso; Lahti, Adrienne; Sanz, Javier; Pascual, Ana; Cubero, Pedro; Prieto, David; Palomo, Tomás (2006). "Negative Signs and Symptoms Secondary to Antipsychotics: A Double-Blind, Randomized Trial of a Single Dose of Placebo, Haloperidol, and Risperidone in Healthy Volunteers". American Journal of Psychiatry. 163 (3): 488–493. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.163.3.488. ISSN 0002-953X. 
  10. Weiler, John M.; Bloomfield, John R.; Woodworth, George G.; Grant, Angela R.; Layton, Teresa A.; Brown, Timothy L.; McKenzie, David R.; Baker, Thomas W.; Watson, Ginger S. (2000). "Effects of Fexofenadine, Diphenhydramine, and Alcohol on Driving Performance". Annals of Internal Medicine. 132 (5): 354. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-132-5-200003070-00004. ISSN 0003-4819.