1P-LSD

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Summary sheet: 1P-LSD
1P-LSD
1P-LSD.svg
Chemical Nomenclature
Common names 1P-LSD
Substitutive name 1-Propionyl-d-lysergic acid diethylamide
Systematic name (6aR,9R)-4-propionyl-N,N-Diethyl-7-methyl-4-propanoyl-6,6a,8,9-tetrahydroindolo[4,3-fg]quinoline-9-carboxamide
Class Membership
Psychoactive class Psychedelic
Chemical class Lysergamide
Routes of Administration

WARNING: Always start with lower doses due to differences between individual body weight, tolerance, metabolism, and personal sensitivity. See responsible use section.



Oral
Dosage
Threshold 15 µg
Light 25 - 75 µg
Common 75 - 150 µg
Strong 150 - 300 µg
Heavy 300 µg +
Duration
Total 8 - 12 hours
Onset 20 - 60 minutes
Come up 45 - 120 minutes
Peak 3 - 5 hours
Offset 3 - 5 hours
After effects 6 - 24 hours









DISCLAIMER: PW's dosage information is gathered from users and resources for educational purposes only. It is not a recommendation and should be verified with other sources for accuracy.

Interactions
Cannabis
Stimulants
Tramadol
Lithium]


1-Propionyl-d-lysergic acid diethylamide (also known as 1P-LSD) is a novel semi-synthetic psychedelic substance of the lysergamide class. 1P-LSD is closely related to LSD and is reported to produce near-identical effects. Little is known about the pharmacology of 1P-LSD, but it likely produces its psychedelic effects by acting on serotonin receptors in the brain.

The original synthesis date of 1P-LSD is unknown. Unlike most research chemicals, 1P-LSD has no prior record in the scientific literature. The first reports of 1P-LSD use surfaced in 2015 following its appearance on the online research chemical market.[1] It was marketed as a legal alternative to LSD alongside other novel lysergamides like ALD-52, ETH-LAD, and AL-LAD.[2]

Subjective effects include geometric visual hallucinations, time distortion, enhanced introspection, conceptual thinking, euphoria, and ego loss. User reports indicate that the subjective effects of 1P-LSD are extremely similar to those of LSD. 1P-LSD is theorized to act as a prodrug for LSD.[3] This hypothesis is supported by the results of a study, showing 1P-LSD is metabolized to LSD in rats.[2] This predicts a near-identical effect profile, likely differing mainly in its rate of absorption and duration. Characteristic effects include geometric visual hallucinations, time distortion, enhanced introspection, and ego loss. Its classical psychedelic effects and favorable tolerability has led it to become popular among novel psychoactive substance users who use it interchangeably with LSD.

Very little data exists about the pharmacological properties, metabolism, and toxicity of 1P-LSD. It is presumed to have a similar toxicity and risk profile as LSD, although no evidence currently exists to support this. It is highly advised to use harm reduction practices if using this substance.

History and culture

1P-LSD first appeared on the online research chemical market in January 2015.[1] Although it was likely discovered in an academic setting, it is unknown who first synthesized 1P-LSD, as the substance does not appear in any academic literature pre-dating its arrival on the research chemical market.[3] Interestingly, the future usage of 1-akylated lysergamide derivatives as a means to bypass controlled substance laws banning LSD as a precursor was foreseen in a DEA report from 1988:

Chemistry

1P-LSD is a semisynthetic compound of the lysergamide family. It is similar to LSD and is named for the propionyl group bound to the nitrogen of the polycyclic indole group of LSD. Propionyl consists of the carbonyl chain CH3CH2CO- bound to an amino group. 1P-LSD is homologous to ALD-52, which holds an acetyl group bound to the nitrogen instead of the propionyl group bound at the same location. The structure of 1P-LSD contains a polycyclic group featuring a bicyclic hexahydro indole bound to a bicyclic quinoline group. At carbon 8 of the quinoline, an N,N-diethyl carboxamide is bound.

Pharmacology

Further information: Serotonergic psychedelic

Based on its structural similarity to LSD, 1P-LSD likely acts as a partial agonist at the 5-HT2A receptor. The psychedelic effects are thought to primarily come from its efficacy at the 5-HT2A receptors distributed throughout the brain. 1P-LSD also likely displays binding activity at a wide range of monoamine receptors, such as those for dopamine and norepinephrine. However, there is currently no data to support these claims.

It has been theorized that 1P-LSD may act as a prodrug for LSD. While 1P-LSD shows only 38% the potency of LSD in mice, LSD is detected via LC-MS when 1P-LSD is incubated in human serum. Follow-up studies are currently being conducted to compare the affinity and selectivity of LSD and 1P-LSD at 5-HT receptors, and to determine whether 1P-LSD is hydrolyzed to LSD in vivo.[3] Otherwise, it is possible that 1P-LSD may be capable of exerting its own psychedelic effect.

Prior to the publishing of the above-cited research, medicinal chemist and psychedelic researcher David E. Nichols reportedly commented on the potential 1P-LSD serotonin receptor binding dynamics in private correspondence:

Subjective effects

Anecdotal reports from many users suggest that the subjective effects of 1P-LSD are so similar to that of LSD so as to be virtually indistinguishable from one another. In comparison to other psychedelics such as psilocybin, LSA and ayahuasca, 1P-LSD is significantly more stimulating and fast-paced regarding the specific style of its physical and cognitive effects.

Disclaimer: The effects listed below are cited from the Subjective Effect Index (SEI), which relies on assorted anecdotal reports and the personal experiences of PsychonautWiki contributors. As a result, they should be taken with a healthy amount of skepticism. It is worth noting that these effects will not necessarily occur in a consistent or reliable manner, although higher doses (common+) are more likely to induce the full spectrum of reported effects. Likewise, adverse effects become much more likely on higher doses and may include serious injury or death.

Physical effects
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Visual effects
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Cognitive effects
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Multi-sensory effects
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Combination effects

  • Alcohol - Alcohol's central depressant effects can be used to reduce some of the anxiety and tension produced by 1P-LSD. However, alcohol can cause dehydration, nausea and physical fatigue which can negatively impact the direction of the trip. Users are advised to pace themselves and drink a portion of their usual amount.
  • Benzodiazepines - Benzodiazepines are highly effective at reducing the intensity of 1P-LSD's effects through the general suppression of brain activity.
  • Cannabis - Cannabis strongly intensifies the sensory and cognitive effects of 1P-LSD. Extreme caution is advised when using this combination as it can significantly increase the chances of a negative psychological reaction like anxiety, confusion and psychosis. Users are advised to start off with only a fraction of their usual cannabis dose and take long breaks between hits to avoid over intake.
  • Dissociatives - 1P-LSD enhances the cognitive, visual and general hallucinatory effects of dissociatives. Dissociative-induced holes, spaces, and voids and internal hallucinations become more vivid and intense on 1P-LSD. These effects correspond with an increased risk of confusion, delusions, and psychosis.
  • MDMA - 1P-LSD and MDMA are highly synergistic and mutually enhance each other's physical, cognitive, and visual effects. The synergy between these substances is unpredictable, and it is advised to start with markedly lower doses than one would take for each individually. There is some evidence that suggests LSD increases the neurotoxicity of MDMA, which may be relevant to 1P-LSD as well.[6][7][8]

Experience reports

Anecdotal reports which describe the effects of this compound within our experience index include:

Additional experience reports can be found here:

Toxicity and harm potential

The toxicity and long-term health effects of recreational 1P-LSD use have not been studied. This is because 1P-LSD is a research chemical with almost no history of human use.

Anecdotal reports suggest that there are no negative health effects attributed to simply trying 1P-LSD by itself, at low to moderate doses, and using it very sparingly (although nothing can be completely guaranteed). Independent research should always be conducted to ensure that a combination of two or more substances is safe before consumption.

Based on its similarity to LSD, 1P-LSD is assumed to be physiologically well-tolerated with a extremely low toxicity relative to dose. There are relatively few physical side effects that have been reported following acute 1P-LSD exposure.

However, as with LSD and psychedelics in general, it is likely that 1P-LSD can act as a trigger for those with underlying mental disorders. Those with a personal or family history of mental illness are generally advised not to use this substance, particularly when outside of a supervised medical setting.

It is strongly recommended that one uses harm reduction practices when using this substance.

Overdose

1P-LSD has no known toxic dose. However, higher doses increase the risk of adverse psychological reactions. These reactions include anxiety, delusions, panic attacks and, more rarely, seizures. Medical attention is usually not needed except in the case of severe psychotic episodes or the ingestion of fake acid (such as 25i-NBOMe or DOB). Administration of benzodiazepines or antipsychotics can help to relieve the acute negative cognitive effects of 1P-LSD.

Dependence and abuse potential

Although no formal studies have been conducted, it is assumed that like LSD itself, 1P-LSD is non-addictive with a low abuse potential. There are no literature reports of successful attempts to train animals to self-administer LSD — an animal model predictive of abuse liability — indicating that it does not have the necessary pharmacology to either initiate or maintain dependence.[9] Likewise, there is virtually no withdrawal syndrome when chronic use of LSD is stopped.[citation needed] It is assumed that 1P-LSD shares these properties with LSD.

Tolerance to the effects of 1P-LSD are built almost immediately after ingestion. After that, it takes about 5-7 days for the tolerance to be reduced to half and 14 days to be back at baseline (in the absence of further consumption). 1P-LSD produces cross-tolerance with all psychedelics, meaning that after the use of 1P-LSD they will have a reduced effect.

Dangerous interactions

Although many psychoactive substances are reasonably safe to use on their own, they can quickly become dangerous or even life-threatening when combined with other substances. The list below includes some known dangerous combinations (although it cannot be guaranteed to include all of them). Independent research (e.g. Google, DuckDuckGo) should always be conducted to ensure that a combination of two or more substances is safe to consume. Some interactions listed have been sourced from TripSit.

The following substances are listed on the assumption that 1P-LSD possesses a similar if not the same dangerous interactions profile as LSD, and may include more due to its status as an unstudied research chemical.

  • Lithium - Lithium is commonly prescribed in the treatment of bipolar disorder. There is a large body of anecdotal evidence that suggests taking it with psychedelics significantly increases the risk of psychosis and seizures. As a result, this combination is strictly discouraged.
  • Cannabis - Cannabis has an unexpectedly strong and unpredictable synergy with the effects of psychedelics. Caution is advised with this combination as it can significantly increase the risk of adverse psychological reactions like anxiety, paranoia, panic attacks, and psychosis. Users are advised to start off with only a fraction of their normal cannabis dose and take long breaks between hits to avoid over intake.
  • Stimulants (Amphetamine, cocaine, methylphenidate, ...) - Stimulants affect many parts of the brain and alter dopaminergic function. Combined with psychedelics, stimulation can turn into severe anxiety, panic, thought loops, and paranoia. This interaction may result in an elevated risk of mania and psychosis.[citation needed]
  • Tramadol - Tramadol lowers the seizure threshold[10] and psychedelics may act as triggers for seizures in susceptible individuals.[citation needed]

Legal status

1P-LSD is not scheduled under the UN Convention on Psychotropic Substances. It is considered to exist in a legal grey area in many countries, meaning that while it is not specifically illegal, individuals may still be charged for its possession under certain circumstances such as under analogue laws and with the intent to sell or consume.

  • Austria: 1P-LSD is technically not illegal but it may fall in the NPSG (Neue-Psychoaktive-Substanzen-Gesetz Österreich) as an analogue of LSD, thus making it illegal to supply for human consumption.[11][12]
  • Canada: 1P-LSD is controlled as Schedule III substance under the Precursor Control Regulations of the Controlled Drugs and Substances Act.[13][dubious ]
  • Denmark: As of August 25, 2015, 1P-LSD is specifically named on the list of illegal substances.[14]
  • Germany: 1P-LSD is controlled under the NpSG (New Psychoactive Substances Act)[15] as of July 18, 2019.[16] Production and import with the aim to place it on the market, administration to another person and trading is punishable. Possession is illegal but not penalized.[17]
  • Latvia: 1P-LSD is illegal in Latvia. Although it is not officially scheduled, it is controlled as an LSD structural analog due to an amendment made on June 1, 2015.[18]
  • Lithuania: 1P-LSD is illegal in Lithuania and is specifically named on the list of illegal substances since September 21, 2015.[19]
  • Sweden: Following its sale as a designer drug, 1P-LSD was made illegal in Sweden on January 26, 2016.[20]
  • Switzerland: 1P-LSD is illegal in Switzerland as of December 2015.[21]
  • Turkey: 1P-LSD is illegal in Turkey as of February 2016.[22]
  • United Kingdom: 1P-LSD is illegal to produce, supply, or import under the Psychoactive Substance Act, which came into effect on May 26, 2016.[23]
  • United States: Since 1P-LSD can be considered a prodrug for LSD, its possession and sale may be prosecutable in the United States under the Federal Analogue Act.[24]

See also

External links

Discussion

Literature

  • Brandt, S. D., Kavanagh, P. V., Westphal, F., Stratford, A., Elliott, S. P., Hoang, K., ... & Halberstadt, A. L. (2016). Return of the lysergamides. Part I: Analytical and behavioural characterization of 1‐propionyl‐d‐lysergic acid diethylamide (1P‐LSD). Drug Testing and Analysis, 8(9), 891-902. https://doi.org/10.1002/dta.1884
  • Passie, T., Halpern, J. H., Stichtenoth, D. O., Emrich, H. M., & Hintzen, A. (2008). The Pharmacology of Lysergic Acid Diethylamide: A Review, 14, 295–314. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1755-5949.2008.00059.x
  • Carhart-Harris, R. L., Muthukumaraswamy, S., Roseman, L., Kaelen, M., Droog, W., Murphy, K., … Nutt, D. J. (2016). Neural correlates of the LSD experience revealed by multimodal neuroimaging. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1518377113

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 "1P-LSD (Google Trends)". Retrieved January 1, 2020. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 Wagmann, Lea; Richter, Lilian H. J.; Kehl, Tobias; Wack, Franziska; Pettersson Bergstrand, Madeleine; Brandt, Simon D.; Stratford, Alexander; Maurer, Hans H.; Meyer, Markus R. (2019). "In vitro metabolic fate of nine LSD-based new psychoactive substances and their analytical detectability in different urinary screening procedures". Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry. 411 (19): 4751–4763. doi:10.1007/s00216-018-1558-9. ISSN 1618-2642. 
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 Brandt, S. D.; Kavanagh, P. V.; Westphal, F.; Stratford, A.; Elliott, S. P.; Hoang, K.; Wallach, J.; Halberstadt, A. L. (2015). "Return of the lysergamides. Part I: Analytical and behavioural characterization of 1‐propionyl‐d‐lysergic acid diethylamide (1P‐LSD)". Drug Testing and Analysis. 8 (9): 891–902. doi:10.1002/dta.1884. ISSN 1942-7603. 
  4. Cooper, Donald A. (1988). "Future Synthetic Drugs of Abuse". Proceedings of the international symposium on the forensic aspects of controlled substances. p. 79. ISBN 978-0-93211-509-6. 
  5. "Kman1898" (January 13, 2015). "The Big & Dandy 1P-LSD Thread, Volume 1". Bluelight.org. Retrieved January 1, 2020. 
  6. Armstrong, B. D.; Paik, E.; Chhith, S.; Lelievre, V.; Waschek, J. A.; Howard, S. G. (2004). "Potentiation of (DL)‐3,4‐methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)‐induced toxicity by the serotonin 2A receptior partial agonist d‐lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), and the protection of same by the serotonin 2A/2C receptor antagonist MDL 11,939". Neuroscience Research Communications. 35 (2): 83–95. doi:10.1002/nrc.20023. ISSN 1520-6769. 
  7. Gudelsky, Gary A.; Yamamoto, Bryan; Nash, J. Frank (1994). "Potentiation of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine-induced dopamine release and serotonin neurotoxicity by 5-HT2 receptor agonists". European Journal of Pharmacology. 264 (3): 325–330. doi:10.1016/0014-2999(94)90669-6. ISSN 0014-2999. 
  8. Capela, J. P.; Fernandes, E.; Remião, F.; Bastos, M. L.; Meisel, A.; Carvalho, F. (2007). "Ecstasy induces apoptosis via 5-HT2A-receptor stimulation in cortical neurons". Neurotoxicology. 28 (4): 868–875. doi:10.1016/j.neuro.2007.04.005. ISSN 0161-813X. PMID 17572501. 
  9. Nichols, David E. (2004). "Hallucinogens". Pharmacology & Therapeutics. 101 (2): 131–181. doi:10.1016/j.pharmthera.2003.11.002. ISSN 0163-7258. 
  10. Talaie, H.; Panahandeh, R.; Fayaznouri, M. R.; Asadi, Z.; Abdollahi, M. (2009). "Dose-independent occurrence of seizure with tramadol". Journal of Medical Toxicology. 5 (2): 63–67. doi:10.1007/BF03161089. ISSN 1556-9039. 
  11. "Synthetische Drogen: Neues Gesetz soll "Legal Highs" bekämpfen" [Synthetic drugs: New law is to combat legal highs] (in German). Der Standard. September 28, 2011. Retrieved January 1, 2020. 
  12. "Entwurf: Bundesgesetz, mit dem ein Bundesgesetz über den Schutz vor Gesundheitsgefahren im Zusammenhang mit Neuen Psychoaktiven Substanzen (Neue-Psychoaktive-Substanzen-Gesetz, NPSG) erlassen und das Suchtmittelgesetz (SMG) geändert wird" (PDF) (in German). Retrieved January 1, 2020. 
  13. "Precursor Control Regulations (SOR/2002-359) - SCHEDULE". Government of Canada. Retrieved January 1, 2020. 
  14. "Bekendtgørelse om euforiserende stoffer - ni nye stoffer tilføjet" (in Danish). Danish Medicines Ageny. August 31, 2015. Retrieved January 1, 2020. 
  15. "Anlage NpSG" (in German). Bundesministerium der Justiz und für Verbraucherschutz [Federal Ministry of Justice and Consumer Protection]. Retrieved December 10, 2019. 
  16. "Verordnung zur Änderung der Anlage des Neue-psychoaktive-Stoffe-Gesetzes und von Anlagen des Betäubungsmittelgesetzes" (PDF). Bundesgesetzblatt Jahrgang 2019 Teil I Nr. 27 (in German). Bundesanzeiger Verlag. July 17, 2019. pp. 1083–1094. Retrieved January 1, 2020. 
  17. "§ 4 NpSG" (in German). Bundesministerium der Justiz und für Verbraucherschutz [Federal Ministry of Justice and Consumer Protection]. Retrieved December 10, 2019. 
  18. "Noteikumi par Latvijā kontrolējamajām narkotiskajām vielām, psihotropajām vielām un prekursoriem" (in Latvian). VSIA Latvijas Vēstnesis. November 10, 2005. Retrieved January 1, 2020. 
  19. "LR SAM Įsakymas Dėl Narkotinių ir psichotropinių medžiagų sąrašų patvirtinimo" (in Lithuanian). Retrieved January 1, 2020. 
  20. "31 nya substanser klassas som narkotika eller hälsofarlig vara" (in Swedish). Folkhälsomyndigheten [Public Health Agency of Sweden]. January 26, 2016. Retrieved January 1, 2020. 
  21. "Verordnung des EDI über die Verzeichnisse der Betäubungsmittel, psychotropen Stoffe, Vorläuferstoffe und Hilfschemikalien" (in German). Bundeskanzlei [Federal Chancellery of Switzerland]. Retrieved January 1, 2020. 
  22. "Karar Sayısı : 2016/8548" (PDF) (in Turkish). Resmi Gazete. Retrieved January 15, 2020. 
  23. "Psychoactive Substances Act 2016". UK Government. Retrieved January 1, 2020. 
  24. "Introduction to the Federal Controlled Substance Analogue Act". Erowid. January 2001. Retrieved January 1, 2020.