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Summary sheet: 1V-LSD
Chemical Nomenclature
Common names 1V-LSD
Substitutive name 1-Valeryl-d-lysergic acid diethylamide
Class Membership
Psychoactive class Psychedelic
Chemical class Lysergamide
Routes of Administration

WARNING: Always start with lower doses due to differences between individual body weight, tolerance, metabolism, and personal sensitivity. See responsible use section.

Threshold 15 µg
Light 25 - 75 µg
Common 75 - 150 µg
Strong 150 - 300 µg
Heavy 300 µg +
Total 8 - 12 hours
Onset 20 - 60 minutes
Come up 45 - 120 minutes
Peak 3 - 5 hours
Offset 3 - 5 hours
After effects 6 - 24 hours

DISCLAIMER: PW's dosage information is gathered from users and resources for educational purposes only. It is not a recommendation and should be verified with other sources for accuracy.


1-Valeroyl-d-lysergic acid diethylamide (also known as 1V-LSD or Valerie) is a novel psychedelic substance of the lysergamide class. 1V-LSD is closely related to LSD and 1P-LSD and is reported to produce near-identical effects. The pharmacology is not known, but it is likely similar to that of LSD, which acts on serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine receptors in the brain.

1V-LSD is a research chemical that appears to have been first synthesized in June or July of 2021. It was announced on the same day following the announcement of the German NpSG ban of 1cP-LSD.[citation needed]

User reports indicate that the subjective effects are extremely similar to those of 1P-LSD and LSD. 1V-LSD is theorized to act as a prodrug for LSD.[1] The similarities in chemical structure it shares with LSD predict a near-identical effects profile, likely differing primarily in its rate of absorption and duration.

Subjective effects include geometric visual hallucinations, time distortion, enhanced introspection, and ego loss. Its classical psychedelic effects and favorable tolerability has led it to become popular among some novel psychoactive substance users, who use it interchangeably with LSD.

Very little data exists about the pharmacological properties, metabolism, and toxicity of 1V-LSD. It is presumed to have a similar toxicity and risk profile as LSD, although no evidence currently exists to support this.

It is highly advised to use harm reduction practices if using this substance.

History and culture

1V-LSD first appeared on the online research chemical market in June or July of 2021.[2] The provenance is not known; the substance does not appear in any academic literature pre-dating its arrival on the online research chemical market.[1]

Interestingly, the future usage of 1-akylated lysergamide derivatives as a means to bypass controlled substance laws banning LSD as a precursor was seemingly foreseen in a DEA report from 1988:


Substitutive structure of a generic lysergamide molecule.

1V-LSD is a molecule of the lysergamide family. It is similar to LSD and is named for the valeryl group bound to the nitrogen of the polycyclic indole group of LSD.

The tetracyclic ergoline is characteristic of the chemical structure of ergot alkaloids. In contrast to LSD, 1V-LSD has an additional N1-valeryl group.

Chemical modifications in the N1 position are among the most frequently performed changes in the ergoline system, as the indole nitrogen is easily accessible for alkylations, acylations, Mannich reactions and Michael additions.


Further information: Serotonergic psychedelic

Based on its structural similarity to LSD, 1V-LSD likely acts as a partial agonist at the 5-HT2A receptor. The psychedelic effects are thought to primarily come from its efficacy at the 5-HT2A receptors distributed throughout the brain.

1V-LSD also likely displays binding activity at a wide range of monoamine receptors, such as those for dopamine and norepinephrine. However, there is currently no data to support these claims.

It has been theorized that 1V-LSD (as well as the acyl homologs 1P-LSD or ALD-52) are deacylated in the body to LSD by elimination of valeric acid, as shown by studies with human blood serum.[citation needed]

Subjective effects

Anecdotal reports from many users suggest that the subjective effects of 1V-LSD and LSD are virtually indistinguishable from one another. In comparison to other psychedelics such as psilocybin, LSA and ayahuasca, 1V-LSD is significantly more stimulating and fast-paced regarding the specific style of its physical and cognitive effects.

Disclaimer: The effects listed below cite the Subjective Effect Index (SEI), an open research literature based on anecdotal user reports and the personal analyses of PsychonautWiki contributors. As a result, they should be viewed with a healthy degree of skepticism.

It is also worth noting that these effects will not necessarily occur in a predictable or reliable manner, although higher doses are more liable to induce the full spectrum of effects. Likewise, adverse effects become increasingly likely with higher doses and may include addiction, severe injury, or death ☠.

Physical effects

Visual effects

Cognitive effects

Multi-sensory effects

Combination effects

  • Alcohol - Alcohol's central depressant effects can be used to reduce some of the anxiety and tension produced by 1V-LSD. However, alcohol can cause dehydration, nausea and physical fatigue which can negatively impact the direction of the trip. Users are advised to pace themselves and drink a portion of their usual amount.
  • Benzodiazepines - Benzodiazepines are highly effective at reducing the intensity of 1V-LSD's effects through the general suppression of brain activity.
  • Cannabis - Cannabis strongly intensifies the sensory and cognitive effects of 1V-LSD. Extreme caution is advised when using this combination as it can significantly increase the chances of a negative psychological reaction like anxiety, confusion and psychosis. Users are advised to start off with only a fraction of their usual cannabis dose and take long breaks between hits to avoid over intake.
  • Dissociatives - 1V-LSD enhances the cognitive, visual and general hallucinatory effects of dissociatives. Dissociative-induced holes, spaces, and voids and internal hallucinations become more vivid and intense on 1V-LSD. These effects correspond with an increased risk of confusion, delusions, and psychosis.
  • MDMA - 1V-LSD and MDMA are highly synergistic and mutually enhance each other's physical, cognitive, and visual effects. The synergy between these substances is unpredictable, and it is advised to start with markedly lower doses than one would take for each individually. There is some evidence that suggests LSD increases the neurotoxicity of MDMA, which may be relevant to 1V-LSD as well.[4][5][6]

Experience reports

Anecdotal reports which describe the effects of this compound within our experience index include:

Toxicity and harm potential


This toxicity and harm potential section is a stub.

As a result, it may contain incomplete or even dangerously wrong information! You can help by expanding upon or correcting it.
Note: Always conduct independent research and use harm reduction practices if using this substance.

The toxicity and long-term health effects of recreational 1V-LSD use have not been studied. This is because 1V-LSD is a research chemical with almost no history of human use.

Anecdotal reports suggest that there are no negative health effects attributed to simply trying 1V-LSD by itself, at low to moderate doses, and using it very sparingly (although nothing can be completely guaranteed). Independent research should always be conducted to ensure that a combination of two or more substances is safe before consumption.

Based on its similarity to LSD, 1V-LSD is assumed to be physiologically well-tolerated with a extremely low toxicity relative to dose. There are relatively few physical side effects that have been reported following acute 1V-LSD exposure.

However, as with LSD and psychedelics in general, it is likely that 1V-LSD can act as a trigger for those with underlying mental disorders. Those with a personal or family history of mental illness are generally advised not to use this substance, particularly when outside of a supervised medical setting.

It is strongly recommended that one uses harm reduction practices when using this substance.


1V-LSD has no known toxic dose. However, higher doses increase the risk of adverse psychological reactions. These reactions include anxiety, delusions, panic attacks and, more rarely, seizures. Medical attention is usually not needed except in the case of severe psychotic episodes or the ingestion of fake acid (such as 25i-NBOMe or DOB). Administration of benzodiazepines or antipsychotics can help to relieve the acute negative cognitive effects of 1V-LSD.

Dependence and abuse potential

Although no formal studies have been conducted, it is assumed that like LSD itself, 1V-LSD is non-addictive with a low abuse potential.

There are no literature reports of successful attempts to train animals to self-administer LSD — an animal model predictive of abuse liability — indicating that it does not have the necessary pharmacology to either initiate or maintain dependence.[7]

Likewise, there is virtually no withdrawal syndrome when chronic use of LSD is stopped.[citation needed] It is assumed that 1V-LSD shares these properties with LSD.

Tolerance to the effects of 1V-LSD is built almost immediately after ingestion. After that, it takes about 5-7 days for the tolerance to be reduced to half and 14 days to be back at baseline (in the absence of further consumption). 1V-LSD produces cross-tolerance with all psychedelics, meaning that after the use of 1V-LSD they will have a reduced effect.

Dangerous interactions

Warning: Many psychoactive substances that are reasonably safe to use on their own can suddenly become dangerous and even life-threatening when combined with certain other substances. The following list provides some known dangerous interactions (although it is not guaranteed to include all of them).

Always conduct independent research (e.g. Google, DuckDuckGo, PubMed) to ensure that a combination of two or more substances is safe to consume. Some of the listed interactions have been sourced from TripSit.

The following substances are listed on the assumption that 1V-LSD possesses a similar if not the same dangerous interactions profile as LSD, and may include more due to its status as an unstudied research chemical.

Legal status

Internationally, 1V-LSD is not scheduled under the UN Convention on Psychotropic Substances. It is considered to exist in a legal grey area in many countries, meaning that while it is not specifically illegal, individuals may still be charged for its possession under certain circumstances such as under analogue laws and with the intent to sell or consume.

  • Austria: 1V-LSD is technically not illegal but it may fall under the NPSG (Neue-Psychoaktive-Substanzen-Gesetz Österreich) as an analogue of LSD, thus making it illegal to supply for human consumption.[9][10]
  • Germany: 1V-LSD is controlled under the NpSG (New Psychoactive Substances Act)[11] as of October 7, 2022.[12] Production and import with the aim to place it on the market, administration to another person and trading is punishable. Possession is illegal but not penalized.[13]
  • Japan: 1V-LSD is a controlled substance in Japan as of March 20, 2023.[14]
  • Latvia: 1V-LSD is illegal in Latvia. Although it is not officially scheduled, it is controlled as an LSD structural analog due to an amendment made on June 1, 2015.[15]
  • Switzerland: 1V-LSD can be considered a controlled substance as a defined derivative of Lysergic Acid under Verzeichnis E point 263. It is legal when used for scientific or industrial use.[16]
  • Turkey: 1V-LSD is a classed as drug and is illegal to possess, produce, supply, or import.[17]
  • United Kingdom: 1V-LSD is illegal to produce, supply, or import under the Psychoactive Substance Act, which came into effect on May 26, 2016.[18]
  • United States: Since 1V-LSD can be considered a prodrug for LSD, its possession and sale may be prosecutable in the United States under the Federal Analogue Act.[19]

See also



  1. 1.0 1.1 Brandt, S. D.; Kavanagh, P. V.; Westphal, F.; Stratford, A.; Elliott, S. P.; Hoang, K.; Wallach, J.; Halberstadt, A. L. (2015). "Return of the lysergamides. Part I: Analytical and behavioural characterization of 1‐propionyl‐d‐lysergic acid diethylamide (1P‐LSD)". Drug Testing and Analysis. 8 (9): 891–902. doi:10.1002/dta.1884. ISSN 1942-7603. 
  2. "1V-LSD (Google Trends)". Retrieved August 16, 2021. 
  3. Cooper, Donald A. (1988). "Future Synthetic Drugs of Abuse". Proceedings of the international symposium on the forensic aspects of controlled substances. p. 79. ISBN 978-0-93211-509-6. 
  4. Armstrong, B. D.; Paik, E.; Chhith, S.; Lelievre, V.; Waschek, J. A.; Howard, S. G. (2004). "Potentiation of (DL)‐3,4‐methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)‐induced toxicity by the serotonin 2A receptior partial agonist d‐lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), and the protection of same by the serotonin 2A/2C receptor antagonist MDL 11,939". Neuroscience Research Communications. 35 (2): 83–95. doi:10.1002/nrc.20023. ISSN 1520-6769. 
  5. Gudelsky, Gary A.; Yamamoto, Bryan; Nash, J. Frank (1994). "Potentiation of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine-induced dopamine release and serotonin neurotoxicity by 5-HT2 receptor agonists". European Journal of Pharmacology. 264 (3): 325–330. doi:10.1016/0014-2999(94)90669-6. ISSN 0014-2999. 
  6. Capela, J. P.; Fernandes, E.; Remião, F.; Bastos, M. L.; Meisel, A.; Carvalho, F. (2007). "Ecstasy induces apoptosis via 5-HT2A-receptor stimulation in cortical neurons". Neurotoxicology. 28 (4): 868–875. doi:10.1016/j.neuro.2007.04.005. ISSN 0161-813X. PMID 17572501. 
  7. Nichols, David E. (2004). "Hallucinogens". Pharmacology & Therapeutics. 101 (2): 131–181. doi:10.1016/j.pharmthera.2003.11.002. ISSN 0163-7258. 
  8. Talaie, H.; Panahandeh, R.; Fayaznouri, M. R.; Asadi, Z.; Abdollahi, M. (2009). "Dose-independent occurrence of seizure with tramadol". Journal of Medical Toxicology. 5 (2): 63–67. doi:10.1007/BF03161089. ISSN 1556-9039. 
  9. "Synthetische Drogen: Neues Gesetz soll "Legal Highs" bekämpfen" [Synthetic drugs: New law is to combat legal highs] (in German). Der Standard. September 28, 2011. Retrieved January 1, 2020. 
  10. "Entwurf: Bundesgesetz, mit dem ein Bundesgesetz über den Schutz vor Gesundheitsgefahren im Zusammenhang mit Neuen Psychoaktiven Substanzen (Neue-Psychoaktive-Substanzen-Gesetz, NPSG) erlassen und das Suchtmittelgesetz (SMG) geändert wird" (PDF) (in German). Retrieved January 1, 2020. 
  11. "Anlage NpSG" (in German). Bundesministerium der Justiz und für Verbraucherschutz [Federal Ministry of Justice and Consumer Protection]. Retrieved November 28, 2022. 
  12. "Verordnung zur Änderung der Anlage des Neue-psychoaktive-Stoffe-Gesetzes und von Anlagen des Betäubungsmittelgesetzes" (PDF). Bundesgesetzblatt Jahrgang 2022 Teil I Nr. 35 (in German). Bundesanzeiger Verlag. October 6, 2022. pp. 1552–1565. Retrieved November 28, 2022. 
  13. "§ 4 NpSG" (in German). Bundesministerium der Justiz und für Verbraucherschutz [Federal Ministry of Justice and Consumer Protection]. Retrieved November 28, 2022. 
  14. 危険ドラッグの成分7物質を新たに指定薬物に指定 (in Japanese). 厚生労働省 [Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW)]. Retrieved March 11, 2023.
  15. "Noteikumi par Latvijā kontrolējamajām narkotiskajām vielām, psihotropajām vielām un prekursoriem" (in Latvian). VSIA Latvijas Vēstnesis. November 10, 2005. Retrieved January 1, 2020. 
  16. "Verordnung des EDI über die Verzeichnisse der Betäubungsmittel, psychotropen Stoffe, Vorläuferstoffe und Hilfschemikalien" (in German). Bundeskanzlei [Federal Chancellery of Switzerland]. Retrieved January 1, 2020. 
  17. https://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2022/06/20220604-14.pdf
  18. "Psychoactive Substances Act 2016". UK Government. Retrieved January 1, 2020. 
  19. 21 U.S. Code § 813 - Treatment of controlled substance analogues