1P-LSD

From PsychonautWiki
(Redirected from 1PLAD)
Jump to: navigation, search
Summary sheet: 1P-LSD
1P-LSD
Molecular structure of 1P-LSD
1P-LSD.svg
Chemical Nomenclature
Common names 1P-LSD, 1P-LAD
Substitutive name 1-Propionyl-lysergic acid diethylamide
Systematic name N,N-Diethyl-7-methyl-4-propanoyl-6,6a,8,9-tetrahydroindolo[4,3-fg]quinoline-9-carboxamide
Class Membership
Psychoactive class Psychedelic
Chemical class Lysergamide
Routes of Administration

WARNING: Always start with lower doses due to differences between individual body weight, tolerance, metabolism, and personal sensitivity. See responsible use section.



Oral
Dosage
Threshold 10 - 25 µg
Light 25 - 75 µg
Common 75 - 150 µg
Strong 150 - 300 µg
Heavy 300 µg +
Duration
Total 8 - 12 hours
Onset 20 - 60 minutes
Come up 45 - 120 minutes
Peak 3 - 5 hours
Offset 3 - 5 hours
After effects 6 - 24 hours









DISCLAIMER: PW's dosage information is gathered from users and resources for educational purposes only. It is not a recommendation and should be verified with other sources for accuracy.

1-Propionyl-lysergic acid diethylamide (commonly known as 1P-LSD or 1P-LAD) is a novel semi-synthetic psychedelic substance of the lysergamide chemical class that produces "classical psychedelic" effects reported to be near-identical with those of LSD when administered. Like ALD-52, it is principally theorized to act as a prodrug for LSD, not exerting any activity until it has been converted into LSD after entering the body, although there is ongoing speculation that it might possess some intrinsic activity in its own right.[citation needed]

The structural resemblance 1P-LSD shares with LSD suggests an extremely similar effect profile, with perhaps the only significant differences stemming from variations in the rate of absorption, duration, metabolism, and excretion of the compound (i.e. its pharmacokinetic factors). Due to the lack of research relating to this substance, all following discussion relating to its pharmacology is purely based on its structural and subjective effect similarities to LSD and other designer lysergamides.

Very little data exists about the pharmacological properties, metabolism, and toxicity of 1P-LSD, and it has a very brief history of human usage. Over the first few months of 2015, 1P-LSD began to be marketed as a legal alternative to LSD alongside research lysergamides like ETH-LAD and AL-LAD and commercially distributed through a network of online research chemical vendors.

As with LSD itself, 1P-LSD does not meet the criteria to be considered addictive or toxic by the scientific community.[1][2] Nevertheless, unpredictable adverse reactions such as anxiety, paranoia, delusions and psychotic breaks are always liable to occur, particularly among those who are predisposed to psychiatric disorders.[3] While these negative reactions or "bad trips" can often be attributed to factors like the user's inexperience or improper preparation of their set and setting, they are known to happen spontaneously among even the most experienced of users as well.

For this reason, it is highly advised to approach this very potent, unpredictable, long-lasting, hallucinogenic substance with the proper amount of precaution, preparation, and harm reduction practices if choosing to use it.

History and culture

1P-LSD first appeared as a research chemical sold by grey market vendors in January 2015.[4] Although it was likely discovered in an academic setting, it is unknown who first synthesized 1P-LSD, as the substance does not appear in any academic literature pre-dating its arrival on the research chemical market.[5] Interestingly, the future usage of 1-akylated lysergamide derivatives as a means to bypass controlled substance laws banning LSD as a precursor was foreseen in a DEA report from 1988:

.

Chemistry

Substitutive structure of a generic lysergamide molecule.

1P-LSD is a molecule of the lysergamide family. It is similar to LSD and is named for the propionyl group bound to the nitrogen of the polycyclic indole group of LSD. Propionyl consists of the carbonyl chain CH3CH2CO- bound to an amino group. 1P-LSD is homologous to ALD-52, which holds an acetyl group bound to the nitrogen instead of the propionyl group bound at the same location. The structure of 1P-LSD contains a polycyclic group featuring a bicyclic hexahydro indole bound to a bicyclic quinoline group. At carbon 8 of the quinoline, an N,N-diethyl carboxamide is bound.

Pharmacology

Further information: Serotonergic psychedelic

As with LSD, 1P-LSD likely acts as a 5-HT2A partial agonist. The psychedelic effects are thought to primarily come from 1P-LSD's efficacy at the 5-HT2A receptors distributed throughout the brain, although it also likely displays binding activity at a wide-range of monoamine receptors such as those for dopamine and norepinephrine (due to the structural similarity it shares with LSD). However, the precise role of these interactions and how they result in the psychedelic experience continues to remain an object of scientific elucidation.

It has been theorized that 1P-LSD may act as a prodrug for LSD. While 1P-LSD shows only 38% the potency of LSD in mice, LSD is detected via LC-MS when 1P-LSD is incubated in human serum. Follow-up studies are currently being conducted to compare the affinity and selectivity of LSD and 1P-LSD at 5-HT receptors, and to determine whether 1P-LSD is hydrolyzed to LSD in vivo.[7] Otherwise, it is possible that 1P-LSD may be capable of exerting its own psychedelic activity.

Prior to the publishing of the above-cited research, medicinal chemist and psychedelics researcher David E. Nichols reportedly commented with his thoughts on potential 1P-LSD serotonin receptor binding dynamics:[8]

Subjective effects

Anecdotal reports from many users suggest that the subjective effects of 1P-LSD are essentially the same to that of its close structural relative LSD so as to be virtually indistinguishable from one another. In comparison to other psychedelics such as psilocin, LSA and ayahuasca, 1P-LSD is significantly more stimulating and fast-paced regarding the specific style of its physical and cognitive effects.

The effects listed below are based upon the subjective effects index and personal experiences of PsychonautWiki contributors. The listed effects should be taken with a grain of salt and will rarely (if ever) occur all at once, but heavier doses will increase the chances and are more likely to induce a full range of effects. Likewise, adverse effects become much more likely on higher doses and may include injury or death.

Physical effects
Child.svg

Visual effects
Eye.svg

Cognitive effects
User.svg

Multi-sensory effects
Gears.svg

Experience reports

Anecdotal reports which describe the effects of this compound within our experience index include:

Additional experience reports can be found here:

Combinations

  • Cannabis - When used in combination with cannabis, both the visual and cognitive effects of 1P-LSD can be intensified and extended with extreme efficiency. This should be used with extreme caution if one is not experienced with psychedelics, however, as this can also amplify the anxiety, confusion and psychosis producing aspects of cannabis significantly. If using this combination, users are advised to start off consuming only a fraction of their usual amount, spacing out hits, and waiting until the offset of the trip to avoid potentially being overwhelmed.
  • Dissociatives - When used in combination with dissociatives, the geometry, euphoria, dissociation and hallucinatory effects are often greatly enhanced. Dissociative-induced holes, spaces, and voids while under the influence of 1P-LSD have significantly more vivid visuals than dissociatives alone present, and more intense internal hallucinations, and corresponding confusion which can spontaneously manifest as delusions and psychosis.
  • MDMA - When used in conjunction with MDMA, the physical and cognitive effects of MDMA are amplified. The visual, physical and cognitive effects of 1P-LSD are also intensified to great euphoric heights manifested through uniquely pleasurable body highs and headspaces, and amazingly colorful and awe-inspiring visuals. The synergy between these substances is unpredictable, and it is best to start with markedly lower dosages than one would take for both substances individually. Additionally, users should be aware that there are reasons to believe that this combination may result in unforeseen neurotoxic effects, so a strong sense of caution and independent research are highly advised if one decides to experiment with this combination.[citation needed]
  • Alcohol - This interaction is not typically recommended due to alcohol’s ability to cause dehydration and nausea which can negatively affect a trip if taken in moderate to high dosages. This combination is, however, reasonably safe in low doses and can often "take the edge off" a trip as well as dull its psychedelic effects in a fashion somewhat similar to benzodiazepines, albeit in a more physically stressful way.
  • Benzodiazepines - When used in combination with benzodiazepines, benzodiazepines can, depending on the dosage, slightly to completely reduce the intensity of the cognitive, physical and visual effects of an LSD trip. They are very efficient at stopping "bad trips" at the cost of amnesia and reduced trip intensity. Caution is advised when acquiring them for this purpose due to the very high addiction potential that benzodiazepines possess.
  • Psychedelics - When used in combination with other psychedelics, each substance's physical, cognitive and visual effects intensify and synergize strongly. The synergy between those substances is unpredictable, and for this reason generally not advised. If choosing to combine psychedelics, it is recommended to start with significantly lower dosages than one would take for either substance individually.

Toxicity and harm potential

The toxicity and long-term health effects of recreational 1P-LSD use do not appear to have been studied in any scientific context and the exact toxic dose is unknown. This is because 1P-LSD is a research chemical with a very limited history of human use.

Anecdotal evidence from people within the community who have tried 1P-LSD suggests that there are no negative health effects attributed to simply trying the drug by itself at low to moderate doses and using it very sparingly (although nothing can be completely guaranteed). Independent research should always be conducted to ensure that a combination of two or more substances is safe before consumption.

Although no formal studies have been conducted, it is considered reasonable to assume that like LSD itself, 1P-LSD is likely to end up being considered non-addictive, incapable of causing brain damage, with an extremely low toxicity relative to dose.[9] It is also likely that as with LSD, there are little to no negative physical, cognitive, psychiatric or other toxic consequences associated with acute 1P-LSD exposure.

However, as with LSD and psychedelics in general, it is possible that 1P-LSD can act as a potential trigger for those with underlying psychiatric conditions, so those with a personal or family history of mental illness are generally advised not to use this substance.

It is strongly recommended that one uses harm reduction practices when using this substance.

Tolerance and addiction potential

Although no formal studies have been conducted, it is not unreasonable to assume that like LSD itself, 1P-LSD is not habit-forming and that the desire to use it can actually decrease with use. As with most psychedelics, it is generally considered to have a built-in, self-regulating aspect to it, though cases of dependence and addiction to psychedelics, albeit uncommon, have been documented in the medical literature.[citation needed]

Tolerance to the effects of 1P-LSD are built almost immediately after ingestion. After that, it takes about 5-7 days for the tolerance to be reduced to half and 14 days to be back at baseline (in the absence of further consumption). 1P-LSD presents cross-tolerance with all psychedelics, meaning that after the use of 1P-LSD all psychedelics will have a reduced effect.

Dangerous interactions

Although many substances are safe on their own, they can become dangerous and even life-threatening when combined with other substances. The list below contains some common potentially dangerous combinations, but may not include all of them. Certain combinations may be relatively harmless in low doses of each but can still increase the risk of unpredictable injury or death. Independent research should always be done to ensure that a combination of two or more substances is safe before consumption.

Note that the following substances are included on the assumption that 1P-LSD possesses a similar if not the same dangerous interactions profile as LSD, and may include more due to its status as an unstudied research chemical

  • Tramadol - Tramadol lowers seizure threshold[10] and psychedelics may cause occasional seizures.[11][12][13]
  • Stimulants - Stimulants may provoke anxiety or thought loops.[14]
  • Lithium - Individuals who take lithium for bipolar disorder or other psychiatric conditions should not take LSD. There are numerous anecdotal reports of seizures and or unsafe psychosis from this combination.[15][16][17][18]

Legal status

  • International - 1P-LSD is currently a gray area compound within many parts of the world. This means that it is not known to be specifically illegal within most countries, but people may still be charged for its possession under certain circumstances such as under analog laws and with the intent to sell or consume.
  • United Kingdom - It is illegal to produce, supply, or import this drug under the Psychoactive Substance Act, which came into effect on May 26th, 2016.[19]
  • United States - Since 1P-LSD is theorized to be a prodrug of LSD, it would likely be illegal in the United States under the Federal Analogue Act.
    • Virginia - 1P-LSD is currently illegal as a Schedule I substance until May 10, 2018 [20]
  • Switzerland - 1P-LSD is illegal in Switzerland as of December 2015.[21]
  • Latvia - 1P-LSD is illegal in Latvia. Although it is not officially scheduled, it is controlled as an LSD structural analog due to an amendment made on June 1st, 2015.[22]
  • Sweden - Following its sale as a designer drug, 1P-LSD was made illegal in Sweden on 26 January 2016.[23]
  • Germany - 1P-LSD is not listed under their controlled substance act.

See also

External links

Literature

  • Passie, T., Halpern, J. H., Stichtenoth, D. O., Emrich, H. M., & Hintzen, A. (2008). The Pharmacology of Lysergic Acid Diethylamide: A Review, 14, 295–314. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1755-5949.2008.00059.x
  • Nichols, D. E. (2016). Psychedelics, (April), 264–355. https://doi.org/10.1124/pr.115.011478.
  • Carhart-Harris, R. L., Muthukumaraswamy, S., Roseman, L., Kaelen, M., Droog, W., Murphy, K., … Nutt, D. J. (2016). Neural correlates of the LSD experience revealed by multimodal neuroimaging. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1518377113
  • Halberstadt, A. L. (2015). Recent advances in the neuropsychopharmacology of serotonergic hallucinogens. Behavioral Brain Research, 277, 99–120. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbr.2014.07.016
  • Nichols, C. D., Garcia, E. E., & Sanders-bush, E. (2003). Dynamic changes in prefrontal cortex gene expression following lysergic acid diethylamide administration, 111, 182–188. PMID: 12654518
  • Vollenweider, F. X., & Kometer, M. (2010). The neurobiology of psychedelic drugs: implications for the treatment of mood disorders. Nature Publishing Group, 11(9), 642–651. https://doi.org/10.1038/nrn2884

References

  1. Lüscher, C., & Ungless, M. A. (2006). The Mechanistic Classification of Addictive Drugs, 3(11). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.0030437
  2. Nichols, D. E. (2016). "Psychedelics." Pharmacological Reviews, 68(2), 264-355. https://doi.org/10.1124/pr.115.011478
  3. Strassman, R. J. (1984). Adverse Reactions to Psychedelic Drugs: A Review of the Literature. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 172(10), 577-595. PMID: 6384428
  4. 1P-LSD (Google Trends) | https://trends.google.com/trends/explore?q=1p-lsd
  5. Brandt, S. D. (2015, October 12). Return of the lysergamides. Part I: Analytical and behavioral characterization of 1‐propionyl‐d‐lysergic acid diethylamide (1P‐LSD). https://doi.org/10.1002/dta.1884
  6. Cooper, D. A. (1988, March). Future synthetic drugs of abuse. In Proceedings of the international symposium on the forensic aspects of controlled substances: March (Vol. 28, p. 79). https://www.erowid.org/library/books_online/future_synthetic/future_synthetic.shtml
  7. Brandt, S. D., Kavanagh, P. V., Westphal, F., Stratford, A., Elliott, S. P., Hoang, K., ... & Halberstadt, A. L. (2015). Return of the lysergamides. Part I: Analytical and behavioural characterization of 1‐propionyl‐d‐lysergic acid diethylamide (1P‐LSD). Drug Testing and Analysis. https://doi.org/10.1002/dta.1884
  8. Kman1898. (2015, February 16). The Big & Dandy 1P-LSD Thread, Volume 1 - Page 4. Retrieved from https://www.bluelight.org/vb/threads/745848?p=12880348&viewfull=1#post12880348
  9. Passie, T., Halpern, J. H., Stichtenoth, D. O., Emrich, H. M., & Hintzen, A. (2008). The Pharmacology of Lysergic Acid Diethylamide: A Review, 14, 295–314. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1755-5949.2008.00059.x
  10. Talaie, H., Panahandeh, R., Fayaznouri, M. R., Asadi, Z., & Abdollahi, M. (2009). Dose-independent occurrence of seizure with tramadol. Journal of medical toxicology, 5(2), 63-67. doi:10.1007/BF03161089
  11. Tripsit Factsheets - LSD | http://drugs.tripsit.me/lsd
  12. Fisher, D. D., & Ungerleider, J. T. (1967). Grand mal seizures following ingestion of LSD. California Medicine, 106(3), 210. PMCID: PMC1502729
  13. Question ID: 2837 (Ask Erowid) | https://www.erowid.org/ask/ask.php?ID=2837
  14. Tripsit Factsheets - LSD | http://drugs.tripsit.me/lsd
  15. https://erowid.org/chemicals/lsd/lsd_interactions.shtml | LSD Interactions by Erowid
  16. Wanderli. "A Nice Little Trip to the Hospital: An Experience with Lithium & LSD (ID 83935)". Erowid.org. Oct 3, 2010.
  17. MissDja1a. "Having a Seizure and Passing Out: An Experience with Lithium & LSD (ID 75153)". Erowid.org. Dec 16, 2008.
  18. Reddit account of seizure on LSD + Lithium | https://www.reddit.com/r/Psychonaut/comments/17uspp/please_read_a_cautionary_tale_concerning_lsd/
  19. Psychoactive Substances Act 2016 (Legislation.gov.uk) | http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/2016/2/contents/enacted
  20. http://law.lis.virginia.gov | http://law.lis.virginia.gov/admincode/title18/agency110/chapter20/section322/
  21. Verordnung des EDI über die Verzeichnisse der Betäubungsmittel, psychotropen Stoffe, Vorläuferstoffe und Hilfschemikalien | http://web.archive.org/web/20170329020935/https://www.admin.ch/opc/de/classified-compilation/20101220/index.html
  22. Noteikumi par Latvijā kontrolējamajām narkotiskajām vielām, psihotropajām vielām un prekursoriem (2.4.punkts) | http://likumi.lv/doc.php?id=121086
  23. (in Swedish) Folkhälsomyndigheten. | https://www.folkhalsomyndigheten.se/nyheter-och-press/nyhetsarkiv/2016/januari/31-nya-substanser-klassas-som-narkotika-eller-halsofarlig-vara/