1P-LSD

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Summary sheet: 1P-LSD
1P-LSD
1P-LSD.svg
Chemical Nomenclature
Common names 1P-LSD
Substitutive name 1-Propionyl-d-lysergic acid diethylamide
Systematic name N,N-Diethyl-7-methyl-4-propanoyl-6,6a,8,9-tetrahydroindolo[4,3-fg]quinoline-9-carboxamide
Class Membership
Psychoactive class Psychedelic
Chemical class Lysergamide
Routes of Administration

WARNING: Always start with lower doses due to differences between individual body weight, tolerance, metabolism, and personal sensitivity. See responsible use section.



Oral
Dosage
Threshold 15 µg
Light 25 - 75 µg
Common 75 - 150 µg
Strong 150 - 300 µg
Heavy 300 µg +
Duration
Total 8 - 12 hours
Onset 20 - 60 minutes
Come up 45 - 120 minutes
Peak 3 - 5 hours
Offset 3 - 5 hours
After effects 6 - 24 hours









DISCLAIMER: PW's dosage information is gathered from users and resources for educational purposes only. It is not a recommendation and should be verified with other sources for accuracy.

1-Propionyl-d-lysergic acid diethylamide (also known as 1P-LSD) is a novel semi-synthetic psychedelic substance of the lysergamide class. 1P-LSD is chemically related to LSD and is reported to produce near-identical effects. Little is known about the pharmacology of 1P-LSD, but it likely produces its psychedelic effects by acting on serotonin receptors in the brain.

The original synthesis date of 1P-LSD is not known. Reports of 1P-LSD use first surfaced in 2015 subsequent to its appearance on the online research chemical market. It was marketed as a legal alternative to LSD alongside novel lysergamides like ALD-52, ETH-LAD and AL-LAD.[citation needed]

User reports indicate that the subjective effects of 1P-LSD are extremely similar to those of LSD. 1P-LSD is theorized to act as a prodrug for LSD.[1] The similarities in chemical structure between 1P-LSD and LSD predicts a near-identical effect profile, likely differing mainly in its rate of absorption and duration. Notable effects include geometric visual hallucinations, time distortion, enhanced introspection, and ego loss. Its classical psychedelic effects and favorable tolerability has led it to become popular among novel psychoactive substance users, particularly those seeking entheogenic experiences.

Very little data exists about the pharmacological properties, metabolism, and toxicity of 1P-LSD. It is presumed to have a similar toxicity and risk profile as LSD, although no evidence currently exists to support this. It is highly advised to use harm reduction practices if using this substance.

History and culture

1P-LSD first appeared on the online research chemical market in January 2015.[2] Although it was likely discovered in an academic setting, it is unknown who first synthesized 1P-LSD, as the substance does not appear in any academic literature pre-dating its arrival on the research chemical market.[3] Interestingly, the future usage of 1-akylated lysergamide derivatives as a means to bypass controlled substance laws banning LSD as a precursor was foreseen in a DEA report from 1988:

Chemistry

Substitutive structure of a generic lysergamide molecule.

1P-LSD is a molecule of the lysergamide family. It is similar to LSD and is named for the propionyl group bound to the nitrogen of the polycyclic indole group of LSD. Propionyl consists of the carbonyl chain CH3CH2CO- bound to an amino group. 1P-LSD is homologous to ALD-52, which holds an acetyl group bound to the nitrogen instead of the propionyl group bound at the same location. The structure of 1P-LSD contains a polycyclic group featuring a bicyclic hexahydro indole bound to a bicyclic quinoline group. At carbon 8 of the quinoline, an N,N-diethyl carboxamide is bound.

Pharmacology

Further information: Serotonergic psychedelic

As with LSD, 1P-LSD likely acts as a partial agonist at the 5-HT2A receptor. The psychedelic effects are thought to primarily come from its efficacy at the 5-HT2A receptors distributed throughout the brain. It also likely displays binding activity at a wide range of monoamine receptors, such as those for dopamine and norepinephrine, due to the structural similarity it shares with LSD. However, the precise role of these interactions and how they result in the psychedelic experience require further investigation.

It has been theorized that 1P-LSD may act as a prodrug for LSD. While 1P-LSD shows only 38% the potency of LSD in mice, LSD is detected via LC-MS when 1P-LSD is incubated in human serum. Follow-up studies are currently being conducted to compare the affinity and selectivity of LSD and 1P-LSD at 5-HT receptors, and to determine whether 1P-LSD is hydrolyzed to LSD in vivo.[1] Otherwise, it is possible that 1P-LSD may be capable of exerting its own psychedelic effect.

Prior to the publishing of the above-cited research, medicinal chemist and psychedelic researcher David E. Nichols reportedly commented on the potential 1P-LSD serotonin receptor binding dynamics in private correspondence:[5]

Subjective effects

Anecdotal reports from many users suggest that the subjective effects of 1P-LSD are so similar to that of LSD so as to be virtually indistinguishable from one another. In comparison to other psychedelics such as psilocybin, LSA and ayahuasca, 1P-LSD is significantly more stimulating and fast-paced regarding the specific style of its physical and cognitive effects.

The effects listed below are based upon the subjective effects index and personal experiences of PsychonautWiki contributors. These effects should be taken with a grain of salt and will rarely (if ever) occur all at once, but heavier doses will increase the chances of inducing a full range of effects. Likewise, adverse effects become much more likely on higher doses and may include serious injury or death.

Physical effects
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Visual effects
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Cognitive effects
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Multi-sensory effects
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Combination effects

  • Alcohol - Alcohol's central depressant effects can be used to reduce some of the anxiety and tension produced by 1P-LSD. However, alcohol can cause dehydration, nausea and physical fatigue which can negatively impact the direction of the trip. Users are advised to pace themselves and drink a portion of their usual amount.
  • Benzodiazepines - Benzodiazepines are highly effective at reducing the intensity of 1P-LSD's effects through the general suppression of brain activity.
  • Cannabis - Cannabis strongly intensifies the sensory and cognitive effects of 1P-LSD. Extreme caution is advised when using this combination as it can significantly increase the chances of a negative psychological reaction like anxiety, confusion and psychosis. Users are advised to start off with only a fraction of their usual cannabis dose and take long breaks between hits to avoid over intake.
  • Dissociatives - 1P-LSD enhances the cognitive, visual and general hallucinatory effects of dissociatives. Dissociative-induced holes, spaces, and voids and internal hallucinations become more vivid and intense on 1P-LSD. These effects correspond with an increased risk of confusion, delusions, and psychosis.
  • MDMA - 1P-LSD and MDMA are highly synergistic and mutually enhance each other's physical, cognitive, and visual effects. The synergy between these substances is unpredictable, and it is advised to start with markedly lower doses than one would take for each individually. There is some evidence that suggests LSD increases the neurotoxicity of MDMA, which may be relevant to 1P-LSD as well.[6][7][8]

Experience reports

Anecdotal reports which describe the effects of this compound within our experience index include:

Additional experience reports can be found here:

Toxicity and harm potential

The toxicity and long-term health effects of recreational 1P-LSD use do not appear to have been studied in any scientific context and the exact toxic dose is unknown. This is because 1P-LSD is a research chemical with a very limited history of human use.

Anecdotal reports from user who have tried 1P-LSD suggests that there are no negative health effects attributed to simply trying it, by itself, at low to moderate doses, and using it very sparingly (although nothing can be completely guaranteed). Independent research should always be conducted to ensure that a combination of two or more substances is safe before consumption.

As with other psychedelic substances, there are relatively few physical side effects that have been reported associated with acute 1P-LSD exposure. Although no formal studies have been conducted, it is likely that as with LSD itself, 1P-LSD is able to be considered non-addictive, with an extremely low toxicity relative to dose.[9] It is also likely that as with LSD, there are little to no negative physical, cognitive, psychiatric or other toxic consequences associated with acute 1P-LSD exposure.

However, as with LSD and psychedelics in general, it is possible that 1P-LSD can act as a trigger for those with underlying mental disorders. Those with a personal or family history of mental illness are generally advised not to use this substance, particularly when outside of a supervised medical setting.

It is strongly recommended that one uses harm reduction practices when using this substance.

Tolerance and addiction potential

Although no formal studies have been conducted, it is assumed that like LSD itself 1P-LSD is not habit-forming and that the desire to use it can actually decrease with use.

Tolerance to the effects of 1P-LSD are built almost immediately after ingestion. After that, it takes about 5-7 days for the tolerance to be reduced to half and 14 days to be back at baseline (in the absence of further consumption). 1P-LSD presents cross-tolerance with all psychedelics, meaning that after the use of 1P-LSD all psychedelics will have a reduced effect.

Overdose

The LD50 of 1P-LSD is unknown. Adverse psychological reactions are common especially at higher dosages. Some of these include anxiety, delusions, panic attacks and more rarely seizures. Medical attention is usually only needed if suspected of severe psychotic episodes or “fake acid” (such as 25i-NBOMe or DOB). Administration of benzodiazepines or antipsychotics can help to relieve the negative cognitive effects.


Dangerous interactions

Although many psychoactive substances are safe to use on their own, they can become dangerous or even life-threatening when taken with other substances. The list below contains some potentially dangerous combinations, but may not include all of them. Certain combinations may be safe in low doses but still increase the possibility of injury of death. Independent research should always be conducted to ensure that a combination of two or more substances is safe before consumption.

The following substances are listed on the assumption that 1P-LSD possesses a similar if not the same dangerous interactions profile as LSD, and may include more due to its status as an unstudied research chemical.

  • Lithium - Individuals who take lithium for bipolar disorder or other psychiatric conditions should not take LSD and related lysergamides. There are numerous anecdotal reports of seizures and or unsafe psychosis from this combination.[10][11][12][13]
  • Stimulants - Combining stimulants with psychedelics may induce states of uncontrollable anxiety, over-stimulation, thought loops, and increase the risk of psychosis.[14]
  • Tramadol - Tramadol is known to lower the seizure threshold[15] and psychedelics may act as potential triggers for seizures among those who are susceptible.[16][17][18]

Legal status

1P-LSD is currently a gray area compound within many parts of the world. This means that it is not known to be specifically illegal within most countries, but people may still be charged for its possession under certain circumstances such as under analog laws and with the intent to sell or consume.

  • Austria: 1P-LSD is technically not illegal but it may fall in the NPSG (Neue-Psychoaktive-Substanzen-Gesetz Österreich) as an analogue of LSD, thus making it illegal to supply for human consumption.[19][20]
  • Germany: 1P-LSD is not listed under their controlled substance act.[citation needed]
  • Latvia: 1P-LSD is illegal in Latvia. Although it is not officially scheduled, it is controlled as an LSD structural analog due to an amendment made on June 1st, 2015.[21]
  • Sweden: Following its sale as a designer drug, 1P-LSD was made illegal in Sweden on 26 January 2016.[22]
  • Switzerland: 1P-LSD is illegal in Switzerland as of December 2015.[23]
  • United Kingdom: It is illegal to produce, supply, or import this drug under the Psychoactive Substance Act, which came into effect on May 26th, 2016.[24]
  • United States: Since 1P-LSD can be considered a prodrug for LSD, its possession and sale may be prosecutable in the United States under the Federal Analogue Act.

See also

External links

Discussion

Literature

  • Brandt, S. D., Kavanagh, P. V., Westphal, F., Stratford, A., Elliott, S. P., Hoang, K., ... & Halberstadt, A. L. (2016). Return of the lysergamides. Part I: Analytical and behavioural characterization of 1‐propionyl‐d‐lysergic acid diethylamide (1P‐LSD). Drug Testing and Analysis, 8(9), 891-902. https://doi.org/10.1002/dta.1884
  • Passie, T., Halpern, J. H., Stichtenoth, D. O., Emrich, H. M., & Hintzen, A. (2008). The Pharmacology of Lysergic Acid Diethylamide: A Review, 14, 295–314. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1755-5949.2008.00059.x
  • Carhart-Harris, R. L., Muthukumaraswamy, S., Roseman, L., Kaelen, M., Droog, W., Murphy, K., … Nutt, D. J. (2016). Neural correlates of the LSD experience revealed by multimodal neuroimaging. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1518377113

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 Brandt, S. D., Kavanagh, P. V., Westphal, F., Stratford, A., Elliott, S. P., Hoang, K., ... & Halberstadt, A. L. (2016). Return of the lysergamides. Part I: Analytical and behavioural characterization of 1‐propionyl‐d‐lysergic acid diethylamide (1P‐LSD). Drug Testing and Analysis, 8(9), 891-902. https://doi.org/10.1002/dta.1884
  2. 1P-LSD (Google Trends) | https://trends.google.com/trends/explore?q=1p-lsd
  3. Brandt, S. D. (2015, October 12). Return of the lysergamides. Part I: Analytical and behavioral characterization of 1‐propionyl‐d‐lysergic acid diethylamide (1P‐LSD). https://doi.org/10.1002/dta.1884
  4. Cooper, D. A. (1988, March). Future synthetic drugs of abuse. In Proceedings of the international symposium on the forensic aspects of controlled substances: March (Vol. 28, p. 79). https://www.erowid.org/library/books_online/future_synthetic/future_synthetic.shtml
  5. Kman1898. (2015, February 16). The Big & Dandy 1P-LSD Thread, Volume 1 - Page 4. Retrieved from https://www.bluelight.org/vb/threads/745848?p=12880348&viewfull=1#post12880348
  6. Armstrong, B. D., Paik, E., Chhith, S., Lelievre, V., Waschek, J. A., & Howard, S. G. (2004). Potentiation of (DL)‐3, 4‐methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)‐induced toxicity by the serotonin 2A receptor partial agonist d‐lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), and the protection of same by the serotonin 2A/2C receptor antagonist MDL 11,939. Neuroscience Research Communications, 35(2), 83-95. https://doi.org/10.1002/nrc.20023
  7. Potentiation of MDMA-induced dopamine release and serotonin neurotoxicity by 5-HT2 receptor agonists | https://indiana.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/potentiation-of-34-methylenedioxymethamphetamine-induced-dopamine
  8. Ecstasy induces apoptosis via 5-HT(2A)-receptor stimulation in cortical neurons. | https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17572501
  9. Passie, T., Halpern, J. H., Stichtenoth, D. O., Emrich, H. M., & Hintzen, A. (2008). The Pharmacology of Lysergic Acid Diethylamide: A Review, 14, 295–314. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1755-5949.2008.00059.x
  10. https://erowid.org/chemicals/lsd/lsd_interactions.shtml | LSD Interactions by Erowid
  11. Wanderli. "A Nice Little Trip to the Hospital: An Experience with Lithium & LSD (ID 83935)". Erowid.org. Oct 3, 2010.
  12. MissDja1a. "Having a Seizure and Passing Out: An Experience with Lithium & LSD (ID 75153)". Erowid.org. Dec 16, 2008.
  13. Reddit account of seizure on LSD + Lithium | https://www.reddit.com/r/Psychonaut/comments/17uspp/please_read_a_cautionary_tale_concerning_lsd/
  14. Tripsit Factsheets - LSD | http://drugs.tripsit.me/lsd
  15. Talaie, H., Panahandeh, R., Fayaznouri, M. R., Asadi, Z., & Abdollahi, M. (2009). Dose-independent occurrence of seizure with tramadol. Journal of Medical Toxicology, 5(2), 63-67. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03161089
  16. Tripsit Factsheets - LSD | http://drugs.tripsit.me/lsd
  17. Fisher, D. D., & Ungerleider, J. T. (1967). Grand mal seizures following ingestion of LSD. California Medicine, 106(3), 210. PMCID: PMC1502729
  18. Question ID: 2837 (Ask Erowid) | https://www.erowid.org/ask/ask.php?ID=2837
  19. Synthetic drugs: new law to combat "legal highs" | https://derstandard.at/1317018702282/Kraeutermischungen-Synthetische-Drogen-Neues-Gesetz-soll-Legal-Highs-bekaempfen
  20. New Psychoactive Substances Act (NPSG) | https://www.parlament.gv.at/PAKT/VHG/XXIV/ME/ME_00317/imfname_231611.pdf
  21. Noteikumi par Latvijā kontrolējamajām narkotiskajām vielām, psihotropajām vielām un prekursoriem (2.4.punkts) | http://likumi.lv/doc.php?id=121086
  22. (in Swedish) Folkhälsomyndigheten. | https://www.folkhalsomyndigheten.se/nyheter-och-press/nyhetsarkiv/2016/januari/31-nya-substanser-klassas-som-narkotika-eller-halsofarlig-vara/
  23. Verordnung des EDI über die Verzeichnisse der Betäubungsmittel, psychotropen Stoffe, Vorläuferstoffe und Hilfschemikalien | http://web.archive.org/web/20170329020935/https://www.admin.ch/opc/de/classified-compilation/20101220/index.html
  24. Psychoactive Substances Act 2016 (Legislation.gov.uk) | http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/2016/2/contents/enacted