Physical effects

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Physical effects can be defined as any subjective effect which directly effects a facet of a person's physical body.

Although many uncomfortable physical effects also technically fit into this definition, they are excluded from this category of effects as they have their own defining qualities which standard physical effects do not.

This page lists and describes the physical effects which can occur under the influence of certain psychoactive compounds. It also further organizes these effects into subcategories based on their features and behavior.

Physical enhancements

Physical enhancements can be defined as any effect which intensifies or enhances a facet of one's physical body.

This page lists and describes the various physical enhancements which can occur under the influence of certain psychoactive compounds such as psychedelics.

Appetite enhancement

Main article: Appetite enhancement

Appetite enhancement (also known as "the munchies"[1]) can be described as the experience of a distinct increase in a person's sense of hunger and appetite. This results in both an increased desire to eat food and an increased enjoyment of its taste.

Appetite enhancement is most commonly induced under the influence of moderate dosages of orexigenic compounds, such as cannabinoids,[2] mirtazapine,[3] and quetiapine[4]. However, it may also occur under the influence of other compounds such as GABAergic depressants, tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), tetracyclic antidepressants, first-generation antihistamines, most antipsychotics, and many steroid hormones.

Bodily control enhancement

Bodily control enhancement can be described as feeling as if there has been a distinct increase in a person's ability to control their physical body with precision, balance, coordination, and dexterity. This results in the feeling that they can accurately control a much greater variety of muscles across their body with the tiniest of subtle mental triggers.

The experience of this effect is often subjectively interpreted by people as a profound and primal feeling of being put back in touch with the animal body.

Bodily control enhancement is most commonly induced under the influence of moderate dosages of stimulating psychedelics, such as LSD, 2C-B, and DOC. However, it may also occur to a lesser extent under the influence of other compounds such as traditional stimulants and light dosages of stimulating dissociatives.

Increased libido

Main article: Increased libido

Increased libido can be described as a distinct increase in feelings of sexual desire, the anticipation of sexual activity, and the likelihood that a person will view the context of a given situation as sexual in nature.[5][6] When experienced, this sensation is not overwhelming or out of control, but simply remains something that one is constantly aware of.

Increased libido is often accompanied by other coinciding effects such as tactile enhancement, and stimulation in a manner which can lead to greatly intensified feelings of sexual pleasure. It is most commonly induced under the influence of moderate dosages of stimulant compounds, particularly dopaminergic stimulants such as methamphetamine[7] and cocaine[8]. However, it may also occur under the influence of other compounds such as GABAergic depressants and psychedelics.

Olfactory enhancement

Main article: Olfactory enhancement

Olfactory enhancement (also known as hyperosmia[9]) is the experience of smells becoming significantly richer, stronger, and more noticeable than that of everyday sobriety. This experience can either be positive or negative depending on the smell and the person's prior opinion of them. For example, while certain smells such as food or flowers may become a true delight during this experience, other smells such as pollution or body odour may become overpowering in an uncomfortable manner which can potentially trigger nausea and vomiting.

Olfactory enhancement is often accompanied by other coinciding effects such as acuity enhancement, tactile enhancement, and auditory enhancement. It is most commonly induced under the influence of moderate dosages of psychedelic compounds, such as LSD, psilocybin, and mescaline. However, it can also occur to a lesser extent under the influence of certain stimulants and dissociatives such as MDMA or 3-MeO-PCP.

Stamina enhancement

Main article: Stamina enhancement

Stamina enhancement can be described as an increased ability to engage in physically and mentally taxing activities without the development of fatigue. Although this effect is commonly mistaken for stimulation, it differs as it is not a direct increase in one's energy levels. Instead, it is an increase in one's resilience in performing an activity combined with a mitigation of general fatigue.

Psychoactive substances that directly increase a person's endurance without stimulation are known as actoprotectors. These are defined as "substances that enhance body stability against physical or mental loads without increasing oxygen consumption or heat production."[10]

Stimulation

Main article: Stimulation

Stimulation can be described as an increase in a person's physical energy levels which are interpreted as encouraging when it comes to wakefulness, movement, performing tasks, talkativeness, and general exercise.[11][12][13]

At lower levels, stimulation typically presents itself as encouraged more so than forced. This can be described as feeling distinctly energetic, but in a purely controllable fashion that does not overwhelm the person with involuntary movements should they choose to stop expending large amounts of energy. It is often accompanied by other coinciding effects such as motivation enhancement, analysis enhancement, thought acceleration, focus enhancement, and appetite suppression in a manner which can result in a distinct increase in the person's overall productivity.

At higher levels, stimulation typically presents itself as forced more so than encouraged. This can be described as the effects of increased energy becoming so pronounced that the person will be incapable of relaxing and will feel an irresistible urge to perform some sort of physical task. It is often accompanied by other coinciding effects such as thought disorganization, focus suppression, short term memory suppression, increased heart rate, teeth grinding, temporary erectile dysfunction, sweating, and dehydration in a manner which can lead to lead to a distinct decrease in the person's overall productivity.

Stimulation is most commonly induced under the influence of moderate dosages of stimulant compounds, particularly dopaminergic stimulants such as amphetamine, methylphenidate, MDMA, and cocaine. However, it may also occur under the influence of other compounds such as certain psychedelics and certain dissociatives.

Physical suppressions

Physical suppressions can be defined as any subjective effect which decreases or reduces a facet of a person's physical body.

This page lists and describes the various physical enhancements which can occur under the influence of certain psychoactive compounds.

Appetite suppression

Main article: Appetite suppression

Appetite suppression can be described as the experience of a distinct decrease in a person's sense of hunger and appetite in a manner which can result in both a lesser desire to eat food and a decreased enjoyment of its taste.[14][15] This typically results in the person undergoing prolonged periods of time without eating food.

Depending on the intensity, this effect can result in a sense of complete disinterest or even disgust concerning food. At times, it can often result in physical discomfort (such as Nausea) when attempting to eat food. In cases of severe appetite suppression, it is often easier for a person to consume liquid food, such as protein shakes, in order to receive the nutrition needed to function.

Appetite suppression is often accompanied by other coinciding effects such as stimulation or pain relief in a manner which can lead to feeling as if one either has enough energy to not need food or has enough anaesthesthia to not feel the pain of hunger. It is most commonly induced under the influence of moderate dosages of stimulant[16] compounds, such as amphetamine[17], methylphenidate,[18] nicotine,[19] MDMA,[20] and cocaine. However, it may also occur under the influence of other compounds such as opioids, psychedelics, and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). It is worth noting that if these substances are used for prolonged periods of time, weight loss often occurs as a result.

Cough suppression

Main article: Cough suppression

Cough suppression can be described as a decreased desire and need to cough.[21][22] This is typically regarded as a positive effect which helps alleviate a pre-existing ailment. In certain contexts, it can also allow an individual to inhale much larger amounts of smoke than they would usually be able to, without accompanying pain or the desire to cough. However, it is worth noting that the efficacy of many over the counter cough medication is questionable, particularly in children.[23]

Cough suppression is most commonly induced under the influence of moderate dosages of antitussive compounds such as, codeine[24], pholcodine, dextromethorphan[25], noscapine, and butamirate. However, it may also occur under the influence of certain antihistamines such as promethazine.

Motor control loss

Main article: Motor control loss

Motor control loss can be described as feeling as if there has been a distinct decrease in a person's ability to control their physical body with precision, balance, coordination, and dexterity.

At lower levels, this results in experiencing much more difficulty performing tasks which require movement of any sort. For example, simple tasks such as typing without making spelling errors, walking without staggering, or carrying a glass of water without spilling it may all become much more challenging. At higher levels, however, this state can move beyond subtle in its effects and become capable of completely disabling the person's ability to use any level of fine or gross motor control. This typically results in catatonic states in which a person cannot even walk without falling over.

Motor control loss is often accompanied by other coinciding effects such as sedation and disinhibition. It is most commonly induced under the influence of moderate dosages of GABAergic depressant compounds, such as, alcohol, benzodiazepines, GHB, and phenibut. However, it may also occur to a lesser extent under the influence of other compounds such as dissociatives.

Nausea suppression

Main article: Nausea suppression

Nausea suppression can be described as a reduction in vomiting, stomach cramps, and general feelings of nausea.

A mostly comprehensive list of the most common substances which induce this effect can be found below:

5-HT3 receptor antagonists

Cannabinoids

Benzodiazepines

Antihistamines

Miscellaneous

Orgasm suppression

Main article: Orgasm suppression

Orgasm suppression (formally known as anorgasmia) can be described as a difficulty or complete inability to achieve orgasm despite adequate sexual stimulation.[27]

This effect commonly occurs on opioids and dissociatives which have been reported to decrease one's ability to feel sexual pleasure, which may be attributed to their tactile suppressing effects or through some other biological mechanism.[citation needed] It is also a well-known side effect of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs).[28] It may also be a result of the effect known as difficulty urinating which can occur on certain stimulants and entactogens. This effect has been reported to occur alongside a decrease in the strength of one's kegel muscles, which may account for the inability to achieve ejaculation and orgasm within males.

Pain relief

Main article: Pain relief

Pain relief can be described as an effect which suppresses negative sensations such as aches and pains. This can occur through a variety of different pharmacological and subjective mechanisms such as blocking the physical sensations from reaching one's conscious faculties, by covering the sensation with feelings of physical and cognitive euphoria, or by directly targetting the body part which the sensation is arising from.[citation needed]

Pain relief is often accompanied by other coinciding effects such as muscle relaxation, physical euphoria, and sedation. It is most commonly induced under the influence of moderate dosages of a very wide variety of compounds, such as opioids, GABAergics, GABApentinoids, cannabinoids, dissociatives, muscle relaxants, and NSAID's.

Sedation

Main article: Sedation

Sedation can be described as a decrease in a person's physical energy levels which are interpreted as discouraging when it comes to wakefulness, movement, performing tasks, talkativeness, and general exercise. At lower levels, sedation typically results in feelings of general relaxation and a loss of energy. At higher levels, however, sedation typically results in the person passing out into temporary unconsciousness.

This effect is capable of manifesting itself across the 4 different levels of intensity described below:

  1. Minimal sedation - At the lowest level, the person will feel subtly lower in energy and alertness. They will likely have an increased desire to sleep or at least relax in a manner which is typically possible to ignore.
  2. Moderate sedation - At this level, the person will begin to drift off to sleep. However, they will still respond to noises and physical sensations if they are particularly prominent or above usual noise levels.
  3. Deep sedation - At this level, the person will have drifted off into a deep sleep. They will typically be mostly unresponsive unless subjected to repeated or painful stimulation.
  4. General anaesthesia - At the highest level, the person will be completely unconscious. They will be completely unarousable even with repeated painful stimulus.

Sedation is often accompanied by other coinciding effects such as muscle relaxation, thought deceleration, and sleepiness in a manner which further intensifies the person's feelings of relaxation. It is most commonly induced under the influence of moderate dosages of depressant compounds, such as opioids, GABAergics, and antipsychotics. However, it may also occur to a lesser extent under the influence of other compounds such as cannabinoids and certain psychedelics.

Seizure suppression

Main article: Seizure suppression

Seizure suppression is an effect caused by drugs known as "anticonvulsants". These drugs prevent or reduce the severity and frequency of seizures in various types of epilepsy.

The different types of anticonvulsants may act on different receptors in the brain and have different modes of action. Two mechanisms that appear to be important in anticonvulsants are an enhancement of GABA action and inhibition of sodium channel activity. Other mechanisms are the inhibition of calcium channels and glutamate receptors.

Seizure suppression is most commonly induced under the influence of moderate dosages of certain GABAergic compounds and certain cannabinoids.

Physical alterations

Physical alterations can be defined as any subjective effect which changes a facet of a person's physical body in a manner which does not involve a clearly definable enhancement or suppression.

This page lists and describes the various physical enhancements which can occur under the influence of certain psychoactive compounds.

Body odor alteration

Main article: Body odor alteration

Body odour alteration can be described as a distinct change in the body's natural odour that can occur in response to the ingestion of a psychoactive substance, nootropic, or medicine. Depending on the biochemical makeup of the substance the alterations in body odour can vary significantly.[citation needed]

Body odour alteration is often accompanied by other coinciding effects such as increased perspiration and temperature regulation suppression. It is most commonly induced under the influence of heavy dosages of stimulant compounds, such as methamphetamine and mephedrone which are often said to result in an ammonia-like odor.

Bronchodilation

Main article: Bronchodilation

Bronchodilation can be described as the expansion of the bronchial air passages in the respiratory tract. A bronchodilator is a substance that dilates the bronchial tubes resulting in decreased resistance in the respiratory airway and increased airflow to the lungs. From a subjective standpoint, this effect makes it feel as if has become significantly easier and more comfortable to breathe.

Bronchodilation is often accompanied by other coinciding effects such as stimulation. It is most commonly induced under the influence of moderate dosages of stimulant compounds, such as amphetamine,[29] methamphetamine, and cocaine,[30]. These compounds were historically used often for treating asthma but are now rarely, if ever, used medically for their bronchodilation effect.

Changes in felt bodily form

Changes in felt bodily form can be described as feelings of the body shifting in its perceived physical shape, organization and form in a manner which is typically devoid of accompanying visual alterations. For example, feelings of the body folding into itself many times over, stretching, splitting into separate parts, expanding, or condensing into, over, and across itself in extremely complex forms are all entirely possible. It is worth noting that although this effect is usually perfectly comfortable to undergo, it can sometimes be somewhat uncomfortable under certain circumstances.

Changes in felt bodily form are often accompanied by other coinciding effects such as perspective hallucinations, perspective distortions, and changes in felt gravity. They are most commonly induced under the influence of heavy dosages of hallucinogenic compounds, such as psychedelics, dissociatives, and Salvinorin A.

Changes in felt gravity

Changes in felt gravity can be described as feeling that the pull of gravity has shifted in its direction. For example, during this state one may feel as if they are floating forwards, backwards, upwards, downwards, or in an unspecifiable direction.

Changes in felt gravity are often accompanied by other coinciding effects such as geometry, internal hallucinations, and holes, spaces and voids. They are most commonly induced under the influence of heavy dosages of hallucinogenic compounds, such as psychedelics, dissociatives, cannabinoids, and salvinorin A.

Excessive yawning

Main article: Excessive yawning

Excessive yawning can be described as the experience of repeated, intensified, overly frequent, and spontaneous yawning despite a complete absence of genuine sedation or sleepiness.

Excessive yawning is often accompanied by other coinciding effects such as increased salivation and a runny nose. It is most commonly induced under the influence of moderate dosages of tryptamine psychedelic compounds, such as psilocybin, 4-AcO-DMT, 4-HO-MET, and ayahuasca.

Mouth numbing

Main article: Mouth numbing

Mouth numbing is a physical side effect of administering certain drugs sublingually (under the tongue) or buccally (via the cheeks and gum). The effect can be described as a distinct feeling of general numbness or tactile suppression around the tongue and mouth which can last for up to an hour after the drug has been administered.

The NBOMe series (25C-NBOMe, 25B-NBOMe, and 25I-NBOMe) cause this effect consistently and it is accompanied by a strong, unpleasant, metallic chemical taste immediately after sublingual absorption.

The stimulant known as cocaine also causes numbing of the tongue, gums, and mouth when administered sublingually. Many people test the purity of their cocaine by rubbing it in their mouth. This, however, is not a guarantee of the drug's quality as it is common for cocaine to be cut with various other numbing agents and local anesthetics, such as novocaine, lidocaine, or benzocaine, which mimic or add to cocaine's numbing effect.

Muscle relaxation

Main article: Muscle relaxation

Muscle relaxation can be described as the experience of muscles losing their rigidity or tenseness while becoming relaxed and comfortable. This effect is particularly useful for those who are currently suffering from muscle spasms, pain, and hyperreflexia.

Muscle relaxation is often accompanied by other coinciding effects such as sedation and anxiety suppression. It is most commonly induced under the influence of moderate dosages of depressant compounds, such as various benzodiazepines, GABAergics, and opioids. However, it can also occur to a lesser extent under the influence of cannabinoids.

Perception of bodily heaviness

Perception of bodily heaviness can be described as feeling as if one's body has significantly increased in its weight. This can result in feelings of slowness and sluggishness due to the body seeming difficult, uncomfortable, or impossible to move.

Perception of bodily heaviness is often accompanied by other coinciding effects such as sedation and muscle relaxation. It is most commonly induced under the influence of heavy dosages of depressant compounds, such as GABAergics, opioids, and antipsychotics. However, it can also occur under the influence of certain sedating psychedelics such as certain LSA, psilocybin, and 2C-C.

Perception of bodily lightness

Perception of bodily lightness can be described as feeling as if one's body has significantly decreased in its weight. This can result in feelings of increased energy and a general sense of bounciness due to the body seeming weightless and therefore effortless to move.

Perception of bodily lightness is often accompanied by other coinciding effects such as stimulation and physical disconnection. It is most commonly induced under the influence of moderate dosages of dissociative compounds, such as ketamine, PCP, and DXM. However, it can also occur under the influence of certain stimulating psychedelics such as certain LSD, 4-HO-MET, and 2C-B.

Physical autonomy

Main article: Physical autonomy

Physical autonomy can be described as the experience of a person's own body performing simple or complex actions entirely of its own accord. Depending on the intensity, this results in the carrying out of a given task becoming partially to completely automatic in nature without the requirement of decision-making skills or attentive conscious input.

At lower levels, the effect is partially controllable by commanding the body with simple thoughts. For example, thoughts such as "go to the toilet" or "go drink a glass of water" can result in the body performing these actions autonomously. This can often help the person perform necessary physical actions such as tending to bodily functions or avoiding danger when they would otherwise be too incapable, unconscious, or distractible to perform them manually in their current state.

At higher levels, this effect no longer requires verbal commands and becomes entirely automatic. It's worth noting that although this technically results in a loss of cognitive control, the body only performs actions which the owner would have decided to perform were they capable of it themselves.

Physical autonomy is often accompanied by other coinciding effects such as physical disconnection and cognitive disconnection. It is most commonly induced under the influence of heavy dosages of dissociative compounds, such as ketamine, PCP, and DXM. However, it can also occur to a lesser extent under the influence of heavy dosages of psychedelics such as LSD, psilocybin, and mescaline.

Physical euphoria

Main article: Physical euphoria

Physical euphoria can be described as feelings of pleasure and comfort within and across the body. This euphoria typically feels somewhat comparable to the endorphine rushes felt during states of excitement or love, the coziness of a comfortable bed, and the rush of an orgasm. The forcefulness of this effect can range from subtle in its strength to overwhelmingly pleasurable beyond even the most intense full body orgasm possible.

Physical euphoria is often accompanied by other coinciding effects such as cognitive euphoria and muscle relaxation. It is most commonly induced under the influence of heavy dosages of a wide variety of compounds, such as opioids, stimulants, and GABAergics. However, it can also occur in a more powerful although less consistent form under the influence of psychedelics and dissociatives.

Pupil constriction

Main article: Pupil constriction

Pupil constriction (also called pinpoint pupils or miosis) can be described as the reduction of the size of a person's pupils under normal lighting conditions. This typically decreases a person's ability to see in low light conditions.

Pupil constriction is most commonly induced under the influence of moderate dosages of opioid compounds, such as heroin, kratom, tramadol, and fentanyl.

Pupil dilation

Main article: Pupil dilation

Pupil dilation (also called mydriasis) can be described as the enlargement of the size of a person's pupils under normal lighting conditions. Normally, the pupil size increases in the dark and shrinks in the light, however, a dilated pupil will remain excessively large even in a bright environment.

Pupil dilation is most commonly induced under the influence of moderate dosages of a wide variety of serotonergic compounds, such as psychedelics, dissociatives, deliriants, entactogens, various stimulants[31] and some antidepressants.

See also

References

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