Disinhibition

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Disinhibition is an orientation towards immediate gratification, leading to impulsive behavior driven by current thoughts, feelings, and external stimuli, without regard for past learning or consideration of future consequences.[1][2][3] This is usually manifested through recklessness, poor risk assessment, and a disregard for social conventions.

At its lower levels of intensity, disinhibition can allow one to overcome emotional apprehension and suppressed social skills in a manner that is moderated and controllable for the average person. This can often prove useful for those who suffer from social anxiety or a general lack of self-confidence.

However, at its higher levels of intensity, the disinhibited individual may be completely unable to maintain any semblance of self-restraint, at the expense of politeness, sensitivity, or social appropriateness. This lack of constraint can be negative, neutral, or positive depending on the individual and their current environment.

Disinhibition is often accompanied by other coinciding effects such as amnesia and anxiety suppression in a manner which can further decrease the person's observance of and regard for social norms. It is most commonly induced under the influence of moderate dosages of GABAergic depressants, such as alcohol,[4] benzodiazepines,[5] phenibut, and GHB. However, it may also occur under the influence of certain stimulants,[6] entactogens,[7] and dissociatives[8].

Psychoactive substances

Compounds within our psychoactive substance index which may cause this effect include:


See also

External links

References

  1. "Glossary of Technical Terms". Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.): 820. 2013. doi:10.1176/appi.books.9780890425596.GlossaryofTechnicalTerms. 
  2. Zamboni, G.; Huey, E. D.; Krueger, F.; Nichelli, P. F.; Grafman, J. (2008). "Apathy and disinhibition in frontotemporal dementia: Insights into their neural correlates". Neurology. 71 (10): 736–742. doi:10.1212/01.wnl.0000324920.96835.95. ISSN 0028-3878. 
  3. Källmén, Håkan; Gustafson, Roland (1998). "Alcohol and Disinhibition". European Addiction Research. 4 (4): 150–162. doi:10.1159/000018948. ISSN 1022-6877. 
  4. Bettinger, Jill C.; Topper, Stephen M.; Aguilar, Sara C.; Topper, Viktoria Y.; Elbel, Erin; Pierce-Shimomura, Jonathan T. (2014). "Alcohol Disinhibition of Behaviors in C. elegans". PLoS ONE. 9 (3): e92965. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0092965. ISSN 1932-6203. 
  5. Paton, Carol (2018). "Benzodiazepines and disinhibition: a review". Psychiatric Bulletin. 26 (12): 460–462. doi:10.1192/pb.26.12.460. ISSN 0955-6036. 
  6. Fillmore, M (2003). "Effects of d-amphetamine on behavioral control in stimulant abusers: the role of prepotent response tendencies". Drug and Alcohol Dependence. 71 (2): 143–152. doi:10.1016/S0376-8716(03)00089-9. ISSN 0376-8716. 
  7. Ando, Romeo D.; Benko, Anita; Ferrington, Linda; Kirilly, Eszter; Kelly, Paul A.T.; Bagdy, Gyorgy (2006). "Partial lesion of the serotonergic system by a single dose of MDMA results in behavioural disinhibition and enhances acute MDMA-induced social behaviour on the social interaction test". Neuropharmacology. 50 (7): 884–896. doi:10.1016/j.neuropharm.2005.12.010. ISSN 0028-3908. 
  8. Lissek, Silke; Güntürkün, Onur (2003). "Dissociation of Extinction and Behavioral Disinhibition: The Role of NMDA Receptors in the Pigeon Associative Forebrain during Extinction". The Journal of Neuroscience. 23 (22): 8119–8124. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.23-22-08119.2003. ISSN 0270-6474.