Physical suppressions are defined as any subjective effect which decreases or reduces a facet of a person's physical body.
This page lists and describes the various physical enhancements which can occur under the influence of certain psychoactive compounds.
Appetite suppression can be described as the experience of a distinct decrease in a person's sense of hunger and appetite in a manner which can result in both a lesser desire to eat food and a decreased enjoyment of its taste. This typically results in the person undergoing prolonged periods of time without eating food.
Depending on the intensity, this effect can result in a sense of complete disinterest or even disgust concerning food. At times, it can often result in physical discomfort (such as Nausea) when attempting to eat food. In cases of severe appetite suppression, it is often easier for a person to consume liquid food, such as protein shakes, in order to receive the nutrition needed to function.
Appetite suppression is often accompanied by other coinciding effects such as stimulation or pain relief in a manner which can lead to feeling as if one either has enough energy to not need food or has enough anaesthesthia to not feel the pain of hunger. It is most commonly induced under the influence of moderate dosages of stimulant compounds, such as amphetamine, methylphenidate, nicotine, MDMA, and cocaine. However, it may also occur under the influence of other compounds such as opioids, psychedelics, and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). It is worth noting that if these substances are used for prolonged periods of time, weight loss often occurs as a result.
Cough suppression can be described as a decreased desire and need to cough. This is typically regarded as a positive effect which helps alleviate a pre-existing ailment. In certain contexts, it can also allow an individual to inhale much larger amounts of smoke than they would usually be able to, without accompanying pain or the desire to cough. However, it is worth noting that the efficacy of many over the counter cough medication is questionable, particularly in children.
Cough suppression is most commonly induced under the influence of moderate dosages of antitussive compounds such as, codeine, pholcodine, dextromethorphan, noscapine, and butamirate. However, it may also occur under the influence of certain antihistamines such as promethazine.
Motor control loss
Motor control loss can be described as feeling as if there has been a distinct decrease in a person's ability to control their physical body with precision, balance, coordination, and dexterity.
At lower levels, this results in experiencing much more difficulty performing tasks which require movement of any sort. For example, simple tasks such as typing without making spelling errors, walking without staggering, or carrying a glass of water without spilling it may all become much more challenging. At higher levels, however, this state can move beyond subtle in its effects and become capable of completely disabling the person's ability to use any level of fine or gross motor control. This typically results in catatonic states in which a person cannot even walk without falling over.
Motor control loss is often accompanied by other coinciding effects such as sedation and disinhibition. It is most commonly induced under the influence of moderate dosages of GABAergic depressant compounds, such as, alcohol, benzodiazepines, Carisoprodol, GHB, and phenibut. However, it may also occur to a lesser extent under the influence of other compounds such as dissociatives.
Nausea suppression can be described as a reduction in vomiting, stomach cramps, and general feelings of nausea.
A mostly comprehensive list of the most common substances which induce this effect can be found below:
5-HT3 receptor antagonists
Drugs which bind to 5-HT3 receptors in the central nervous system and gastrointestinal tract are known to reduce nausea by inhibiting binding to the receptor which induces vomiting.
- Dolasetron (Anzemet) can be administered in tablet form or in an injection.
- Granisetron (Kytril, Sancuso) can be administered in tablet (Kytril), oral solution (Kytril), injection (Kytril), or in a single transdermal patch to the upper arm (Sancuso).
- Ondansetron (Zofran) is administered in an oral tablet, orally dissolving tablet, orally dissolving film, or in an IV/IM injection.
- Tropisetron (Setrovel, Navoban) can be administered in oral capsules or in injection form.
- Palonosetron (Aloxi) can be administered in an injection or in oral capsules.
- Mirtazapine (Remeron) is an antidepressant that has antiemetic effects and is also a potent histamine H1 antagonist.
Cannabinoids are used in patients with cachexia, cytotoxic nausea, and vomiting or for those who are unresponsive to other agents. These may cause changes in perception, dizziness, and loss of coordination.
- Cannabis - In the United States, this is a Schedule I drug that is legalized in many states.
- Dronabinol (Marinol) is a Schedule III drug in the United States.
- Synthetic cannabinoids such as nabilone (Cesamet), the JWH series, or 5F-PB-22.
- Sativex is an oral spray containing THC and CBD. It is currently legal in Canada and a few countries in Europe, but is not legal in the United States.
- H1 histamine receptor antagonists are effective for many conditions including motion sickness, morning sickness in pregnancy, and to combat opioid nausea.
- Ginger contains the 5-HT3 antagonists gingerols and shogaols.
- Lemon essential oil is reported to be an effective anti-nausea agent. The oil can be consumed in a capsule or applied to the skin via a carrier oil.
- Emetrol is claimed to be an effective antiemetic.
- Propofol given intravenously has been used in an acute care setting in hospitals as a rescue therapy for emesis.
- Peppermint is claimed to help nausea or stomach pain when added into tea or peppermint candies.
- Ajwain is a popular nausea relieving spice in India, Ethiopia and Eritrea.
Orgasm suppression (formally known as anorgasmia) can be described as a difficulty or complete inability to achieve orgasm despite adequate sexual stimulation. It can also include suppressed feelings during an orgasm or sexual pleasure.
This effect commonly occurs on opioids, gabapentinoids and dissociatives which have been reported to decrease one's ability to feel sexual pleasure, which may be attributed to their tactile suppressing effects or through some other biological mechanism. It is also a well-known side effect of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). It may also be a result of the effect known as difficulty urinating which can occur on certain stimulants and entactogens. This effect has been reported to occur alongside a decrease in the strength of one's kegel muscles, which may account for the inability to achieve ejaculation and orgasm within males.
Pain relief can be described as an effect which suppresses negative sensations such as aches and pains. This can occur through a variety of different pharmacological and subjective mechanisms such as blocking the physical sensations from reaching one's conscious faculties, by covering the sensation with feelings of physical and cognitive euphoria, or by directly targetting the body part which the sensation is arising from.
Pain relief is often accompanied by other coinciding effects such as muscle relaxation, physical euphoria, and sedation. It is most commonly induced under the influence of moderate dosages of a very wide variety of compounds, such as opioids, GABAergics, GABApentinoids, cannabinoids, dissociatives, muscle relaxants, and NSAID's.
Sedation can be described as a decrease in a person's physical energy levels which are interpreted as discouraging when it comes to wakefulness, movement, performing tasks, talkativeness, and general exercise. At lower levels, sedation typically results in feelings of general relaxation and a loss of energy. At higher levels, however, sedation typically results in the person passing out into temporary unconsciousness.
This effect is capable of manifesting itself across the 4 different levels of intensity described below:
- Minimal sedation - At the lowest level, the person will feel subtly lower in energy and alertness. They will likely have an increased desire to sleep or at least relax in a manner which is typically possible to ignore.
- Moderate sedation - At this level, the person will begin to drift off to sleep. However, they will still respond to noises and physical sensations if they are particularly prominent or above usual noise levels.
- Deep sedation - At this level, the person will have drifted off into a deep sleep. They will typically be mostly unresponsive unless subjected to repeated or painful stimulation.
- General anaesthesia - At the highest level, the person will be completely unconscious. They will be completely unarousable even with repeated painful stimulus.
Sedation is often accompanied by other coinciding effects such as muscle relaxation, thought deceleration, and sleepiness in a manner which further intensifies the person's feelings of relaxation. It is most commonly induced under the influence of moderate dosages of depressant compounds, such as opioids, GABAergics, and antipsychotics. However, it may also occur to a lesser extent under the influence of other compounds such as cannabinoids and certain psychedelics.
Seizure suppression is an effect caused by drugs known as "anticonvulsants". These drugs prevent or reduce the severity and frequency of seizures in various types of epilepsy.
The different types of anticonvulsants may act on different receptors in the brain and have different modes of action. Two mechanisms that appear to be important in anticonvulsants are an enhancement of GABA action and inhibition of sodium channel activity. Other mechanisms are the inhibition of calcium channels and glutamate receptors.
- Silverstone, T. (June 1992). "Appetite Suppressants: A Review". Drugs. 43 (6): 820–836. doi:10.2165/00003495-199243060-00003. ISSN 0012-6667.
- Poulton, A. S., Hibbert, E. J., Champion, B. L., Nanan, R. K. H. (2016). "Stimulants for the Control of Hedonic Appetite". Frontiers in Pharmacology. 7. ISSN 1663-9812.
- Hsieh, Y.-S., Yang, S.-F., Kuo, D.-Y. (April 2005). "Amphetamine, an appetite suppressant, decreases neuropeptide Y immunoreactivity in rat hypothalamic paraventriculum". Regulatory Peptides. 127 (1–3): 169–176. doi:10.1016/j.regpep.2004.11.007. ISSN 0167-0115.
- Davis, C., Fattore, L., Kaplan, A. S., Carter, J. C., Levitan, R. D., Kennedy, J. L. (March 2012). "The suppression of appetite and food consumption by methylphenidate: the moderating effects of gender and weight status in healthy adults". The International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology. 15 (02): 181–187. doi:10.1017/S1461145711001039. ISSN 1461-1457.
- Seeley, R. J., Sandoval, D. A. (July 2011). "Weight loss through smoking". Nature. 475 (7355): 176–177. doi:10.1038/475176a. ISSN 0028-0836.
- Francis, H. M., Kraushaar, N. J., Hunt, L. R., Cornish, J. L. (February 2011). "Serotonin 5-HT4 receptors in the nucleus accumbens are specifically involved in the appetite suppressant and not locomotor stimulant effects of MDMA ('ecstasy')". Psychopharmacology. 213 (2–3): 355–363. doi:10.1007/s00213-010-1982-9. ISSN 0033-3158.
- Smith, Susan M., Schroeder, Knut, Fahey, Tom (24 November 2014). "Over-the-counter (OTC) medications for acute cough in children and adults in community settings". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD001831.pub5. ISSN 1465-1858.
- Malesker, M. A., Callahan-Lyon, P., Ireland, B., Irwin, R. S., Adams, T. M., Altman, K. W., Azoulay, E., Barker, A. F., Birring, S. S., Blackhall, F., Bolser, D. C., Boulet, L.-P., Braman, S. S., Brightling, C., Callahan-Lyon, P., Chang, A. B., Coté, A., Cowley, T., Davenport, P., Ebihara, S., El Solh, A. A., Escalante, P., Field, S. K., Fisher, D., French, C. T., Grant, C., Gibson, P., Gold, P., Harding, S. M., Harnden, A., Hill, A. T., Irwin, R. S., Kahrilas, P. J., Kavanagh, J., Keogh, K. A., Lai, K., Lane, A. P., Lim, K., Madison, J. M., Malesker, M. A., Mazzone, S., McGarvey, L., Molassoitis, A., Murad, M. H., Narasimhan, M., Newcombe, P., Nguyen, H. Q., Oppenheimer, J., Restrepo, M. I., Rosen, M., Rubin, B., Ryu, J. H., Smith, J., Tarlo, S. M., Turmel, J., Vertigan, A. E., Wang, G., Weinberger, M., Weir, K. (November 2017). "Pharmacologic and Nonpharmacologic Treatment for Acute Cough Associated With the Common Cold". Chest. 152 (5): 1021–1037. doi:10.1016/j.chest.2017.08.009. ISSN 0012-3692.
- Bolser, D. C., Davenport, P. W. (February 2007). "Codeine and cough: an ineffective gold standard". Current Opinion in Allergy & Clinical Immunology. 7 (1): 32–36. doi:10.1097/ACI.0b013e3280115145. ISSN 1528-4050.
- Dealleaume, L., Tweed, B., Neher, J. O. (October 2009). "Do OTC remedies relieve cough in acute URIs?". The Journal of Family Practice. 58 (10): 559a–c. ISSN 1533-7294.
- 69ron (2008). "Lemon essential oil: way more effective than ginger for treating nausea" Nature's Herb Forum.
- Brindley, G. S., Gillan, P. (April 1982). "Men and Women Who Do Not Have Orgasms". British Journal of Psychiatry. 140 (4): 351–356. doi:10.1192/bjp.140.4.351. ISSN 0007-1250.
- Ashton, A. K., Hamer, R., Rosen, R. C. (1 September 1997). "Serotonin reuptake inhibitor-induced sexual dysfunction and its treatment: A large-scale retrospective study of 596 psychiatric outpatients". Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy. 23 (3): 165–175. doi:10.1080/00926239708403922. ISSN 0092-623X.