Abnormal heartbeat

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Abnormal heartbeat (also called an arrhythmia or dysrhythmia) is defined as a problem with the rate or rhythm of a heartbeat.[1] A heartbeat that is too fast (greater than 100 beats per minute) is called tachycardia and a heartbeat that is too slow (less than 60 beats per minute) is called bradycardia. Arrhythmias are caused by changes to heart tissue. Hearts beat due to cascading electrical signals and these can be influenced by stress hormones, electrolytes, and medicinal substances.

An abnormal heartbeat is most commonly induced under the influence of moderate dosages of stimulant and depressant compounds, such as cocaine,[2][3][4][5][6][7][8] amphetamines,[9][10][11][12][13] alcohol,[13] and opioids.[13][14][15] While stimulants tend to increase a person's heart rate, depressants tend to decrease it. Combining the two can often result in dangerously irregular heartbeats.

Psychoactive substances

Compounds within our psychoactive substance index which may cause this effect include:

... further results

Experience reports

Anecdotal reports which describe this effect within our experience index include:

See also

External links


  1. Arrhythmias - What Is an Arrhythmia?, National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, retrieved 4 June 2022 
  2. Wood, D. M., Dargan, P. I., Hoffman, R. S. (January 2009). "Management of cocaine-induced cardiac arrhythmias due to cardiac ion channel dysfunction". Clinical Toxicology. 47 (1): 14–23. doi:10.1080/15563650802339373. ISSN 1556-3650. 
  3. O’Leary, M. E., Hancox, J. C. (28 January 2010). "Role of voltage-gated sodium, potassium and calcium channels in the development of cocaine-associated cardiac arrhythmias: Voltage-gated ion channels and cocaine-induced arrhythmia". British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. 69 (5): 427–442. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2125.2010.03629.x. ISSN 0306-5251. 
  4. Wood, D. M., Dargan, P. I. (28 January 2010). "Putting cocaine use and cocaine-associated cardiac arrhythmias into epidemiological and clinical perspective: Cocaine epidemiology and cardiovascular toxicity". British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. 69 (5): 443–447. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2125.2010.03630.x. ISSN 0306-5251. 
  5. Gradman, A. H. (April 1988). "Cardiac effects of cocaine: a review". The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine. 61 (2): 137–147. ISSN 0044-0086. 
  6. Lange, R. A., Hillis, L. D. (2 August 2001). "Cardiovascular Complications of Cocaine Use". New England Journal of Medicine. 345 (5): 351–358. doi:10.1056/NEJM200108023450507. ISSN 0028-4793. 
  7. Tazelaar, H. D., Karch, S. B., Stephens, B. G., Billingham, M. E. (February 1987). "Cocaine and the heart". Human Pathology. 18 (2): 195–199. doi:10.1016/S0046-8177(87)80338-6. ISSN 0046-8177. 
  8. Maraj, S., Figueredo, V. M., Lynn Morris, D. (May 2010). "Cocaine and the Heart". Clinical Cardiology. 33 (5): 264–269. doi:10.1002/clc.20746. ISSN 0160-9289. 
  9. Shyu, K., Wang, B., Yang, Y., Tsai, S., Lin, S., Lee, C. (1 July 2004). "Amphetamine activates connexin43 gene expression in cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes through JNK and AP-1 pathway". Cardiovascular Research. 63 (1): 98–108. doi:10.1016/j.cardiores.2004.02.018. ISSN 0008-6363. 
  10. Bazmi, E., Mousavi, F., Giahchin, L., Mokhtari, T., Behnoush, B. (30 March 2017). "Cardiovascular Complications of Acute Amphetamine Abuse: Cross-sectional study". Sultan Qaboos University Medical Journal. 17 (1): e31–37. doi:10.18295/squmj.2016.17.01.007. ISSN 2075-051X. 
  11. Jacobs, W. (June 2006). "Fatal Amphetamine-Associated Cardiotoxicity and Its Medicolegal Implications:". The American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology. 27 (2): 156–160. doi:10.1097/01.paf.0000188082.68009.10. ISSN 0195-7910. 
  12. Won, S., Hong, R. A., Shohet, R. V., Seto, T. B., Parikh, N. I. (December 2013). "Methamphetamine-Associated Cardiomyopathy: Methamphetamine-associated cardiomyopathy". Clinical Cardiology. 36 (12): 737–742. doi:10.1002/clc.22195. ISSN 0160-9289. 
  13. 13.0 13.1 13.2 Frishman, W. H., Del Vecchio, A., Sanal, S., Ismail, A. (July 2003). "Cardiovascular Manifestations of Substance Abuse: Part 2: Alcohol, Amphetamines, Heroin, Cannabis, and Caffeine". Heart Disease. 5 (4): 253–271. doi:10.1097/01.hdx.0000080713.09303.a6. ISSN 1521-737X. 
  14. Behzadi, M., Joukar, S., Beik, A. (2018). "Opioids and Cardiac Arrhythmia: A Literature Review". Medical Principles and Practice. 27 (5): 401–414. doi:10.1159/000492616. ISSN 1011-7571. 
  15. Doshi, R., Shah, J., Desai, R., Gullapalli, N. (July 2019). "Burden of arrhythmia in hospitalizations with opioid overdose". International Journal of Cardiology. 286: 73–75. doi:10.1016/j.ijcard.2019.01.047. ISSN 0167-5273.