DMT

From PsychonautWiki
(Redirected from Dmt)
Jump to: navigation, search
Summary sheet: DMT
DMT
DMT.svg
Chemical Nomenclature
Common names DMT, N,N-DMT, "Dmitry", "The Glory", "The Spirit Molecule"
Substitutive name N,N-Dimethyltryptamine
Systematic name 2-(1H-Indol-3-yl)-N,N-dimethylethanamine
Class Membership
Psychoactive class Psychedelic
Chemical class Tryptamine
Routes of Administration

WARNING: Always start with lower doses due to differences between individual body weight, tolerance, metabolism, and personal sensitivity. See responsible use section.


Smoked
Dosage
Threshold Common Heavy
2 - 10 - 20 - 40 - 60 mg
Light Strong
Threshold 2 - 10 mg
Light 10 - 20 mg
Common 20 - 40 mg
Strong 40 - 60 mg
Heavy 60+ mg
Duration
Total 5 - 20 minutes
Onset 20 - 40 seconds
Come up 1 - 3 minutes
Peak 2 - 8 minutes
Offset 1 - 6 minutes
After effects 10 - 60 minutes










DISCLAIMER: PW's dosage information is gathered from users and resources for educational purposes only. It is not a recommendation and should be verified with other sources for accuracy.

N,N-Dimethyltryptamine (also known as DMT and "The Spirit Molecule") is a naturally-occurring psychedelic substance of the tryptamine class that produces uniquely powerful and short-lived psychedelic effects when administered.[1]

Depending on the dosage and method of administration, the effects of DMT can range from mild psychedelic states to powerfully immersive life-altering experiences which are often described as the ultimate displacement from ordinary consciousness in which users are placed in a subjective state where they can experience exploring ineffable spiritual realms or alternate dimensions.[2]

DMT is present in over 65 species of plants and has been identified as being a normal constituent of human metabolism and an endogenous neurotransmitter in certain rodents. Its presence is also known to be widespread throughout the plant kingdom.[3][4] Although various theories have been postulated, its neurobiological function has yet to be determined.[citation needed]

In modern times, DMT is known as an extremely powerful visionary psychedelic entheogen that, when vaporized or smoked, produces short-lived effects with a very rapid onset that is sometimes described as an "impossibly high-speed rollercoaster ride." When ingested in combination with a MAOI or RIMA agent, it becomes active orally and significantly longer lasting, immersive, and interactive in nature: this combination is known as ayahuasca.[5] Ayahuasca brews have been used traditionally in South America since at least around the year 1500.[6]

Unlike most highly prohibited substances, DMT is not considered to be addictive or toxic by the scientific community.[7][8] Nevertheless, unpredictable adverse reactions such as uncontrollable anxiety, delusions and psychosis can always occur, particularly among those predisposed to mental disorders.[9] While these negative reactions or "bad trips" can often be attributed to user inexperience or improper preparation of set and setting, they have been known to happen spontaneously among even highly experienced users as well. It is therefore highly advised to approach this incredibly powerful and unpredictable hallucinogenic substance with the proper preparation and harm reduction practices if using it.

DMT Crystals[10]

History and culture

DMT was first synthesized in 1931 by the German chemist Richard Helmuth Fredrick Manske.[11][12] Its discovery as a natural product is generally credited to Brazilian chemist and microbiologist Oswaldo Gonçalves de Lima who, in 1946, isolated an alkaloid he named nigerina (nigerine) from the root bark of jurema preta (Mimosa tenuiflora).[12][13][14] DMT was unequivocally identified in 1959, when American chemists were provided a sample of Mimosa tenuiflora.[15][16] DMT was also isolated and formally identified in the seeds and pods of Anadenanthera peregrina by a team of American chemists led by Evan Horning in 1955.[15][17]

Since 1955, DMT has been found in a host of organisms: in at least fifty plant species belonging to ten families,[18] and in at least four animal species, including one gorgonian[19] and three mammalian species.

Chemistry

Substitutive structure of a tryptamine molecule

DMT, or N,N-dimethyltryptamine, is a naturally-occurring indole alkaloid molecule of the tryptamine class. Tryptamines share a core structure comprised of a bicyclic indole heterocycle attached at R3 to an amino group via an ethyl side chain. DMT contains two methyl groups (CH3-) bound to the terminal amine RN at the end of this chain. DMT has many homologs and analogs from base tryptamines like MET and DPT, to four and five position substituted variants such as 4-PO-DMT (Psilocybin), 4-AcO-DMT (Psilacetin), and 5-MeO-DMT.

Pharmacology

Further information: Serotonergic psychedelic

DMT's psychedelic effects are believed to come from its efficacy at the 5-HT2A receptor as a partial agonist. However, the role of these interactions and how they result in the psychedelic experience continues to remain elusive.

In addition to this, N,N-dimethyltrytamine is believed to be an endogenous ligand for the sigma receptor. However, the significance of the sigma-1 receptor remains the subject of ongoing scientific research.[20]

The compound's affinities for various receptor sets have been well-studied and are listed in the table below:

Binding Sites Binding Affinity Ki (nM)[21]
5-HT1A >10,000
5-HT1B >10,000
5-HT1D 93
5-HT1E 455.7
5-HT2A 2323
5-HT2B 107.6
5-HT2C 334.6
5-HT5A 611
5-HT6 487.4
5-HT7 87.5
D1 271.1
α1A 1745
α1B 973.7
α2A 1561
α2B 257.7
α2C 258.6
SERT 3742
σ1R 2.23

Subjective effects

DMT in its smokeable form is reported to be the least mentally inebriating psychedelic. It is due to a lack of perceived intoxication that many people describe DMT as a genuine experience that is actually happening to them. It is worth noting that many people report that smoked DMT is extremely clear-headed in its style and tends to produce less personal insight in comparison to orally active psychedelics such as ayahuasca, LSD and psilocybin due to its short-acting nature.

The effects listed below are based upon the subjective effects index and personal experiences of PsychonautWiki contributors. The listed effects should be taken with a grain of salt and will rarely (if ever) occur all at once, but heavier doses will increase the chances and are more likely to induce a full range of effects. Likewise, adverse effects become much more likely on higher doses and may include serious injury or death.

Physical effects
Child.svg

Visual effects
Eye.svg

Cognitive effects
User.svg

Auditory effects
Volume-up.svg

Multi-sensory effects
Gears.svg

Transpersonal effects
Infinity4.svg

Progressive stages

When smoked or vaporized at moderate to heavy dosages, the DMT experience consistently manifests itself in a progressive sequence which can be described as follows:

1. "Breaking Through"

The first step of a DMT trip is the come up that leads onto an experience commonly referred to as "breaking through."[23] This seems to have at least a few different ways of presenting itself to the user.

The first thing that a person notices is an extremely distinct set of visual enhancements such an increase in visual acuity and colour intensity. This is followed by a sudden onset of high level 3 geometry which increases in its intensity until it envelopes and covers the external environment. These effects are often accompanied by auditory hallucinations such as soft crackling sounds or high pitched extended tones. There is also the possibility of accompanying physical sensations as one "breaks through." These can include feelings of suddenly being pushed through and onto the other side of a membrane or feelings of shooting through space at high speeds.

2. "The Waiting Room"

Almost immediately after a person has inhaled enough DMT to have "broken through", they often find themselves spending a brief amount of time in what is sometimes described as a psychedelic "waiting room" or "loading screen." The appearance of this space can assume a seemingly infinite variety of forms but generally appears in the shape of an enveloping tunnel comprised of rapidly shifting, interlocking geometry. This lasts approximately 10 – 20 seconds and feels qualitatively different from other stages of the experience.

3. "The Other Side"

Once the waiting period is over, the user will feel that they have "broken through" onto the other side. It is here where users experience intense level 7 geometry and level 3 - 4 internal hallucinations. It is worth noting that although experiences vary between individuals, DMT trips often follow common archetypes, scenarios, content, and plots. These scenarios generally consist of visiting what appears to be an alternate reality that is often described to contain autonomous entities, settings, sceneries, and landscapes as well as themes of a cosmic, transcendental, or transpersonal nature.

4. "Drifting Down"

The final stage is experienced as the sensation of being pulled further and further away from the scenario until it is no longer visible and one finds themselves back in reality. This is typically accompanied by level 3 - 4 geometry as well as a sense of general exhilaration and awe. The moderate to mild geometry stays for a further 10 – 15 minutes before disappearing completely, sometimes leaving a noticeable "body high" that lingers for up to an hour.

Experience reports

Anecdotal reports which describe the effects of this compound within our experience index include:


Additional experience reports can be found here:

Natural plant sources

Main article: DMT-containing plants

Mimosa hostilis root bark

Further information: Mimosa tenuiflora (botany)
Mimosa hostilis root bark.

Mimosa hostilis (also known as Mimosa tenuiflora, Jurema and Tepezcohuite) is a perennial tree or shrub native to the northeastern region of Brazil and is found as far north as southern Mexico. Around 1% of the dried weight is DMT. It is legal to purchase online in many parts of the world and a commonly used source for performing DMT extractions or brewing into ayahuasca.

Acacia confusa root bark.

Acacia confusa root bark

Further information: Psychoactive acacias

Acacia confusa (also known as Acacia Petit Feuille, Small Philippine Acacia, Formosa Acacia (Taiwan Acacia) and Formosan Koa) is a perennial tree native to South-East Asia. It is legal to purchase online and easily accessible in many parts of the world. The plant matter itself contains the following chemicals:[24]

  • N-Methyltryptamine: 1.43% (not psychoactive without MAOI)
  • DMT: 1.15%

Preparation methods

Preparation methods for this compound within our tutorial index include:

Toxicity and harm potential

DMT is considered to be non-addictive, is not associated with any form of neurotoxicity, and has an extremely low toxicity relative to dose. As with other psychedelic substances, there are relatively few physical side effects associated with acute DMT exposure. Various studies have shown that in reasonable doses in a careful context, it has little to no negative cognitive, psychiatric or physical consequences.[13]

However, as with psychedelics generally, DMT is thought to be able to act as a potential trigger for those with underlying psychiatric conditions. Those with a personal or family history of mental illness are advised not to use this substance unless under medical supervision.

Despite the lack of physical risks, it is highly advised to approach this substance with extreme caution and harm reduction practices.

Lethal dosage

The median lethal dose (LD50) of DMT in humans has never been reached in any setting, nor is this expected to change due to its pharmacological properties.

Tolerance and addiction potential

DMT is not habit-forming and the desire to use it can actually decrease with use.[13] As with most psychedelics, it is generally considered to have a self-regulating aspect. This can either occur subconsciously or even manifested during the experience itself.[citation needed]

Notably, tolerance to the effects of DMT does not occur. The reason for this is unclear. DMT presents cross-tolerance with no other psychedelics, meaning that after the consumption of DMT psychedelics will not have a reduced effect.

Dangerous interactions

Although many psychoactive substances are safe to use on their own, they can become dangerous or even life-threatening when taken with other substances. The list below contains some potentially dangerous combinations, but may not include all of them. Certain combinations may be safe in low doses but still increase the possibility of injury of death. Independent research should always be conducted to ensure that a combination of two or more substances is safe before consumption.

Legal status

  • International: DMT is classified as a Schedule I drug under the United Nations 1971 Convention on Psychotropic Substances, meaning that international trade in DMT is supposed to be closely monitored and its use is supposed to be restricted to scientific research and medical use. Natural materials containing DMT, including ayahuasca, are not regulated under the 1971 Psychotropic Convention.[26][27]
  • Australia: Between 2011 and 2012, the Australian government was considering changes to the Australian Criminal Code that would classify any plants containing any amount of DMT as "controlled plants".[28]
  • Austria: DMT is illegal to possess, produce and sell under the SMG (Suchtmittelgesetz Österreich).[citation needed]
  • Brazil - Possession, production and sale is illegal as it is listed on Portaria SVS/MS nº 344.[29] Rules are relaxed regarding religious use.[citation needed]
  • Canada: DMT is a Schedule III drug.[30]
  • Estonia: DMT is a Schedule I drug.[citation needed]
  • Germany: The production, distribution, or possession of DMT is illegal.[citation needed]
  • Latvia: DMT is a Schedule I drug.[31]
  • New Zealand: DMT is classified in New Zealand as a Class A drug under the Misuse of Drugs Act 1975.[32]
  • Norway: DMT is a Schedule I drug.[citation needed]
  • Russia: The production, distribution, or possession of DMT is illegal.[citation needed]
  • United Kingdom: DMT is a Class A drug.[33]
  • United States: DMT is a Schedule I drug.[citation needed] Rules are relaxed regarding religious use, however. In the US, dried root bark of Mimosa hostilis had been considered a "grey area" item for a long time. However, recent efforts by the DEA appear to be focusing on eliminating internet sales of the bark, citing 21 USC § 841, which states that "(IV) any compound, mixture, or preparation which contains any quantity of any of the substances referred to in subclauses (I) through (III)" is also considered an illegal substance. Many USA based vendors have since been stocking Acacia confusa bark as a result due to its very similar alkaloid content.[citation needed]

See also

External links

Forums

Literature

References

  1. Nichols, D. E. (2016). Psychedelics, (April), 264–355. https://doi.org/10.1124/pr.115.011478
  2. Gallimore AR, Strassman RJ. A Model for the Application of Target-Controlled Intravenous Infusion for a Prolonged Immersive DMT Psychedelic Experience. Frontiers in Pharmacology. 2016;7:211. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2016.00211
  3. Ott, Jonathan (1994). Ayahuasca Analogues: Pangæan Entheogens (1st ed.). Kennewick, WA, USA: Natural Products. pp. 81–3.
  4. Shulgin, Alexander; Shulgin, Ann (1997). "DMT is Everywhere". (page 277) TiHKAL: The Continuation (1st ed.).
  5. Strassman, R. J. (1995). Human psychopharmacology of N, N-dimethyltryptamine. Behavioural Brain Research, 73(1), 121-124. https://doi.org/10.1016/0166-4328(96)00081-2
  6. Erowid - DMT Basics | http://www.erowid.org/chemicals/dmt/dmt_basics.shtml
  7. Lüscher, C., & Ungless, M. A. (2006). The Mechanistic Classification of Addictive Drugs, 3(11). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.0030437
  8. Nichols, D. E. (2016). Psychedelics, (April), 264–355. https://doi.org/10.1124/pr.115.011478
  9. Strassman, R. J. (1984). Adverse reactions to psychedelic drugs. A review of the literature. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 172(10), 577-595. PMID: 6384428
  10. Q21Q21. (2014, September). Q21Q21 DMT Crystal Extraction Results. Retrieved from https://www.dmt-nexus.me/forum/default.aspx?g=posts&m=563688
  11. Manske R.H.F. (1931). "A synthesis of the methyltryptamines and some derivatives". Canadian Journal of Research. 5 (5): 592–600. doi:10.1139/cjr31-097. 
  12. 12.0 12.1 Bigwood J.; Ott J. (November 1977). "DMT: the fifteen minute trip". Head. 2 (4): 56–61. Archived from the original on 2006-01-27. Retrieved 2010-11-28. 
  13. 13.00 13.01 13.02 13.03 13.04 13.05 13.06 13.07 13.08 13.09 13.10 Strassman, R. J., Qualls, C. R., Uhlenhuth, E. H., & Kellner, R. (1994). Dose-Response Study of N,N-Dimethyltryptamine in Humans: II. Subjective Effects and Preliminary Results of a New Rating Scale. Archives of General Psychiatry, 51(2), 98-108. PMID: 8297217. http://www.maps.org/research-archive/w3pb/1994/1994_Strassman_22714_1.pdf
  14. Ott, Jonathan (1996). Pharmacotheon: Entheogenic Drugs, Their Plant Sources and History (2nd, densified ed.). Kennewick, WA: Natural Products. ISBN 978-0-9614234-9-0. 
  15. 15.0 15.1 Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named ott1998
  16. Pachter I.J.; Zacharias D.E.; Ribeiro O. (September 1959). "Indole alkaloids of Acer saccharinum (the silver maple), Dictyoloma incanescens, Piptadenia colubrina, and Mimosa hostilis". Journal of Organic Chemistry. 24 (9): 1285–87. doi:10.1021/jo01091a032. 
  17. Fish M.S.; Johnson N.M.; Horning E.C. (November 1955). "Piptadenia alkaloids. Indole bases of P. peregrina (L.) Benth. and related species". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 72 (22): 5892–95. doi:10.1021/ja01627a034. 
  18. Ott, Jonathan (1994). Ayahuasca Analogues: Pangæan Entheogens (1st ed.). Kennewick, WA, USA: Natural Products. pp. 81–3. ISBN 978-0-9614234-5-2. OCLC 32895480. 
  19. Cimino G.; De Stefano S. (1978). "Chemistry of Mediterranean gorgonians: simple indole derivatives from Paramuricea chamaeleon". Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology C. 61 (2): 361–2. doi:10.1016/0306-4492(78)90070-9. 
  20. Fontanilla, D., Johannessen, M., Hajipour, A. R., Cozzi, N. V., Jackson, M. B., & Ruoho, A. E. (2009). The Hallucinogen N, N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) Is An Endogenous Sigma-1 Receptor Regulator. Science, 323(5916), 934-937. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1166127
  21. Rickli A.; Moning O.D.; Hoener M.C.; Liechti M.E. (2016). "Receptor interaction profiles of novel psychoactive tryptamines compared with classic hallucinogens". Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 26: 1327–37. doi:10.1016/j.euroneuro.2016.05.001. PMID 27216487. 
  22. Strassman, R. J., Qualls, C. R., Uhlenhuth, E. H., & Kellner, R. (1994). Dose-Response Study of N,N-Dimethyltryptamine in Humans: II. Subjective Effects and Preliminary Results of a New Rating Scale. Archives of General Psychiatry, 51(2), 98-108. PMID: 8297217. http://www.maps.org/research-archive/w3pb/1994/1994_Strassman_22714_1.pdf
  23. "DMT breaking through" Google search | https://www.google.co.uk/search?btnG=1&pws=0&q=dmt+breaking+through&gws_rd=cr,ssl&ei=VuafVquUB8H_UOi9v_AJ
  24. Acacia Confusa | Root Bark – Alkaloids – Distribution – Growing (Entheogen.io) | http://entheogen.io/acacia-confusa-root-bark/
  25. Talaie, H., Panahandeh, R., Fayaznouri, M. R., Asadi, Z., & Abdollahi, M. (2009). Dose-independent occurrence of seizure with tramadol. Journal of medical toxicology, 5(2), 63-67. doi:10.1007/BF03161089
  26. UN General Assembly, 1971 Convention on Psychotropic Substances, 9 December 1975, A/RES/3443.
  27. Schaepe, Herbert (2001). "International control of the preparation "ayahuasca"" (JPG). Erowid. Retrieved November 29, 2010. | [1]
  28. Consultation on implementation of model drug schedules for Commonwealth serious drug offenses". Australian Government, Attorney-General’s Department. 24 June 2010. | http://www.ag.gov.au/www/agd/agd.nsf/Page/Consultationsreformsandreviews_ConsultationonimplementationofmodeldrugschedulesforCommonwealthseriousdrugoffences
  29. http://portal.anvisa.gov.br/documents/10181/3115436/%281%29RDC_130_2016_.pdf/fc7ea407-3ff5-4fc1-bcfe-2f37504d28b7
  30. Controlled Drugs and Substances Act of Canada
  31. Noteikumi par Latvijā kontrolējamajām narkotiskajām vielām, psihotropajām vielām un prekursoriem (Triptamīni) | http://likumi.lv/doc.php?id=121086
  32. Misuse of Drugs Act 1975 | http://www.legislation.govt.nz/act/public/1975/0116/latest/DLM436576.html
  33. Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 (Legislation.gov.uk) |http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/1971/38/schedule/2/part/I