P. harmala in the nature.
|Common names||Espand, Esfand, Syrian rue|
|Active constituents||Harmala alkaloid|
Peganum harmala, commonly called Syrian rue, harmel, espand, esfand, wild rue, African rue, or aspand, is a plant native to the eastern Iranian region west to India. It has also spread invasively throughout Arizona, California, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Texas and Washington. The plant itself produces seeds which contain harmala alkaloids and is easily accessible and legal to purchase online.
Powdered syrian rue seeds act as a MAOI at doses of 2-5g. Syrian rue seeds contain several different harmala alkaloids at slightly varying percentages. Only some are monoamine oxidase A inhibitors. In one study, total harmala alkaloids were at least 5.9% of dried weight. Seed extracts were potent reversible and competitive inhibitors of MAO-A but poor inhibitors of MAO-B.
- Harmane, 0.16% Harman is a selective MAO-A inhibitor.
- Harmine, 0.44%–1.84%–4.3% Harmine is a nonselective MAO-A and MAO-B inhibitor. Also, the coatings of the seeds are said to contain large amounts of harmine.
- Harmaline, 0.25%–0.79%–5.6% Harmaline is a RIMA.
- Harmalol, 0.6%–3.90%
- Tetrahydroharmine, 0.1%
- Vasicine (peganine), 0.25%
- Vasicinone, 0.0007%
Drug use in pregnancy
Peganum harmala can induce miscarriage. It has traditionally been used as an abortifacient agent in Morocco, North Africa, and the Middle East. It is believed that quinazoline alkaloids such as vasicine and vasicinone are responsible for the abortifacient activity of the plant.
- Hemmateenejad B, Abbaspour A, Maghami H, Miri R, Panjehshahin MR (August 2006). "Partial least squares-based multivariate spectral calibration method for simultaneous determination of beta-carboline derivatives in Peganum harmala seed extracts". Anal. Chim. Acta. 575 (2): 290–9. doi:10.1016/j.aca.2006.05.093. PMID 17723604.
- Herraiz T, González D, Ancín-Azpilicueta C, Arán VJ, Guillén H (March 2010). "beta-Carboline alkaloids in Peganum harmala and inhibition of human monoamine oxidase (MAO)". Food Chem. Toxicol. 48 (3): 839–45. doi:10.1016/j.fct.2009.12.019. PMID 20036304.
- Pulpati H, Biradar YS, Rajani M (2008). "High-performance thin-layer chromatography densitometric method for the quantification of harmine, harmaline, vasicine, and vasicinone in Peganum harmala". J AOAC Int. 91 (5): 1179–85. PMID 18980138.
- "African rue or Harmel". www.cdfa.ca.gov. Retrieved 2008-02-02.
- Massaro, E. J. (2002). Handbook of Neurotoxicology. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press. p. 237. ISBN 0-89603-796-7.
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