MDA

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Summary sheet: MDA
MDA
MDA.svg
Chemical Nomenclature
Common names MDA, Sass, Sally, Tenamfetamine
Substitutive name 3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamine
Systematic name (R) 1-(benzo[1,3]dioxol-5-yl)propan-2-amine
Class Membership
Psychoactive class Entactogen / Stimulant / Psychedelic
Chemical class Amphetamine
Routes of Administration

WARNING: Always start with lower doses due to differences between individual body weight, tolerance, metabolism, and personal sensitivity. See responsible use section.



Oral
Dosage
Threshold Common Heavy
20 - 40 - 60 - 100 - 145 mg
Light Strong
Threshold 20 - 40 mg
Light 40 - 60 mg
Common 60 - 100 mg
Strong 100 - 145 mg
Heavy 145 mg +
Duration
Total 5 - 8 hours
Onset 30 - 90 minutes
Come up 15 - 45 minutes
Peak 2.5 - 4 hours
Offset 2 - 3 hours
After effects 4 - 48 hours









DISCLAIMER: PW's dosage information is gathered from users and resources for educational purposes only. It is not a recommendation and should be verified with other sources for accuracy.

3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamine (also known as MDA, and Tenamfetamine, or colloquially as "Sally", "Sass", or "Sass-a-frass") is a synthetic entactogen of the amphetamine chemical class. It produces long-lived entactogenic, stimulant and mild psychedelic effects that include stimulation, anxiety suppression, enhanced feelings of empathy, affection, and sociability, and euphoria when administered.

MDA was first synthesized in 1910 but its psychoactive effects were not discovered until in 1930. It was used in animal and human trials between 1939 and 1941 and from 1949 to 1957. More than 500 human subjects were given MDA in an investigation of its potential use as either an antidepressant or anorectic.[1] By 1958, it was successfully patented as a cough suppresant and ataractic. By 1961 it was patented as a anorectic under the trade name "Amphedoxamine".[citation needed]

Contemporary reports suggest that MDA emerged as a recreational drug towards the end of 1967, meaning its use predates its more widely used relative MDMA (Ecstasy).[2]

As with MDMA, MDA is thought to act primarily as a serotonin-norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitor and releasing agent.[citation needed] However, MDA is significantly more potent by weight and subjective intensity relative to MDMA. It also has a notably longer duration (six to eight hours instead of three to five) and produces more traditional serotonergic psychedelic effects (such as visual distortions) along with appreciably higher activity on dopamine, which is also believed to be responsible for the greater degree of neurotoxicity it produces.[citation needed]

Today, possession of MDA is illegal in most countries, although some limited exceptions exist for scientific and medical research.

History and culture

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MDA was first synthesized by G. Mannish and W. Jacobson in 1910.[3] It was first ingested in July 1930 by Gordon Alles who later licensed the drug to Smith, Kline & French. MDA was first used in animal tests in 1939, and human trials began in 1941 in the exploration of possible therapies for Parkinson's disease. From 1949 to 1957, more than 500 human subjects were given MDA in an investigation of its potential use as an antidepressant and anorectic by Smith, Kline & French.

The United States Army also experimented with the drug, code-named EA-1298, while working to develop a truth drug or incapacitating agent. Harold Blauer[4] died in January 1953 after being intravenously injected with 450 mg of the drug.

MDA was patented as a cough suppressant by H. D. Brown in 1958, as an ataractic by Smith, Kline & French in 1960, and as an anorectic under the trade name "Amphedoxamine" in 1961. MDA began to appear on the recreational drug scene around 1967. In early 1968, the Bureau of Drug Abuse Control reported the seizure of over 1.4kg of MDA and 11kg of precursors from a clandestine laboratory in New York[5].

Several researchers, including Claudio Naranjo and Richard Yensen, have explored MDA in the field of psychotherapy.[6][7] In 2010, Matthew Baggott and colleagues studied the ability of MDA to invoke mystical experiences and alter vision in healthy volunteers.[8]

Chemistry

MDA, also known as 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine, is a synthetic molecule of the amphetamine family. Molecules of the amphetamine class contain a phenethylamine core featuring a phenyl ring bound to an amino (NH2) group through an ethyl chain with an additional methyl substitution at Rα. MDA also contains substitutions at R3 and R4 of the phenyl ring with oxygen groups. These oxygen groups are incorporated into a methylenedioxy ring through a methylene chain. MDA shares this methylenedioxy ring with MDMA, MDAI and more obscure variants like MDEA or MMDA.

Pharmacology

Further information: Serotonergic psychedelic

MDA acts as a releasing agent and reuptake inhibitor of the neurotransmitters known as serotonin, dopamine and norepinephrine.[9][10] It also functions as a 5-HT2A,[11] 5-HT2B,[12] and 5-HT2C[13] receptor agonist and shows affinity for the TAAR1, α2A-, α2B-, α2C-adrenergic receptors and 5-HT1A and 5-HT7 receptors.[14]

The effect on serotonin may explain the similar euphoric and empathogenic effects of the two compounds MDMA and MDA. However, MDA has a higher efficacy in stimulating the 5-HT2A receptor than MDMA; thus MDA tends to cause more psychedelic-like effects, such as visual geometry and hallucinations. While MDMA can also produce psychedelic-like visual effects, these are less pronounced than those of MDA or require a heavier dose to become apparent. It is worth noting that the role of these interactions and how they result in the psychedelic experience continues to remain elusive.

Subjective effects

While MDA is similar to MDMA, users report that MDA has more stimulant and psychedelic qualities and less intense entactogenic effects than MDMA. MDA is also considered to be less predictable than MDMA, with effects varying greatly from person to person.

The effects listed below are based upon the subjective effects index and personal experiences of PsychonautWiki contributors. The listed effects should be taken with a grain of salt and will rarely (if ever) occur all at once, but heavier doses will increase the chances and are more likely to induce a full range of effects. Likewise, adverse effects become much more likely on higher doses and may include serious injury or death.

Physical effects
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Visual effects
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Cognitive effects
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Transpersonal effects
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After effects
Aftereffects (3).svg

Experience reports

There are currently no anecdotal reports which describe the effects of this compound within our experience index. Additional experience reports can be found here:

Toxicity and harm potential

Anecdotal evidence from people within the psychonaut community who have tried MDA suggests that there are no negative health effects attributed to simply trying the drug by itself at low to moderate doses and using it very sparingly (but nothing can be completely guaranteed). Independent research should always be done to ensure that a combination of two or more substances is safe before consumption.

Harold Blauer[16] died in January 1953 after being intravenously injected with 450 mg of MDA.

MDA is also known to be more neurotoxic when compared to substances such as MDMA or MDE.[17]

It is strongly recommended that one use harm reduction practices when using this substance.

Tolerance and addiction potential

As with other stimulants, the chronic use of MDA can be considered moderately addictive with a high potential for abuse and is capable of causing psychological dependence among certain users. When addiction has developed, cravings and withdrawal effects may occur if a person suddenly stops their usage.

Tolerance to the psychedelic effects of MDA is built almost immediately after ingestion. However, tolerance to the stimulant and entactogenic effects are built up after repeated and heavy usage in a manner that varies between individuals. After that, it takes about 3 days for the tolerance to be reduced to half and 7 days to be back at baseline (in the absence of further consumption). MDA presents cross-tolerance with all psychedelics and most stimulants, meaning that after the consumption of MDA all psychedelics and some stimulants will have a reduced effect.

Dangerous interactions

Serotonin syndrome risk

Combinations in the list below may increase the amount of neurotransmitters such as serotonin and dopamine to dangerous or even fatal levels.

Legal status

  • Austria: MDA is illegal to possess, produce and sell under the SMG (Suchtmittelgesetz Österreich).[citation needed]
  • Switzerland: Possession, production and sale is illegal.[19]
  • United Kingdom: MDA is a class A drug.[citation needed]
  • United States: MDA is a Schedule I drug.[citation needed]

See also

External links

Literature

  • Green, A.J., Mechan, A.O., Elliott, J.M., O'shea, E., & Colado, M.I. (2003). The pharmacology and clinical pharmacology of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, "ecstasy"). Pharmacological Reviews, 55 3, 463-508. https://doi.org/10.1124/pr.55.3.3

References

  1. Über Oxyphenyl-alkylamine und Dioxyphenyl-alkylamine | http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/cber.19100430126/abstract;jsessionid=CF00D19D5BF8D9E4343735C6B27E57AE.f03t03
  2. Schoenfeld, Eugene. "Hippocrates". Berkeley Barb November 24-30, 1967: 7 (Independent Voices) | http://voices.revealdigital.com/cgi-bin/independentvoices?a=d&d=BFBJFGD19671124.1.7
  3. Über Oxyphenyl-alkylamine und Dioxyphenyl-alkylamine | http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/cber.19100430126/abstract;jsessionid=CF00D19D5BF8D9E4343735C6B27E57AE.f03t03
  4. The History Channel documented details of his death here http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ySw-0uY4CUA See minute 2:38 onward.
  5. "Methylenedioxy Amphetamine (MDA)." Microgram. Bureau of Drug Abuse Control. Feb 1968. 1(5):4-5 (Erowid.org) | https://erowid.org/library/periodicals/microgram/microgram_1968_02_v01n05.pdf
  6. Evaluation of 3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA) as an Adjunct to Psychotherapy | http://www.karger.com/Article/Abstract/137100
  7. MDA-assisted psychotherapy with neurotic outpatients: a pilot study (PubMed.gov / NCBI) | https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/972325
  8. Investigating the Mechanisms of Hallucinogen-Induced Visions Using 3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA): A Randomized Controlled Trial in Humans | http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0014074
  9. Trace amine-associated receptor 1 is a stereoselective binding site for compounds in the amphetamine class (PubMed.gov / NCBI) | https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22037049
  10. Endogenous hallucinogens as ligands of the trace amine receptors: a possible role in sensory perception (PubMed.gov / NCBI) | https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18805646
  11. Serotonin-dopamine Interaction: Experimental Evidence and Therapeutic Relevance | http://books.google.com/books?id=mPkKtA15KM8C&pg=PA294
  12. Serotonergic drugs and valvular heart disease (PubMed.gov / NCBI) | https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19505264
  13. Effect of the R(-) and S(+) isomers of MDA and MDMA on phosphatidyl inositol turnover in cultured cells expressing 5-HT2A or 5-HT2C receptors (PubMed.gov / NCBI) | https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7824160
  14. Psychedelics and the human receptorome (PubMed.gov / NCBI) | https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20126400
  15. Johnson, M. P., Hoffman, A. J., & Nichols, D. E. (1986). Effects of enantiomers of MDA, MDMA and related analogues on [3H]serotonin and [3H]dopamine release from superfused rat brain slices. European Journal of Pharmacology, 132(2–3), 269–276. https://doi.org/10.1016/0014-2999(86)90615-1
  16. The History Channel documented details of his death here http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ySw-0uY4CUA See minute 2:38 onward.
  17. http://www.drogen-info-berlin.de/htm/mda.html
  18. Gillman, P. K. (2005). Monoamine oxidase inhibitors, opioid analgesics and serotonin toxicity. British Journal of Anaesthesia, 95(4), 434-441. https://doi.org/10.1093/bja/aei210
  19. Verordnung des EDI über die Verzeichnisse der Betäubungsmittel, psychotropen Stoffe, Vorläuferstoffe und Hilfschemikalien | https://www.admin.ch/opc/de/classified-compilation/20101220/index.html