Methoxetamine

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Summary sheet: Methoxetamine
Methoxetamine
MXE.svg
Chemical Nomenclature
Common names Methoxetamine, MXE, Mexxy
Substitutive name 3-MeO-2'-Oxo-PCE
Systematic name (RS)2-(3-methoxyphenyl)-2-(ethylamino)cyclohexanone
Class Membership
Psychoactive class Dissociative
Chemical class Arylcyclohexylamine
Routes of Administration

WARNING: Always start with lower doses due to differences between individual body weight, tolerance, metabolism, and personal sensitivity. See responsible use section.



Oral
Dosage
Threshold 5 - 10 mg
Light 10 - 25 mg
Common 25 - 45 mg
Strong 45 - 70 mg
Heavy 70 mg +
Duration
Total 4 - 6 hours
Onset 15 - 30 minutes
Come up 45 - 90 minutes
Peak 1.5 - 2.5 hours
Offset 1 - 1.5 hours
After effects 6 - 48 hours



Insufflated
Dosage
Threshold 5 - 10 mg
Light 10 - 20 mg
Common 20 - 35 mg
Strong 35 - 60 mg
Heavy 60 mg +
Duration
Total 3 - 5 hours
Onset 5 - 20 minutes
Come up 30 - 75 minutes
Peak 1 - 2 hours
Offset 1 - 1.5 hours
After effects 4 - 48 hours






DISCLAIMER: PW's dosage information is gathered from users and resources for educational purposes only. It is not a recommendation and should be verified with other sources for accuracy.

3-MeO-2'-Oxo-PCE (commonly known as Methoxetamine, MXE, Mexxy, among others) is a dissociative substance of the arylcyclohexylamine class that produces dissociative and hallucinogenic effects when administered. It is an analog of ketamine that also contains structural features of PCE and 3-MeO-PCP. [1]

This compound was originally developed through the use of intelligent drug design, as a potential treatment for Phantom Limb Syndrome among other ailments.[2]

MXE had almost no history of human usage and was first identified in November 2010 by the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction, which monitors the Internet for new psychoactive substances within the European Union. By July 2011, they had identified 58 websites selling the compound at the cost of 145–195 euros for 10 grams.[3]

Today, MXE is used as a recreational drug and entheogen. It is rarely sold on the streets and almost exclusively distributed as a grey area research chemical by online vendors.

Limited data exists about the pharmacological properties, metabolism, and toxicity of MXE in humans, and it has a limited history of human use. It is highly advised to use harm reduction practices if using this substance.

Chemistry

Methoxetamine, or (RS)2-(3-methoxyphenyl)-2-(ethylamino)cyclohexanone, is classed as an arylcyclohexylamine. Arylcyclohexylamines are named for their structures which include a cyclohexane ring bound to an aromatic ring along with an amine group.

MXE contains a phenyl ring with a methoxy (CH3-O-) substituent at R3 bonded to a cyclohexane ring substituted at R2 with an oxo group (cyclohexanone). Bound to the same location (R1) of the cyclohexanone ring is an amino ethyl chain -N-CH2CH3.

MXE is a chiral molecule that is often produced as a racemate, although batches of its stereo-exclusive isomers have occasionally been produced and distributed.

Pharmacology

Further information: NMDA receptor antagonist

MXE acts as a non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist and serotonin-reuptake inhibitor.[4] NMDA receptors allow for electrical signals to pass between neurons in the brain and spinal column; for the signals to pass, the receptor must be open. Dissociatives close the NMDA receptors by blocking them. This disconnection of neurons leads to loss of feeling, difficulty moving, and eventually an almost identical equivalent of the famous “k-hole.” MXE was reported to be similar to ketamine [5], despite being stronger and having a longer duration. [6]

Because of its structural similarity to 3-HO-PCP, it was falsely believed to carry opioid properties.[7] This claim cannot be supported by actual data, instead showing only insignificant affinity for the µ-opioid receptor by the substance itself, although in-vivo metabolites could yield different effects.[4]

Subjective effects

The effects listed below are based upon the subjective effects index and personal experiences of PsychonautWiki contributors. The listed effects should be taken with a grain of salt and will rarely (if ever) occur all at once, but heavier doses will increase the chances and are more likely to induce a full range of effects. Likewise, adverse effects become much more likely on higher doses and may include serious injury or death.

Physical effects
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Disconnective effects
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Visual effects
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Cognitive effects
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Experience reports

Anecdotal reports which describe the effects of this compound within our experience index include:

Additional experience reports can be found here:

Toxicity and harm potential

The toxicity and long-term health effects of recreational MXE use do not seem to have been studied in any scientific context and the exact toxic dosage is unknown. This is because MXE is a research chemical with a very brief history of human usage.

Anecdotal reports from those who have tried MXE suggests that there do not seem to be any negative health effects attributed to simply trying this substance at low to moderate doses by itself and using it sparingly (but nothing can be completely guaranteed). Independent research should always be done to ensure that a combination of two or more substances is safe before consumption.

It is strongly recommended that one use harm reduction practices when using this substance.

Tolerance and addiction potential

As with other NMDA receptor antagonists, the chronic use of MXE can be considered moderately addictive with a high potential for abuse and is capable of producing psychological dependence among certain users. When addiction has developed, cravings and withdrawal effects may occur if a person suddenly stops their usage.

Tolerance to many of the effects of MXE develops with prolonged and repeated use. This results in users having to administer increasingly large doses to achieve the same effects. After that, it takes about 3 - 7 days for the tolerance to be reduced to half and 1 - 2 weeks to be back at baseline (in the absence of further consumption).

MXE presents cross-tolerance with all dissociatives, meaning that after the consumption of MXE all dissociatives will have a reduced effect.

Urinary tract effects

In terms of its long-term health effects when used repeatedly and excessively for extended periods of time, MXE seems to exhibit almost identical bladder and urinary tract problems to those found within ketamine, but to a lesser extent. This is because MXE is four times as potent as ketamine, so significantly less of drug needs to be consumed. Symptoms of ketamine-induced cystitis can become extremely serious and can be described as:

  • Urinary frequency - Urinary frequency is the need to empty the bladder every few minutes.
  • Urinary urgency - This can be described as a sudden, compelling need to urinate.
  • Urinary pressure - This is experienced as a constant sensation of fullness in the bladder that is unrelieved by urination.
  • Pelvic and bladder pain - Pain can develop suddenly and severely, particularly as the bladder fills with urine.
  • Hematuria - Hematuria is visible blood in the urine.
  • Incontinence - This is the leakage of urine.

All of these, however, can easily be avoided by simply not using MXE on a daily or even weekly basis and manually limiting one's usage of the substance.

Dangerous interactions

Although many psychoactive substances are safe on their own, they can become dangerous and even life-threatening when combined with other substances. The list below contains some common potentially dangerous combinations, but may not include all of them. Certain combinations may be safe in low doses of each but still increase the potential risk of death. Independent research should always be done to ensure that a combination of two or more substances is safe before consumption.

Prominent examples include PCP and its analogs 3-MeO-PCP, MXE, and the diarylethylamine dissociatives like diphenidine or ephenidine. There is also evidence that suggests that combining these two increases their neurotoxicity.[citation needed] Anecdotally, worsened comedowns are also commonly reported when these two classes of substances are combined.
  • Depressants - Because both depress the respiratory system, this combination can result in an increased risk of suddenly falling unconscious, vomiting and choking to death from the resulting suffocation. If nausea or vomiting occurs, users should attempt to fall asleep in the recovery position or have a friend move them into it.

Legal status

  • Austria: MXE is illegal to possess, produce and sell under the NPSG. (Neue-Psychoaktive-Substanzen-Gesetz Österreich)[citation needed]
  • Brazil: Possession, production and sale is illegal as it is listed on Portaria SVS/MS nº 344 [8]
  • Canada: Health Canada declared MXE a controlled substance, citing it as "considered an analogue of ketamine."[9] The possession, production, and sale are illegal.
  • France: Methoxetamine was added to the list of illicit substances in August 2013.[citation needed]
  • Germany: It is illegal to possess, produce, or sell MXE.[citation needed]
  • Italy: According to the table of drugs, MXE has been illegal in Italy since 2016.[10]
  • Japan: It is illegal to possess, produce, or sell MXE.[citation needed]
  • Netherlands: It is illegal to possess, produce, trasnport, import, export, or sell MXE.[11]
  • Russia: It is illegal to possess, produce, or sell MXE.[citation needed]
  • Switzerland: It is illegal to possess, produce, or sell MXE.[citation needed]
  • United Kingdom: MXE is a Class B drug.[citation needed]
  • United States: MXE is not illegal, however, if it is sold with the intention for human consumption (such as in capsules) it becomes illegal to possess under the Federal Analogue Act. This is avoided by placing the label "not for human consumption" on the container of the chemical.[citation needed]

See also

External links

Community

Literature

  • Morris, H., & Wallach, J. (2014). From PCP to MXE: A comprehensive review of the non-medical use of dissociative drugs. Drug Testing and Analysis, 6(7–8), 614–632. https://doi.org/10.1002/dta.1620
  • Halberstadt, A. L., Slepak, N., Hyun, J., Buell, M. R., & Powell, S. B. (2016). The novel ketamine analog methoxetamine produces dissociative-like behavioral effects in rodents. Psychopharmacology, 233(7), 1215-1225. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00213-016-4203-3

References

  1. MXE Binding profile | http://www.homeoffice.gov.uk/publications/agencies-public-bodies/acmd1/methoxetamine2012?view=Binary
  2. Interview with a ketamine chemist | https://www.vice.com/en_us/article/interview-with-ketamine-chemist-704-v18n2
  3. Online sales of new psychoactive substances/‘legal highs’ | http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/attachements.cfm/att_143801_EN_SnapshotSummary.pdf
  4. 4.0 4.1 "ACMD Methoxetamine Report (2012)". Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs. October 2012. pp. 14–15. Retrieved 6 February 2013.
  5. Kjellgren, A., & Jonsson, K. (2013). Methoxetamine (MXE)--a phenomenological study of experiences induced by a {\dq}legal high{\dq} from the internet. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 45(3), 276–286. https://doi.org/10.1080/02791072.2013.803647
  6. Coppola, M., & Mondola, R. (2012). Methoxetamine: From drug of abuse to rapid-acting antidepressant. Medical Hypotheses, 79(4), 504–507. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mehy.2012.07.002
  7. Morris, H., & Wallach, J. (2014). From PCP to MXE: A comprehensive review of the non-medical use of dissociative drugs. Drug Testing and Analysis. https://doi.org/10.1002/dta.1620
  8. http://portal.anvisa.gov.br/documents/10181/3115436/%281%29RDC_130_2016_.pdf/fc7ea407-3ff5-4fc1-bcfe-2f37504d28b7
  9. "STATUS DECISION OF CONTROLLED AND NON-CONTROLLED SUBSTANCE(S)", https://web.archive.org/web/20160409135922/http://isomerdesign.com/Cdsa/HC/StatusDecisions/A-2013-00235%20-%20PDFs/C-Methoxetamine-2011-01-31.pdf. Retrieved January 24th, 2017.
  10. http://www.salute.gov.it/imgs/C_17_pagineAree_3729_listaFile_itemName_0_file.pdf
  11. "Opiumwet lijst 1", http://wetten.overheid.nl/BWBR0001941/2017-05-25