Mescaline

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Summary sheet: Mescaline
Mescaline
Mescaline.svg
Chemical Nomenclature
Common names Mescaline
Substitutive name 3,4,5-Trimethoxyphenethylamine
Systematic name 2-(3,4,5-Trimethoxyphenyl)ethanamine
Class Membership
Psychoactive class Psychedelic
Chemical class Phenethylamine
Routes of Administration

WARNING: Always start with lower doses due to differences between individual body weight, tolerance, metabolism, and personal sensitivity. See responsible use section.



Oral
Dosage
Threshold 50 - 100 mg
Light 100 - 200 mg
Common 200 - 400 mg
Strong 400 - 800 mg
Heavy 800 mg+
Duration
Total 8 - 14 hours
Onset 45 - 90 minutes
Come up 60 - 120 minutes
Peak 4 - 6 hours
Offset 2 - 3 hours
After effects 6 - 36 hours









DISCLAIMER: PW's dosage information is gathered from users and resources for educational purposes only. It is not a recommendation and should be verified with other sources for accuracy.

3,4,5-Trimethoxyphenethylamine (also known as mescaline) is a naturally-occurring psychedelic substance of the phenethylamine class.[1] Mescaline is one of the oldest known hallucinogens and the prototypical member of the psychedelic phenethylamines, one of the two major classes of psychedelics.

Mescaline occurs naturally in the peyote cactus (Lophophora williamsii),[2] and it is produced in a number of other cacti species such as the Echinopsis pachanoi (San Pedro cactus),[3] Echinopsis peruviana (Peruvian Torch) as well as the Cactaceae plant and the Fabaceae bean family.[4] It was first isolated and identified in 1897 by the German chemist Arthur Heffter[5] and first synthesized in 1919 by Ernst Späth.[6]

Mescaline is both an important part of the life's work of Alexander Shulgin, a psychedelic chemist and researcher. It is a member of the so-called "magical half-dozen" which refers to Shulgin's self-rated most important phenethylamine compounds with psychedelic activity, all of which except mescaline he developed and synthesized himself. They are found within the first book of PiHKAL, and are as follows: Mescaline, DOM, 2C-B, 2C-E, 2C-T-2 and 2C-T-7.[7]

Unlike most highly prohibited substances, mescaline is not considered to be addictive by the scientific community.[8] Nevertheless, unpredictable adverse reactions such as anxiety, paranoia, delusions and psychosis can still always occur, particularly among those predisposed to psychiatric disorders.[9] It is highly advised to use harm reduction practices if using this substance.

History and culture

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The ritual use of the Peyote cactus has occurred for at least 5700 years by Native Americans in Mexico. Upon early contact, Europeans noted the use of Peyote in Native American religious ceremonies. Additionally, alternative mescaline-containing cacti such as the San Pedro have a long history of use in the South American continent, spanning from Peru to Ecuador.[10]

The principal psychoactive component in both Peyote and San Pedro, mescaline, was first isolated and identified in 1897 by the German chemist Arthur Heffter[11] and first synthesized in 1919 by Ernst Späth.[12]

In traditional peyote preparations, the top of the cactus is cut at ground level, leaving the large tap roots to grow new 'heads'. These 'heads' are then dried to make disc-shaped buttons and the buttons are chewed to produce the effects or soaked in water to drink. In modern times, users will often grind it into a powder and pour it into gel capsules to avoid having to come into contact with the bitter taste of the cactus. The usual human dose is 200–400 milligrams of mescaline sulfate or 178–356 milligrams of mescaline hydrochloride.[13] The average 76 mm (3.0 in.) button contains about 25 mg mescaline.[14]

Chemistry

Mescaline, or 3,4,5-trimethoxyphenethylamine, is a substituted phenethylamine featuring a phenyl ring bound to an amino -NH2 group through an ethyl chain. Mescaline contains three methoxy functional groups CH3O- which are attached to carbons R3, R4, and R5 of the phenyl ring.

Pharmacology

Further information: Serotonergic psychedelic

Mescaline acts similarly to other psychedelic agents.[15] It binds to and activates the serotonin 5-HT2A receptor with a high affinity.[16] How activating the 5-HT2A receptor leads to psychedelia is still unknown, but it likely somehow involves excitation of neurons in the prefrontal cortex.[17] Mescaline is also known to bind to and activate the serotonin 5-HT2C receptor.[18]

Subjective effects

The effects listed below are based upon the subjective effects index and personal experiences of PsychonautWiki contributors. These effects should be taken with a grain of salt and will rarely (if ever) occur all at once, but heavier doses will increase the chances of inducing a full range of effects. Likewise, adverse effects become much more likely on higher doses and may include serious injury or death.

Physical effects
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Visual effects
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Cognitive effects
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Multi-sensory effects
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Transpersonal effects
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Experience reports

Anecdotal reports which describe the effects of this compound within our experience index include:

Additional experience reports can be found here:

Natural sources

Flowering San Pedro, an entheogenic cactus that has been used for over 3,000 years[19]

Toxicity and harm potential

The toxicity and long-term health effects of recreational mescaline use does not appear to have been studied in any scientific context and the exact toxic dose is unknown. However, there are no known fatal overdoses within the scientific literature.

Anecdotal reports suggest that there are no negative health effects attributed to simply trying mescaline by itself at low to moderate doses and using it very sparingly (but nothing can be completely guaranteed).

Independent research should always be done to ensure that a combination of two or more substances is safe before consumption.

It is strongly recommended that one use harm reduction practices when using this substance.

Tolerance and addiction potential

Mescaline is not habit-forming and the desire to use it can actually decrease with use. It is most often self-regulating.

Tolerance to the effects of mescaline are built almost immediately after ingestion. After that, it takes about 3 days for the tolerance to be reduced to half and 7 days to be back at baseline (in the absence of further consumption). Mescaline presents cross-tolerance with all psychedelics, meaning that after the consumption of mescaline all psychedelics will have a reduced effect.[32]

Dangerous interactions

Although many psychoactive substances are safe to use on their own, they can quickly become dangerous or even life-threatening when combined with other substances. The following lists some known dangerous combinations, but may not include all of them. A combination that appears to be safe in low doses can still increase the risk of injury or death. Independent research should always be conducted to ensure that a combination of two or more substances is safe to consume.

  • Lithium - Individuals who take lithium for bipolar disorder or other psychiatric conditions should not take mescaline as it may increase the risk of seizures and psychosis.
  • Stimulants - Combining stimulants with psychedelics may induce states of extreme anxiety, over-stimulation, thought loops, and increase the risk of psychosis.[33]
  • Tramadol - Tramadol lowers the seizure threshold[34] and psychedelics may act as a potential trigger for seizures in susceptible individuals.[35][36][37]

Legal status

  • Australia: Peyote cacti and other mescaline-containing plants, such as San Pedro, are illegal in Western Australia, Queensland, and the Northern Territory. In other states such as Victoria and New South Wales, they are legal for ornamental and gardening purposes.[citation needed]
  • Brazil: Possession, production and sale is illegal as it is listed on Portaria SVS/MS nº 344.[38]
  • Canada: Mescaline is classified as a Schedule III drug under the Controlled Drugs and Substances Act. Peyote is listed as an exemption.[39] Other mescaline containing plants are presumably illegal to possess outside of ornamental and gardening purposes.
  • Germany: Mescaline in its raw form and dried mescaline-containing cacti are considered an illegal drug. However, anyone may grow and use peyote without restriction, as it is specifically exempt from legislation.[citation needed]
  • Netherlands: Mescaline in its raw form and dried mescaline-containing cacti are considered an illegal drug. However, anyone may grow and use peyote without restriction as it is specifically exempt from legislation.[citation needed]
  • United Kingdom: Mescaline in purified powder form is a Class A drug. However, dried cactus can be bought and sold legally.[40]
  • United States: Mescaline was made illegal in 1970 by the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act.[41] The drug was prohibited internationally by the 1971 Convention on Psychotropic Substances and is categorized as a Schedule I hallucinogen by the CSA. Mescaline is legal only for certain religious groups (such as the Native American Church) and in scientific and medical research. While mescaline containing cacti of the genus Echinopsis are technically controlled substances under the Controlled Substances Act, they are commonly sold publicly as ornamental plants.

See also

External links

References

  1. Nichols, D. E. (2016). Psychedelics, (April), 264–355. https://doi.org/10.1124/pr.115.011478
  2. Drug Identification Bible. Grand Junction, CO: Amera-Chem, Inc. 2007. ISBN 0-9635626-9-X.
  3. http://catbull.com/alamut/Bibliothek/1973_d.m._crosby_8158_1.pdf | Cactus Alkaloids. XIX. Crystallization of Mescaline HC1 and 3-Methoxytyramine HC1 from Trichocereus pachanoi
  4. http://catbull.com/alamut/Bibliothek/chem%20of%20texas%20acacias.pdf | Chemistry of Acacia's from South Texas
  5. https://www.erowid.org/culture/characters/heffter_arthur/heffter_arthur.shtml
  6. https://www.erowid.org/archive/rhodium/chemistry/mescaline.alkaloids.html
  7. Shulgin, A., & Shulgin, A. (1991). Erowid Online Books: "PIHKAL". Retrieved April 14, 2017.
  8. Lüscher, C., & Ungless, M. A. (2006). The Mechanistic Classification of Addictive Drugs, 3(11). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.0030437
  9. Strassman, R. J. (1984). Adverse reactions to psychedelic drugs. A review of the literature. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 172(10), 577-595. PMID: 6384428
  10. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15990261 | Prehistoric peyote use: alkaloid analysis and radiocarbon dating of archaeological specimens of Lophophora from Texas.
  11. https://www.erowid.org/culture/characters/heffter_arthur/heffter_arthur.shtml
  12. https://www.erowid.org/archive/rhodium/chemistry/mescaline.alkaloids.html
  13. https://www.erowid.org/library/books_online/pihkal/pihkal096.shtml | https://www.erowid.org/library/books_online/pihkal/pihkal096.shtml
  14. AJ Giannini, AE Slaby, MC Giannini (1982). Handbook of Overdose and Detoxification Emergencies. New Hyde Park, NY.: Medical Examination Publishing Company. ISBN 978-0-87488-182-0
  15. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14761703 | Mescaline
  16. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9301661 | Dihydrobenzofuran analogues of hallucinogens. 4. Mescaline derivatives.
  17. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17535909 | Mechanism of the 5-hydroxytryptamine 2A receptor-mediated facilitation of synaptic activity in prefrontal cortex.
  18. https://www.erowid.org/psychoactives/pharmacology/pharmacology_article1.shtml
  19. http://www.mescaline.com/sanpedro/
  20. 20.0 20.1 "Erowid Cacti Vaults : Visionary Cactus Guide - Mescaline from Sawdust". Retrieved 14 January 2015. 
  21. 21.0 21.1 21.2 21.3 21.4 21.5 21.6 "Descriptions of psychoactive Cacti". Retrieved 14 January 2015. 
  22. 22.0 22.1 22.2 "Cactus Chemistry By Species" (PDF). 
  23. 23.0 23.1 23.2 23.3 Forbidden Fruit Archives
  24. "Partial List of Alkaloids in Trichocereus Cacti". Thenook.org. Retrieved 2013-10-14. 
  25. Trichocereus
  26. 26.0 26.1 26.2 Partial List of Alkaloids in Trichocereus Cacti
  27. "Echinopsis tacaquirensis ssp. taquimbalensis". Retrieved 14 January 2015. 
  28. "Cardon Grande (Echinopsis terscheckii)". Retrieved 14 January 2015. 
  29. 29.0 29.1 Lycaeum
  30. Austrocylindropuntia cylindrica <http://www.desert-tropicals.com>
  31. "Cane Cholla (Cylindropuntia spinosior)". Retrieved 14 January 2015. 
  32. Psychedelics and Society by Michael Valentine Smith | https://www.erowid.org/archive/rhodium/chemistry/psychedelicchemistry/chapter1.html
  33. Tripsit Factsheets - LSD | http://drugs.tripsit.me/lsd
  34. Talaie, H., Panahandeh, R., Fayaznouri, M. R., Asadi, Z., & Abdollahi, M. (2009). Dose-independent occurrence of seizure with tramadol. Journal of Medical Toxicology, 5(2), 63-67. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03161089
  35. Tripsit Factsheets - LSD | http://drugs.tripsit.me/lsd
  36. Fisher, D. D., & Ungerleider, J. T. (1967). Grand mal seizures following ingestion of LSD. California Medicine, 106(3), 210. PMCID: PMC1502729
  37. Question ID: 2837 (Ask Erowid) | https://www.erowid.org/ask/ask.php?ID=2837
  38. http://portal.anvisa.gov.br/documents/10181/3115436/%281%29RDC_130_2016_.pdf/fc7ea407-3ff5-4fc1-bcfe-2f37504d28b7
  39. http://laws-lois.justice.gc.ca/Search/Search.aspx?txtS3archA11=mescaline&txtT1tl3=%22Controlled+Drugs+and+Substances+Act%22&h1ts0n1y=0&ddC0nt3ntTyp3=Acts.
  40. http://www.erowid.org/plants/cacti/cacti_law2.shtml
  41. http://www.deadiversion.usdoj.gov/schedules/index.html | List of Controlled Substances