Cognitive amplifications

From PsychonautWiki
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Cognitive amplifications are defined as any subjective effect which increases or raises the intensity of a facet of a person's cognition in a manner that could be generally considered functional or dysfunctional.

This page lists and describes the various cognitive amplifications which can occur under the influence of certain psychoactive compounds.

Cognitive enhancements

Cognitive enhancements are defined as any subjective effect which increases or raises the intensity of a facet of a person's cognition in a manner that could be generally considered functional.

This page lists and describes the various cognitive amplifications which can occur under the influence of certain psychoactive compounds.

Analysis enhancement

Main article: Analysis enhancement

Analysis enhancement is defined as a perceived improvement of a person's overall ability to logically process information[1][2][3] or creatively analyze concepts, ideas, and scenarios. This effect can lead to a deep state of contemplation which often results in an abundance of new and insightful ideas. It can give the person a perceived ability to better analyze concepts and problems in a manner which allows them to reach new conclusions, perspectives, and solutions which would have been otherwise difficult to conceive of.

Although this effect will often result in deep states of introspection, in other cases it can produce states which are not introspective but instead result in a deep analysis of the exterior world, both taken as a whole and as the things which comprise it. This can result in a perceived abundance of insightful ideas and conclusions with powerful themes pertaining to what is often described as "the bigger picture". These ideas generally involve (but are not limited to) insight into philosophy, science, spirituality, society, culture, universal progress, humanity, loved ones, the finite nature of our lives, history, the present moment, and future possibilities.

Cognitive performance is undeniably linked to personality,[4] and it has been repeatedly shown that psychedelics alter a user's personality for the long term. Experienced psychedelics users score significantly better than controls on several psychometric measures.[5]

Analysis enhancement is often accompanied by other coinciding effects such as stimulation, personal bias suppression, conceptual thinking, and thought connectivity. It is most commonly induced under the influence of moderate dosages of stimulant and nootropic compounds, such as amphetamine, methylphenidate, nicotine, and caffeine.[1][3] However, it can also occur in a more powerful although less consistent form under the influence of psychedelics such as certain LSD, psilocybin, and mescaline.[5]

Bodily control enhancement

Bodily control enhancement can be described as feeling as if there has been a distinct increase in a person's ability to control their physical body with precision, balance, coordination, and dexterity. This results in the feeling that they can accurately control a much greater variety of muscles across their body with the tiniest of subtle mental triggers.

The experience of this effect is often subjectively interpreted by people as a profound and primal feeling of being put back in touch with the animal body.

Bodily control enhancement is most commonly induced under the influence of moderate dosages of stimulating psychedelics, such as LSD, 2C-B, and DOC. However, it may also occur to a lesser extent under the influence of other compounds such as traditional stimulants and light dosages of stimulating dissociatives.

Color enhancement

Main article: Color enhancement

Color enhancement is defined as an intensification of the brightness and vividness of colors in the external environment. During this experience, reds may seem “redder”, greens may seem “greener", and all colors will likely appear much more distinct, complex, and visually intense than they comparatively would be during everyday sober living.[6][7][8][9][10][11][12] At higher levels, this effect can sometimes result in seeing colors which are perceived as surreal or seemingly impossible.[8][9]

Color enhancement is often accompanied by other coinciding effects such as visual acuity enhancement and pattern recognition enhancement.[6][7] It is most commonly induced under the influence of mild dosages of psychedelic compounds, such as LSD, psilocybin, and mescaline. However, it can also occur to a lesser extent under the influence of certain stimulants and dissociatives such as MDMA, ketamine[13], or 3-MeO-PCP.

Image examples

Enhancement of colours - woods.jpgThe Woods by Chelsea Morgan
Enhancementofcolour.jpgShowing differences by Chelsea Morgan
Chameleon.jpgChameleon by Anonymous.
Enhancement of colour rose.jpgRose by Chelsea Morgan
Chur City in Switzerland.jpgChur, Switzerland by Naps284
Paradise island by Xanny.jpgParadise island by Subsentience
Tree.jpgJapanese Garden by Anonymous

Creativity enhancement

Creativity enhancement is defined as an increase in one's capability to imagine new ideas, create art, or think about existing concepts in a novel manner.[14] This effect is particularly useful to artists of any sort as it can help a person overcome creative blocks on existing projects and induce inspiration for entirely new projects. Creativity enhancement can make imaginative activities more enjoyable and effortless in the moment and the inspiration from it can benefit the individual even after the effect has worn off.

A well-known example of psychedelic creativity enhancement comes from the Nobel Prize winning chemist Dr. Kary Mullis, who invented a method for copying DNA segments known as the PCR and is quoted as saying: "Would I have invented PCR if I hadn't taken LSD? I seriously doubt it. I could sit on a DNA molecule and watch the polymers go by. I learned that partly on psychedelic drugs".[15] In addition, although dubious, it has been claimed Francis Crick experimented with LSD during the time he helped elucidate the structure of DNA.[16] Many artists (such as The Beatles) have also attributed creativity enhancing properties to psychedelics like LSD.[citation needed]

Creativity enhancement is often accompanied by other coinciding effects such as thought connectivity, motivation enhancement, personal bias suppression, analysis enhancement, and thought acceleration in a manner which further amplifies a person's creativity. It is most commonly induced under the influence of moderate dosages of psychedelic compounds, such as LSD, psilocybin, and mescaline.[17][18][19] However, it can also occur to a lesser extent under the influence of cannabinoids,[20][21] dissociatives,[22] and stimulants.

Empathy, affection and sociability enhancement

Empathy, affection, and sociability enhancement is defined as the experience of a mind state which is dominated by intense feelings of compassion, talkativeness, and happiness.[23][24] The experience of this effect creates a wide range of subjective changes to a person's perception of their feelings towards other people and themselves. These are described and documented in the list below:

  • Increased sociability and the feeling that communication comes easier and more naturally.
  • Increased urge to communicate or express one's affectionate feelings towards others, even if they happen to be strangers.
  • Increased feelings of empathy, love, and connection with others.
  • Increased motivation to resolve social conflicts and improve interpersonal relationships.
  • Decreased negative emotions and mental states such as stress, anxiety, and fear.
  • Decreased insecurity, defensiveness, and fear of emotional injury or rejection from others.
  • Decreased irritability, aggression, anger, and jealousy.

Empathy, affection, and sociability enhancement is often accompanied by other coinciding effects such as stimulation, personal bias suppression, motivation enhancement, and anxiety suppression. It is most commonly induced under the influence of moderate dosages of entactogenic compounds such as MDMA,[25] 4-FA, and 2C-B.[26] However, it can also subtly occur to a much lesser extent under the influence of GABAergic depressants, and certain stimulants.[27]

Increased music appreciation

Increased music appreciation is defined as a general sense of an increased enjoyment of music. When music is listened to during this state, not only does it subjectively sound better, but the perceived music and lyrical content may have a profound impact on the listener.[28][29][30][31][32][33]

This experience can give one a sense of hyper-awareness of every sound, lyric, melody, and complex layer of noise within a song in addition to an enhanced ability to individually comprehend their significance and interplay. The perceived emotional intent of the musician and the meaning of the music may also be felt in a greater level clarity than that which is attainable during everyday sober living.[30] This effect can result in the belief, legitimate or delusional, that one has connected with the “true meaning” or “spirit” behind an artist’s song. During particularly enjoyable songs, this effect can result in feelings of overwhelming harmony[32] and a general sense of appreciation that can leave the person with a deep sense of connection towards the artist they are listening to.

Increased music appreciation is commonly mistaken as a purely auditory effect but is more likely the result of several coinciding components such as novelty enhancement, personal meaning intensification, emotion intensification, and auditory acuity enhancement. It is most commonly induced under the influence of moderate dosages of hallucinogenic compounds, such as psychedelics,[28][31][34] dissociatives,[35] and cannabinoids.[30] However, it can also occur to a lesser extent under the influence of stimulants[30][34] and GABAergic depressants.

Increased sense of humor

Increased sense of humor is defined as a general enhancement of the likelihood and degree to which a person finds stimuli to be humorous and amusing. During this state, a person's sensitivity to finding things funny is noticeably amplified, often to the point that they will begin uncontrollably laughing at trivial things without any intelligible reason or apparent cause.[36][37][38][39]

In group settings, the experience of witnessing another person who is laughing intensely for no apparent reason can itself become a contagious trigger which induces semi-uncontrollable laughter within the people around them. In extreme cases, this can often form a lengthy feedback loop in which people begin to laugh hysterically at the absurdity of not being able to stop laughing and not knowing what started the laughter to begin with.

Increased sense of humor is often accompanied by other coinciding effects such as emotion intensification and novelty enhancement. It is most commonly induced under the influence of moderate dosages of certain hallucinogenic compounds, such as psychedelics, mescaline,[40] and cannabinoids.[36][41] However, it can also occur to a much lesser extent under the influence of stimulants,[42] GABAergic depressants, and dissociatives.[36][41]

Memory enhancement

Main article: Memory enhancement

Memory enhancement is defined as an improvement in a person's ability to recall or retain memories.[43][44][45][46] The experience of this effect can make it easier for a person to access and remember past memories at a greater level of detail when compared to that of everyday sober living. It can also help one retain new information that may then be more easily recalled once the person is no longer under the influence of the psychoactive substance.

Memory enhancement is often accompanied by other coinciding effects such as analysis enhancement and thought acceleration. It is most commonly induced under the influence of moderate dosages of stimulant and nootropic compounds, such as methylphenidate,[47] caffeine,[45] Noopept,[48] nicotine,[49] and modafinil.[50]


Different substances can enhance different kinds of memory with some considerable overlap. Generally, there are three types:

  • Long-term memory: A vast store of knowledge and a record of prior events.[51]
  • Short-term memory: Faculties of the human mind that can hold a limited amount of information in a very accessible state temporarily.[51][52][53]
  • Working memory: Information used to plan and carry out behavior. Not completely distinct from short-term memory, it's generally viewed as the combination of multiple components working together. Measures of working memory have been found to correlate with intellectual aptitudes (and especially fluid intelligence) better than measures of short-term memory and, in fact, possibly better than measures of any other particular psychological process. Both storage and processing have to be engaged concurrently to assess working memory capacity, which relates it to cognitive aptitude.[51][52][53][54][55]

Motivation enhancement

Motivation enhancement is defined as an increased desire to perform tasks and accomplish goals in a productive manner.[56][57][58] This includes tasks and goals that would normally be considered too monotonous or overwhelming to fully commit oneself to.

A number of factors (which often, but not always, co-occur) reflect or contribute to task motivation: namely, wanting to complete a task, enjoying it or being interested in it.[58] Motivation may also be supported by closely related factors, such as positive mood, alertness, energy, and the absence of anxiety. Although motivation is a state, there are trait-like differences in the motivational states that people typically bring to tasks, just as there are differences in cognitive ability.[57]

Motivation enhancement is often accompanied by other coinciding effects such as stimulation and thought acceleration in a manner which further increases one's productivity. It is most commonly induced under the influence of moderate dosages of stimulant and nootropic compounds, such as amphetamine,[57][59] methylphenidate,[57] nicotine,[60] and modafinil.[61] However, it may also occur to a much lesser extent under the influence of certain opioids,[62][63] and GABAergic depressants.[62]

Novelty enhancement

Main article: Novelty enhancement

Novelty enhancement is defined as a feeling of increased fascination[64], awe,[64][65][66] and appreciation[66][67] attributed to specific parts or the entirety of one's external environment. This can result in an often overwhelming impression that everyday concepts such as nature, existence, common events, and even household objects are now considerably more profound, interesting, and significant.[68][33]

The experience of this effect commonly forces those who undergo it to acknowledge, consider, and appreciate the things around them in a level of detail and intensity which remains largely unparalleled throughout every day sobriety. It is often generally described using phrases such as "a sense of wonder"[64][66] or "seeing the world as new".[67]

Novelty enhancement is often accompanied by other coinciding effects such as personal bias suppression, emotion intensification and spirituality intensification in a manner which further intensifies the experience. It is most commonly induced under the influence of moderate dosages of psychedelic compounds, such as LSD, psilocybin, and mescaline. However, it can also occur to a lesser extent under the influence of cannabinoids, dissociatives, and entactogens.

Thought connectivity

Main article: Thought connectivity

Thought connectivity is defined as an alteration of a person's thought stream which is characterized by a distinct increase in unconstrained wandering thoughts which connect into each other through a fluid association of ideas.[69][70][71][72] During this state, thoughts may be subjectively experienced as a continuous stream of vaguely related ideas which tenuously connect into each other by incorporating a concept that was contained within the previous thought. When experienced, it is often likened to a complex game of word association.

During this state, it is often difficult for the person to consciously guide the direction of their thoughts in a manner that leads into a state of increased distractibility.[69] This will usually also result in one's train of thought contemplating an extremely broad variety of subjects, which can range from important, trivial, insightful, and nonsensical topics.

Thought connectivity is often accompanied by other coinciding effects such as thought acceleration and creativity enhancement. It is most commonly induced under the influence of moderate dosages of psychedelic compounds, such as LSD, psilocybin, and mescaline. However, it can also occur to a lesser extent under the influence of dissociatives, stimulants, and cannabinoids.

Thought organization

Main article: Thought organization

Thought organization (also known as fluid intelligence)[73] is defined as a state of mind in which one's ability to analyze and categorize conceptual information using a systematic and logical thought process is considerably increased.[74][75][76] It seemingly occurs through reducing thoughts which are unrelated or irrelevant to the topic at hand, therefore improving one's capacity for a structured and cohesive thought stream.[74][77] This effect also seems to allow the person to hold a greater amount of relevant information (as evidenced by language comprehension increases)[76] in their train of thought which can be useful for extended mental calculations, articulating ideas, and analyzing logical arguments.

Thought organization is often accompanied by other coinciding effects such as analysis enhancement and thought connectivity. It is most commonly induced under the influence of mild dosages of stimulant and nootropic compounds, such as amphetamine, methylphenidate, and Noopept. However, this effect can occur to a lesser extent under the influence of certain cannabis strains and spontaneously during psychedelic states. It is also worth noting that the same compounds which induce this mind state at light to moderate dosages can often result in the opposite effect of thought disorganization at heavier dosages.[75][77][78]

Cognitive Intensification

Cognitive intensification

Cognitive suppressions

Cognitive suppressions are defined as any subjective effect which decreases or lowers the intensity of a facet of a person's cognition in a manner that is generally considered either functional or dysfunctional.

This page lists and describes the various cognitive suppressions which can occur under the influence of certain psychoactive compounds.

Addiction suppression

Main article: Addiction suppression

Addiction suppression is defined as the experience of a total or partial suppression of a psychological addiction to a specific substance and the cravings associated with it. This can occur as an effect which lasts long after the compound which induced it wears off or it can last only while the compound is still active.

Addiction suppression is a rare effect that is most commonly associated with psychedelics,[31] psilocin,[79] LSD,[80] ibogaine[81] and N-acetylcysteine (NAC).[82]

Anxiety suppression

Main article: Anxiety suppression

Anxiety suppression (also known as anxiolysis or minimal sedation)[83] is medically recognized as a partial to complete suppression of a person’s ability to feel anxiety, general unease, and negative feelings of both psychological and physiological tension.[84] The experience of this effect may decrease anxiety-related behaviours such as restlessness, muscular tension,[85] rumination, and panic attacks. This typically results in feelings of extreme calmness and relaxation.

Anxiety suppression is often accompanied by other coinciding effects such as disinhibition and sedation. It is most commonly induced under the influence of moderate dosages of anxiolytic compounds which primarily include GABAergic depressants,[86][87] such as benzodiazepines,[88] alcohol,[89] GHB,[90] and gabapentinoids[91]. However, it can also occur to a lesser extent under the influence of a large variety of other pharmacological classes which include but are not limited to cannabinoids,[92] dissociatives,[93] SSRIs, and opioids.


Main article: Disinhibition

Disinhibition is medically recognized as an orientation towards immediate gratification, leading to impulsive behavior driven by current thoughts, feelings, and external stimuli, without regard for past learning or consideration of future consequences.[94][95][96] This is usually manifested through recklessness, poor risk assessment, and a disregard for social conventions.

At its lower levels of intensity, disinhibition can allow one to overcome emotional apprehension and suppressed social skills in a manner that is moderated and controllable for the average person. This can often prove useful for those who suffer from social anxiety or a general lack of self-confidence.

However, at higher levels of intensity, the disinhibited individual may be completely unable to maintain any semblance of self-restraint, at the expense of politeness, sensitivity, social appropriateness, or local laws and regulations. This lack of constraint can be negative, neutral, or positive depending on the individual and their current environment. The negative consequences of disinhibited behaviour range from relatively benign consequences (such as embarrassing oneself) to destructive and damaging ones (such as driving under the influence or committing criminal acts).

Disinhibition is often accompanied by other coinciding effects such as amnesia and anxiety suppression in a manner which can further decrease the person's observance of and regard for social norms. It is most commonly induced under the influence of moderate dosages of GABAergic depressants, such as alcohol,[97] benzodiazepines,[98] phenibut, and GHB. However, it may also occur under the influence of certain stimulants,[99] entactogens,[100] and dissociatives[101].

Dream suppression

Main article: Dream suppression

Dream suppression is defined as a decrease in the vividness, intensity, frequency, and recollection of a person's dreams. At its lower levels, this can be a partial suppression which results in the person having dreams of a lesser intensity and a lower rate of frequency. However, at its higher levels, this can be a complete suppression which results in the person not experiencing any dreams at all.

Dream suppression is most commonly induced under the influence of moderate dosages of cannabinoids[102] and most types of antidepressants[103][104][105]. This is due to the way in which they increase REM latency, decrease REM sleep, reduce total sleep time and efficiency, and increase wakefulness.[102][103][104][106] REM sleep is where the majority of dreams occur.[107]

Emotion suppression

Main article: Emotion suppression

Emotion suppression (also known as flat affect, apathy, or emotional blunting) is medically recognized as a flattening or decrease in the intensity of one's current emotional state below normal levels.[108][109][110] This dulls or suppresses the genuine emotions that a person was already feeling prior to ingesting the drug. For example, an individual who is currently feeling somewhat anxious or emotionally unstable may begin to feel very apathetic, neutral, uncaring, and emotionally blank. This also impacts the degree to which the person will express their emotional state through body language, tone of voice, and facial expressions.

It is worth noting that although a reduction in the intensity of one's emotions may be beneficial at times (e.g., the blunting of an anger response in a volatile patient), it may be detrimental at other times (e.g., emotional indifference at the funeral of a close family member).[111]

Emotion suppression is often accompanied by other coinciding effects such as motivation suppression, thought deceleration, and analysis suppression. It is most commonly induced under the influence of moderate dosages of antipsychotic compounds, such as quetiapine, haloperidol, and risperidone.[108][112] However, it can also occur in less consistent form under the influence of heavy dosages of dissociatives,[113][114] SSRI's,[111][115] and GABAergic depressants[116].

Focus suppression

Main article: Focus suppression

Focus suppression (also known as distractability[117]) is medically recognized as a decreased ability to selectively concentrate on an aspect of the environment while ignoring other things.[118][119] It can be best characterized by feelings of intense distractability which can prevent one from focusing on and performing basic tasks that would usually be relatively easy to not get distracted from.[120] This effect will often synergize with other coinciding effects such as motivation suppression, thought deceleration, and sedation.[21]

Focus suppression is often accompanied by other coinciding effects such as sedation, motivation suppression, and creativity suppression. It is most commonly induced under the influence of moderate or heavy dosages of antipsychotics,[121] benzodiazepines, cannabinoids,[21] and hallucinogens. However, it is worth noting that stimulant compounds which primarily induce focus enhancement at light to moderate dosages will also often lead into focus suppression at their heavier dosages.[122]

Memory suppression

Main article: Memory suppression

Memory suppression (also known as ego suppression, ego dissolution, ego loss or ego death) is defined as an inhibition of a person's ability to maintain a functional short and long-term memory.[123][124][70] This occurs in a manner that is directly proportional to the dosage consumed, and often begins with the degradation of one's short-term memory.

Memory suppression is a process which may be broken down into the 4 basic levels described below:

  1. Partial short-term memory suppression - At the lowest level, this effect is a partial and potentially inconsistent failure of a person's short-term memory. It can cause effects such as a general difficulty staying focused, an increase in distractibility, and a general tendency to forget what one is thinking or saying.
  2. Complete short-term memory suppression - At this level, this effect is the complete failure of a person's short-term memory. It can be described as the experience of being completely incapable of remembering any specific details regarding the present situation and the events leading up to it for more than a few seconds. This state of mind can often result in thought loops, confusion, disorientation, and a loss of control, especially for the inexperienced. At this level, it can also become impossible to follow both conversations and the plot of most forms of media.
  3. Partial long-term memory suppression - At this level, this effect is the partial, often intermittent failure of a person's long-term memory in addition to the complete failure of their short-term memory. It can be described as the experience of an increased difficulty recalling basic concepts and autobiographical information from one's long-term memory. Compounded with the complete suppression of short term memory, it creates an altered state where even basic tasks become challenging or impossible as one cannot mentally access past memories of how to complete them.

    For example, one may take a longer time to recall the identity of close friends or temporarily forget how to perform basic tasks. This state may create the sensation of experiencing something for the first time. At this stage, a reduction of certain learned personality traits, awareness of cultural norms, and linguistic recall may accompany the suppression of long-term memory.

  4. Complete long-term memory suppression - At the highest level, this effect is the complete and persistent failure of both a person's long and short-term memory. It can be described as the experience of becoming completely incapable of remembering even the most basic fundamental concepts stored within the person's long-term memory. This includes everything from their name, hometown, past memories, the awareness of being on drugs, what drugs even are, what human beings are, what life is, that time exists, what anything is, or that anything exists.

    Memory suppression of this level blocks all mental associations, attached meaning, acquired preferences, and value judgements one may have towards the external world. Sufficiently intense memory loss is also associated with the loss of a sense of self, in which one is no longer aware of their own existence. In this state, the user is unable to recall all learned conceptual knowledge about themselves and the external world, and no longer experiences the sensation of being a separate observer in an external world. This experience is commonly referred to as "ego death".

Memory suppression is often accompanied by other coinciding effects such as thought loops, personal bias suppression, amnesia, and delusions. It is most commonly induced under the influence of moderate dosages of hallucinogenic compounds, such as psychedelics, dissociatives, and deliriants.[125]

It is worth noting that although memory suppression is vaguely similar in its effects to amnesia, it differs in that it directly suppresses one's usage of their long or short term memory without inhibiting the person's ability to recall what happened during this experience afterward. In contrast, amnesia does not directly affect the usage of one's short or long-term memory during its experience but instead renders a person incapable of recalling events after it has worn off. A person experiencing memory suppression cannot access their existing memory, while a person with drug-induced amnesia cannot properly store new memories. As such, a person experiencing amnesia may not obviously appear to be doing so, as they can often carry on normal conversations and perform complex tasks. This is not the case with memory suppression.

Personal bias suppression

Personal bias suppression (also called cultural filter suppression) is defined as a decrease in the personal or cultural biases, preferences, and associations which a person knowingly or unknowingly filters and interprets their perception of the world through.[126]

Analyzing one's beliefs, preferences, or associations while experiencing personal bias suppression can lead to new perspectives that one could not reach while sober. The suppression of this innate tendency often induces the realization that certain aspects of a person's personality, world view and culture are not reflective of objective truths about reality, but are in fact subjective or even delusional opinions.[126] This realization often leads to or accompanies deep states of insight and critical introspection which can create significant alterations in a person's perspective that last anywhere from days, weeks, months, or even years after the experience itself.

Personal bias suppression is often accompanied by other coinciding effects such as conceptual thinking, analysis enhancement, and especially memory suppression. It is most commonly induced under the influence of heavy dosages of hallucinogens such as dissociatives and psychedelics. However, it can also occur to a much lesser extent under the influence of very heavy dosages entactogens and cannabinoids.


Main article: Sleepiness

Sleepiness (also known as drowsiness) is medically recognized as a state of near-sleep, or a strong desire for sleep without feeling a decrease in one's physical energy levels.[127][128][129] This state is independent of a circadian rhythm;[127] so, unlike sedation, this effect does not necessarily decrease physical energy levels but instead decreases wakefulness. It results in a propensity for tired, clouded, and sleep-prone behaviour. This can lead into a decreased motivation to perform tasks, as the increase in one's desire to sleep begins to outweigh other considerations. Prolonged exposure to this effect without appropriate rest can lead to cognitive fatigue and a range of other cognitive suppressions.

Sleepiness is most commonly induced under the influence of moderate dosages of a wide variety of compounds such as cannabinoids,[130] GABAergic depressants,[131][132] opioids,[133] antipsychotics,[134][135] some antihistamines,[136] and certain psychedelics. However, it is worth noting that the few compounds which selectively induce this effect without a number of other accompanying effects are referred to as hypnotics.

Suggestibility suppression

Suggestibility suppression is defined as a decreased tendency to accept and act on the suggestions of others. A common example of suggestibility suppression in action would be a person being unwilling to believe or trust another person's suggestions without a greater amount of prior discussion than would usually be considered necessary during every day sobriety.

Although this effect can occur as a distinct mindstate, it may also arise due to interactions between a number of other effects. For example, a person who is currently experiencing mild paranoia combined with analysis enhancement may find themselves less trusting and more inclined to think through the suggestions of others before acting upon them, alternatively, a person who is experiencing ego inflation may find that they value their own opinion over others and are therefore equally less likely to follow the suggestions of others.

Alcohol has been shown to decrease suggestibility in a dose-dependent manner,[137][138] while its withdrawals increases suggestibility.[139] A large proportion of individuals who come in contact with law enforcement personnel are under the influence of alcohol, including perpetrators, victims, and witnesses of crimes. This has to be taken into account when investigative interviews are planned and conducted, and when the reliability of the information derived from such interviews is evaluated.[137][138][139]

Suggestibility suppression is often accompanied by other coinciding effects such as irritability[137] and ego inflation. It is most commonly induced under the influence of GABAergic depressants.[137][138][139]

Thought deceleration

Main article: Thought deceleration

Thought deceleration (also known as bradyphrenia)[140] is defined as the process of thought being slowed down significantly in comparison to that of normal sobriety. When experiencing this effect, it will feel as if the time it takes to think a thought and the amount of time which occurs between each thought has been slowed down to the point of greatly impairing cognitive processes. It can manifest itself in delayed recognition, slower reaction times, and fine motor skills deficits.

Thought deceleration is often accompanied by other coinciding effects such as analysis suppression and sedation in a manner which not only decreases the person's speed of thought, but also significantly decreases the sharpness of a person's mental clarity. It is most commonly induced under the influence of heavy dosages of depressant compounds, such as GABAergics,[141][142][143] antipsychotics,[144] and opioids.[145][146][147] However, it can also occur to a lesser extent under the influence of heavy dosages of hallucinogens such as psychedelics,[32] dissociatives,[148] deliriants,[143][149] and cannabinoids.[150][151][152][153]

See also


  1. 1.0 1.1 Fillmore, Mark T.; Kelly, Thomas H.; Martin, Catherine A. (2005). "Effects of d-amphetamine in human models of information processing and inhibitory control". Drug and Alcohol Dependence. 77 (2): 151–159. doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2004.07.013. ISSN 0376-8716. 
  2. Bättig, K.; Buzzi, R. (1986). "Effect of Coffee on the Speed of Subject-Paced Information Processing". Neuropsychobiology. 16 (2-3): 126–130. doi:10.1159/000118312. ISSN 0302-282X. 
  3. 3.0 3.1 Warburton, David; Bersellini, Elisabetta; Sweeney, Eve (2001). "An evaluation of a caffeinated taurine drink on mood, memory and information processing in healthy volunteers without caffeine abstinence". Psychopharmacology. 158 (3): 322–328. doi:10.1007/s002130100884. ISSN 0033-3158. 
  4. Humphreys, Michael S.; Revelle, William (1984). "Personality, motivation, and performance: A theory of the relationship between individual differences and information processing". Psychological Review. 91 (2): 153–184. doi:10.1037/0033-295X.91.2.153. ISSN 1939-1471. 
  5. 5.0 5.1 Bouso, José Carlos; Palhano-Fontes, Fernanda; Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni; Ribeiro, Sidarta; Sanches, Rafael; Crippa, José Alexandre S.; Hallak, Jaime E.C.; de Araujo, Draulio B.; Riba, Jordi (2015). "Long-term use of psychedelic drugs is associated with differences in brain structure and personality in humans". European Neuropsychopharmacology. 25 (4): 483–492. doi:10.1016/j.euroneuro.2015.01.008. ISSN 0924-977X. 
  6. 6.0 6.1 Papoutsis, Ioannis; Nikolaou, Panagiota; Stefanidou, Maria; Spiliopoulou, Chara; Athanaselis, Sotiris (2014). "25B-NBOMe and its precursor 2C-B: modern trends and hidden dangers". Forensic Toxicology. 33 (1): 1–11. doi:10.1007/s11419-014-0242-9. ISSN 1860-8965. 
  7. 7.0 7.1 Bersani, Francesco Saverio; Corazza, Ornella; Albano, Gabriella; Valeriani, Giuseppe; Santacroce, Rita; Bolzan Mariotti Posocco, Flaminia; Cinosi, Eduardo; Simonato, Pierluigi; Martinotti, Giovanni; Bersani, Giuseppe; Schifano, Fabrizio (2014). "25C-NBOMe: Preliminary Data on Pharmacology, Psychoactive Effects, and Toxicity of a New Potent and Dangerous Hallucinogenic Drug". BioMed Research International. 2014: 1–6. doi:10.1155/2014/734749. ISSN 2314-6133. 
  8. 8.0 8.1 Hartman, Alan M.; Hollister, Leo E. (1963). "Effect of mescaline, lysergic acid diethylamide and psilocybin on color perception". Psychopharmacologia. 4 (6): 441–451. doi:10.1007/BF00403349. ISSN 0033-3158. 
  9. 9.0 9.1 Kleinman, J. E.; Gillin, J. C.; Wyatt, R. J. (1977). "A Comparison of the Phenomenology of Hallucinogens and Schizophrenia From Some Autobiographical Accounts*". Schizophrenia Bulletin. 3 (4): 560–586. doi:10.1093/schbul/3.4.560. ISSN 0586-7614. 
  11. Abraham, Henry David (1983). "Visual Phenomenology of the LSD Flashback". Archives of General Psychiatry. 40 (8): 884. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.1983.01790070074009. ISSN 0003-990X. 
  12. Baggott, M.J.; Coyle, J.R.; Erowid, E.; Erowid, F.; Robertson, L.C. (2011). "Abnormal visual experiences in individuals with histories of hallucinogen use: A web-based questionnaire". Drug and Alcohol Dependence. 114 (1): 61–67. doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2010.09.006. ISSN 0376-8716. 
  13. Dillon, P (2003). "Patterns of use and harms associated with non-medical ketamine use". Drug and Alcohol Dependence. 69 (1): 23–28. doi:10.1016/S0376-8716(02)00243-0. ISSN 0376-8716. 
  14. Iszáj, Fruzsina; Griffiths, Mark D.; Demetrovics, Zsolt (2016). "Creativity and Psychoactive Substance Use: A Systematic Review". International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction. 15 (5): 1135–1149. doi:10.1007/s11469-016-9709-8. ISSN 1557-1874. 
  15. Hongbao, M. (2005). "Development Application Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)" (PDF). The Journal of American Science. 1 (3): 1–15. 
  16. Brooks, M. (2012). Free radicals: the secret anarchy of science (1st U.S. hardcover ed ed.). Overlook Press. ISBN 9781590208540. 
  17. Sessa, B. (2008). "Is it time to revisit the role of psychedelic drugs in enhancing human creativity?". Journal of Psychopharmacology. 22 (8): 821–827. doi:10.1177/0269881108091597. ISSN 0269-8811. 
  18. Krippiwr, Stanley (2008). "Research in creativity and psychedelic drugs". International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis. 25 (4): 274–290. doi:10.1080/00207147708415985. ISSN 0020-7144. 
  19. Krippner, Stanley (1985). "Psychedelic Drugs and Creativity". Journal of Psychoactive Drugs. 17 (4): 235–246. doi:10.1080/02791072.1985.10524328. ISSN 0279-1072. 
  20. Green, Bob; Kavanagh, David; Young, Ross (2003). "Being stoned: a review of self-reported cannabis effects". Drug and Alcohol Review. 22 (4): 453–460. doi:10.1080/09595230310001613976. ISSN 0959-5236. 
  21. 21.0 21.1 21.2 Kowal, Mikael A.; Hazekamp, Arno; Colzato, Lorenza S.; van Steenbergen, Henk; van der Wee, Nic J. A.; Durieux, Jeffrey; Manai, Meriem; Hommel, Bernhard (2014). "Cannabis and creativity: highly potent cannabis impairs divergent thinking in regular cannabis users". Psychopharmacology. 232 (6): 1123–1134. doi:10.1007/s00213-014-3749-1. ISSN 0033-3158. 
  22. Muetzelfeldt, L., Kamboj, S. K., Rees, H., Taylor, J., Morgan, C. J. A., Curran, H. V. (June 2008). "Journey through the K-hole: Phenomenological aspects of ketamine use". Drug and Alcohol Dependence. 95 (3): 219–229. doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2008.01.024. ISSN 0376-8716. 
  23. Nichols, David E. (1986). "Differences Between the Mechanism of Action of MDMA, MBDB, and the Classic Hallucinogens. Identification of a New Therapeutic Class: Entactogens". Journal of Psychoactive Drugs. 18 (4): 305–313. doi:10.1080/02791072.1986.10472362. ISSN 0279-1072. 
  24. Bedi, Gillinder; Hyman, David; de Wit, Harriet (2010). "Is Ecstasy an "Empathogen"? Effects of ±3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine on Prosocial Feelings and Identification of Emotional States in Others". Biological Psychiatry. 68 (12): 1134–1140. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2010.08.003. ISSN 0006-3223. 
  25. Scahill, Lawrence; Anderson, George M. (2010). "Is Ecstasy an Empathogen?". Biological Psychiatry. 68 (12): 1082–1083. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2010.10.020. ISSN 0006-3223. 
  26. González, Débora; Torrens, Marta; Farré, Magí (2015). "Acute Effects of the Novel Psychoactive Drug 2C-B on Emotions". BioMed Research International. 2015: 1–9. doi:10.1155/2015/643878. ISSN 2314-6133. 
  27. Wardle, Margaret C.; Garner, Matthew J.; Munafò, Marcus R.; de Wit, Harriet (2012). "Amphetamine as a social drug: effects of d-amphetamine on social processing and behavior". Psychopharmacology. 223 (2): 199–210. doi:10.1007/s00213-012-2708-y. ISSN 0033-3158. 
  28. 28.0 28.1 Kaelen, M.; Barrett, F. S.; Roseman, L.; Lorenz, R.; Family, N.; Bolstridge, M.; Curran, H. V.; Feilding, A.; Nutt, D. J.; Carhart-Harris, R. L. (2015). "LSD enhances the emotional response to music". Psychopharmacology. 232 (19): 3607–3614. doi:10.1007/s00213-015-4014-y. ISSN 0033-3158. 
  29. Kaelen, Mendel; Roseman, Leor; Kahan, Joshua; Santos-Ribeiro, Andre; Orban, Csaba; Lorenz, Romy; Barrett, Frederick S.; Bolstridge, Mark; Williams, Tim; Williams, Luke; Wall, Matthew B.; Feilding, Amanda; Muthukumaraswamy, Suresh; Nutt, David J.; Carhart-Harris, Robin (2016). "LSD modulates music-induced imagery via changes in parahippocampal connectivity". European Neuropsychopharmacology. 26 (7): 1099–1109. doi:10.1016/j.euroneuro.2016.03.018. ISSN 0924-977X. 
  30. 30.0 30.1 30.2 30.3 Fachner, J. (2002). "The space between the notes-Research on cannabis and music perception". Looking Back, Looking Ahead-Popular Music Studies (20): 308–319. 
  31. 31.0 31.1 31.2 Nichols, D. E. (2016). "Psychedelics". Pharmacological Reviews. 68 (2): 264–355. doi:10.1124/pr.115.011478. ISSN 1521-0081. 
  32. 32.0 32.1 32.2 Kaelen, Mendel; Giribaldi, Bruna; Raine, Jordan; Evans, Lisa; Timmerman, Christopher; Rodriguez, Natalie; Roseman, Leor; Feilding, Amanda; Nutt, David; Carhart-Harris, Robin (2018). "The hidden therapist: evidence for a central role of music in psychedelic therapy". Psychopharmacology. 235 (2): 505–519. doi:10.1007/s00213-017-4820-5. ISSN 0033-3158. 
  33. 33.0 33.1 Belser, Alexander B.; Agin-Liebes, Gabrielle; Swift, T. Cody; Terrana, Sara; Devenot, Neşe; Friedman, Harris L.; Guss, Jeffrey; Bossis, Anthony; Ross, Stephen (2017). "Patient Experiences of Psilocybin-Assisted Psychotherapy: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis". Journal of Humanistic Psychology. 57 (4): 354–388. doi:10.1177/0022167817706884. ISSN 0022-1678. 
  34. 34.0 34.1 McGlothlin, William (1967). "Long Lasting Effects of LSD on Normals". Archives of General Psychiatry. 17 (5): 521. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.1967.01730290009002. ISSN 0003-990X. 
  35. Lim, D. K. (January 2003). "Ketamine associated psychedelic effects and dependence". Singapore Medical Journal. 44 (1): 31–34. ISSN 0037-5675. 
  36. 36.0 36.1 36.2 Siegel, Ronald K.; Hirschman, Ada E. (1985). "Hashish and Laughter: Historical Notes and Translations of Early French Investigations". Journal of Psychoactive Drugs. 17 (2): 87–91. doi:10.1080/02791072.1985.10472327. ISSN 0279-1072. 
  37. Bøhling, Frederik (2017). "Psychedelic pleasures: An affective understanding of the joys of tripping". International Journal of Drug Policy. 49: 133–143. doi:10.1016/j.drugpo.2017.07.017. ISSN 0955-3959. 
  38. Xu, Xiaomeng; Ma, Shifan; Feng, Zhiwei; Hu, Guanxing; Wang, Lirong; Xie, Xiang-Qun (2016). "Chemogenomics knowledgebase and systems pharmacology for hallucinogen target identification—Salvinorin A as a case study". Journal of Molecular Graphics and Modelling. 70: 284–295. doi:10.1016/j.jmgm.2016.08.001. ISSN 1093-3263. 
  39. Kremer, Christian; Paulke, Alexander; Wunder, Cora; Toennes, Stefan W. (2012). "Variable adverse effects in subjects after ingestion of equal doses of Argyreia nervosa seeds". Forensic Science International. 214 (1-3): e6–e8. doi:10.1016/j.forsciint.2011.06.025. ISSN 0379-0738. 
  40. Shulgin, A., Shulgin, A. (1995). PIHKAL: a chemical love story. Transform press. 
  41. 41.0 41.1 Morgan, Celia JA; Noronha, Louise A; Muetzelfeldt, Mark; Feilding, Amanda; Curran, H Valerie (2013). "Harms and benefits associated with psychoactive drugs: findings of an international survey of active drug users". Journal of Psychopharmacology. 27 (6): 497–506. doi:10.1177/0269881113477744. ISSN 0269-8811. 
  42. Mobbs, Dean; Greicius, Michael D; Abdel-Azim, Eiman; Menon, Vinod; Reiss, Allan L (2003). "Humor Modulates the Mesolimbic Reward Centers". Neuron. 40 (5): 1041–1048. doi:10.1016/S0896-6273(03)00751-7. ISSN 0896-6273. 
  43. Mondadori, Cesare; Möbius, Hans-Jörg; Borkowski, Jürgen (1996). "The GABAB receptor antagonist CGP 36 742 and the nootropic oxiracetam facilitate the formation of long-term memory". Behavioural Brain Research. 77 (1-2): 223–225. doi:10.1016/0166-4328(95)00222-7. ISSN 0166-4328. 
  44. Ilieva, Irena P.; Hook, Cayce J.; Farah, Martha J. (2015). "Prescription Stimulants' Effects on Healthy Inhibitory Control, Working Memory, and Episodic Memory: A Meta-analysis". Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience. 27 (6): 1069–1089. doi:10.1162/jocn_a_00776. ISSN 0898-929X. 
  45. 45.0 45.1 Borota, Daniel; Murray, Elizabeth; Keceli, Gizem; Chang, Allen; Watabe, Joseph M; Ly, Maria; Toscano, John P; Yassa, Michael A (2014). "Post-study caffeine administration enhances memory consolidation in humans". Nature Neuroscience. 17 (2): 201–203. doi:10.1038/nn.3623. ISSN 1097-6256. 
  46. Morgan, Annette; Stevens, John (2010). "Does Bacopa monnieri Improve Memory Performance in Older Persons? Results of a Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind Trial". The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. 16 (7): 753–759. doi:10.1089/acm.2009.0342. ISSN 1075-5535. 
  47. Mehta, Mitul A.; Owen, Adrian M.; Sahakian, Barbara J.; Mavaddat, Nahal; Pickard, John D.; Robbins, Trevor W. (2000). "Methylphenidate Enhances Working Memory by Modulating Discrete Frontal and Parietal Lobe Regions in the Human Brain". The Journal of Neuroscience. 20 (6): RC65–RC65. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.20-06-j0004.2000. ISSN 0270-6474. 
  48. Ostrovskaia, R. U., Gudasheva, T. A., Voronina, T. A., Seredenin, S. B. (October 2002). "[The original novel nootropic and neuroprotective agent noopept]". Eksperimental’naia I Klinicheskaia Farmakologiia. 65 (5): 66–72. ISSN 0869-2092. 
  49. Heishman, Stephen J.; Kleykamp, Bethea A.; Singleton, Edward G. (2010). "Meta-analysis of the acute effects of nicotine and smoking on human performance". Psychopharmacology. 210 (4): 453–469. doi:10.1007/s00213-010-1848-1. ISSN 0033-3158. 
  50. Müller, Ulrich; Steffenhagen, Nikolai; Regenthal, Ralf; Bublak, Peter (2004). "Effects of modafinil on working memory processes in humans". Psychopharmacology. 177 (1-2): 161–169. doi:10.1007/s00213-004-1926-3. ISSN 0033-3158. 
  51. 51.0 51.1 51.2 Cowan, Nelson (2008). "Chapter 20 What are the differences between long-term, short-term, and working memory?". 169: 323–338. doi:10.1016/S0079-6123(07)00020-9. ISSN 0079-6123. 
  52. 52.0 52.1 Engle, Randall W.; Tuholski, Stephen W.; Laughlin, James E.; Conway, Andrew R. A. (1999). "Working memory, short-term memory, and general fluid intelligence: A latent-variable approach". Journal of Experimental Psychology: General. 128 (3): 309–331. doi:10.1037/0096-3445.128.3.309. ISSN 1939-2222. 
  53. 53.0 53.1 Daneman, Meredyth; Merikle, Philip M. (1996). "Working memory and language comprehension: A meta-analysis". Psychonomic Bulletin & Review. 3 (4): 422–433. doi:10.3758/BF03214546. ISSN 1069-9384. 
  54. Daneman, Meredyth; Carpenter, Patricia A. (1980). "Individual differences in working memory and reading". Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior. 19 (4): 450–466. doi:10.1016/S0022-5371(80)90312-6. ISSN 0022-5371. 
  55. Kyllonen, Patrick C.; Christal, Raymond E. (1990). "Reasoning ability is (little more than) working-memory capacity?!". Intelligence. 14 (4): 389–433. doi:10.1016/S0160-2896(05)80012-1. ISSN 0160-2896. 
  56. Kjærsgaard, Torben (2015). "Enhancing Motivation by Use of Prescription Stimulants: The Ethics of Motivation Enhancement". AJOB Neuroscience. 6 (1): 4–10. doi:10.1080/21507740.2014.990543. ISSN 2150-7740. 
  57. 57.0 57.1 57.2 57.3 Ilieva, Irena P.; Farah, Martha J. (2013). "Enhancement stimulants: perceived motivational and cognitive advantages". Frontiers in Neuroscience. 7. doi:10.3389/fnins.2013.00198. ISSN 1662-453X. 
  58. 58.0 58.1 Nyholm, Sven (2015). "Motivation-Enhancements and Domain-Specific Values". AJOB Neuroscience. 6 (1): 37–39. doi:10.1080/21507740.2014.995313. ISSN 2150-7740. 
  59. Terbeck, Sylvia (2013). "Why Students Bother Taking Adderall: Measurement Validity of Self-Reports". AJOB Neuroscience. 4 (1): 21–22. doi:10.1080/21507740.2012.762064. ISSN 2150-7740. 
  60. Sagara, H.; Kitamura, Y.; Esumi, S.; Sendo, T.; Araki, H.; Gotima, Y. (2008). "Motivational effects of nicotine as measured by the runway method using priming stimulation of intracranial self-stimulation behavior". Acta Med Okayama. 62 (4): 227–233. doi:10.18926/amo/30940. ISSN 0386-300X. 
  61. Young, Jared W.; Geyer, Mark A. (2010). "Action of Modafinil—Increased Motivation Via the Dopamine Transporter Inhibition and D1 Receptors?". Biological Psychiatry. 67 (8): 784–787. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2009.12.015. ISSN 0006-3223. 
  62. 62.0 62.1 Ting-A-Kee, R.; van der Kooy, D. (2012). "The Neurobiology of Opiate Motivation". Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine. 2 (10): a012096–a012096. doi:10.1101/cshperspect.a012096. ISSN 2157-1422. 
  63. Riters, Lauren V. (2010). "Evidence for opioid involvement in the motivation to sing". Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy. 39 (2): 141–150. doi:10.1016/j.jchemneu.2009.03.008. ISSN 0891-0618. 
  64. 64.0 64.1 64.2 Hunt, Harry T. (1976). "A Test of the Psychedelic Model of Altered States of Consciousness". Archives of General Psychiatry. 33 (7): 867. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.1976.01770070097012. ISSN 0003-990X. 
  65. Bonner, Edward T.; Friedman, Harris L. (2011). "A conceptual clarification of the experience of awe: An interpretative phenomenological analysis". The Humanistic Psychologist. 39 (3): 222–235. doi:10.1080/08873267.2011.593372. ISSN 1547-3333. 
  66. 66.0 66.1 66.2 Griffiths, Roland R; Johnson, Matthew W; Richards, William A; Richards, Brian D; Jesse, Robert; MacLean, Katherine A; Barrett, Frederick S; Cosimano, Mary P; Klinedinst, Maggie A (2017). "Psilocybin-occasioned mystical-type experience in combination with meditation and other spiritual practices produces enduring positive changes in psychological functioning and in trait measures of prosocial attitudes and behaviors". Journal of Psychopharmacology. 32 (1): 49–69. doi:10.1177/0269881117731279. ISSN 0269-8811. 
  67. 67.0 67.1 Das, Saibal; Barnwal, Preeti; Ramasamy, Anand; Sen, Sumalya; Mondal, Somnath (2016). "Lysergic acid diethylamide: a drug of 'use'?". Therapeutic Advances in Psychopharmacology. 6 (3): 214–228. doi:10.1177/2045125316640440. ISSN 2045-1253. 
  68. Bowers, Malcolm B. (1966). ""Psychedelic" Experiences in Acute Psychoses". Archives of General Psychiatry. 15 (3): 240. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.1966.01730150016003. ISSN 0003-990X. 
  69. 69.0 69.1 Swanson, Link R. (2018). "Unifying Theories of Psychedelic Drug Effects". Frontiers in Pharmacology. 9. doi:10.3389/fphar.2018.00172. ISSN 1663-9812. 
  70. 70.0 70.1 Carhart-Harris, Robin L.; Leech, Robert; Hellyer, Peter J.; Shanahan, Murray; Feilding, Amanda; Tagliazucchi, Enzo; Chialvo, Dante R.; Nutt, David (2014). "The entropic brain: a theory of conscious states informed by neuroimaging research with psychedelic drugs". Frontiers in Human Neuroscience. 8. doi:10.3389/fnhum.2014.00020. ISSN 1662-5161. 
  71. Tagliazucchi, Enzo; Carhart-Harris, Robin; Leech, Robert; Nutt, David; Chialvo, Dante R. (2014). "Enhanced repertoire of brain dynamical states during the psychedelic experience". Human Brain Mapping. 35 (11): 5442–5456. doi:10.1002/hbm.22562. ISSN 1065-9471. 
  72. Hu, Dewen; Palhano-Fontes, Fernanda; Andrade, Katia C.; Tofoli, Luis F.; Santos, Antonio C.; Crippa, Jose Alexandre S.; Hallak, Jaime E. C.; Ribeiro, Sidarta; de Araujo, Draulio B. (2015). "The Psychedelic State Induced by Ayahuasca Modulates the Activity and Connectivity of the Default Mode Network". PLOS ONE. 10 (2): e0118143. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0118143. ISSN 1932-6203. 
  73. Diamond, Adele (2013). "Executive Functions". Annual Review of Psychology. 64 (1): 135–168. doi:10.1146/annurev-psych-113011-143750. ISSN 0066-4308. 
  74. 74.0 74.1 Biederman, Joseph; Seidman, Larry J.; Petty, Carter R.; Fried, Ronna; Doyle, Alysa E.; Cohen, Daniel R.; Kenealy, Deborah C.; Faraone, Stephen V. (2008). "Effects of Stimulant Medication on Neuropsychological Functioning in Young Adults With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder". The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry. 69 (7): 1150–1156. doi:10.4088/JCP.v69n0715. ISSN 0160-6689. 
  75. 75.0 75.1 Gupta, B.S. (1977). "Dextroamphetamine and measures of intelligence". Intelligence. 1 (3): 274–280. doi:10.1016/0160-2896(77)90010-1. ISSN 0160-2896. 
  76. 76.0 76.1 Hellwig-Brida, Susanne; Daseking, Monika; Keller, Ferdinand; Petermann, Franz; Goldbeck, Lutz (2011). "Effects of Methylphenidate on Intelligence and Attention Components in Boys with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder". Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology. 21 (3): 245–253. doi:10.1089/cap.2010.0041. ISSN 1044-5463. 
  77. 77.0 77.1 Arnsten, Amy F.T.; Li, Bao-Ming (2005). "Neurobiology of Executive Functions: Catecholamine Influences on Prefrontal Cortical Functions". Biological Psychiatry. 57 (11): 1377–1384. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2004.08.019. ISSN 0006-3223. 
  78. Lundqvist, T (2005). "Cognitive consequences of cannabis use: Comparison with abuse of stimulants and heroin with regard to attention, memory and executive functions". Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior. 81 (2): 319–330. doi:10.1016/j.pbb.2005.02.017. ISSN 0091-3057. 
  79. Johnson, Matthew W; Garcia-Romeu, Albert; Cosimano, Mary P; Griffiths, Roland R (2014). "Pilot study of the 5-HT2AR agonist psilocybin in the treatment of tobacco addiction". Journal of Psychopharmacology. 28 (11): 983–992. doi:10.1177/0269881114548296. ISSN 0269-8811. 
  80. Krebs, Teri S; Johansen, Pål-Ørjan (2012). "Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) for alcoholism: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials". Journal of Psychopharmacology. 26 (7): 994–1002. doi:10.1177/0269881112439253. ISSN 0269-8811. 
  81. Brown, Thomas (2013). "Ibogaine in the Treatment of Substance Dependence". Current Drug Abuse Reviews. 6 (1): 3–16. doi:10.2174/15672050113109990001. ISSN 1874-4737. 
  82. Moran, M. M. (2005). "Cystine/Glutamate Exchange Regulates Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor Presynaptic Inhibition of Excitatory Transmission and Vulnerability to Cocaine Seeking". Journal of Neuroscience. 25 (27): 6389–6393. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1007-05.2005. ISSN 0270-6474. 
  83. anxiolysis, National Cancer Institute 
  84. Gordon, Joshua A. (2002). "Anxiolytic drug targets: beyond the usual suspects". Journal of Clinical Investigation. 110 (7): 915–917. doi:10.1172/JCI0216846. ISSN 0021-9738. 
  85. Tyrer, P. (27 February 1988). "Prescribing psychotropic drugs in general practice". BMJ. 296 (6622): 588–589. doi:10.1136/bmj.296.6622.588. 
  86. Lydiard, R. B. (2003). "The role of GABA in anxiety disorders". The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry. 64 Suppl 3: 21–27. ISSN 0160-6689. 
  87. Gauthier, Isabelle; Nuss, Philippe (2015). "Anxiety disorders and GABA neurotransmission: a disturbance of modulation". Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment: 165. doi:10.2147/NDT.S58841. ISSN 1178-2021. 
  88. Wood, Alastair J.J.; Shader, Richard I.; Greenblatt, David J. (1993). "Use of Benzodiazepines in Anxiety Disorders". New England Journal of Medicine. 328 (19): 1398–1405. doi:10.1056/NEJM199305133281907. ISSN 0028-4793. 
  89. Smith, J. P., Randall, C. L. (2012). "Anxiety and alcohol use disorders: comorbidity and treatment considerations". Alcohol Research: Current Reviews. 34 (4): 414–431. ISSN 2168-3492. 
  90. Schmidt-Mutter, Catherine; Pain, Laure; Sandner, Guy; Gobaille, Serge; Maitre, Michel (1998). "The anxiolytic effect of γ-hydroxybutyrate in the elevated plus maze is reversed by the benzodiazepine receptor antagonist, flumazenil". European Journal of Pharmacology. 342 (1): 21–27. doi:10.1016/S0014-2999(97)01503-3. ISSN 0014-2999. 
  91. Pollack, Mark H.; Matthews, John; Scott, Erin L. (1998). "Gabapentin as a Potential Treatment for Anxiety Disorders". American Journal of Psychiatry. 155 (7): 992–993. doi:10.1176/ajp.155.7.992. ISSN 0002-953X. 
  92. Blessing, Esther M.; Steenkamp, Maria M.; Manzanares, Jorge; Marmar, Charles R. (2015). "Cannabidiol as a Potential Treatment for Anxiety Disorders". Neurotherapeutics. 12 (4): 825–836. doi:10.1007/s13311-015-0387-1. ISSN 1933-7213. 
  93. Irwin, Scott A.; Iglewicz, Alana (2010). "Oral Ketamine for the Rapid Treatment of Depression and Anxiety in Patients Receiving Hospice Care". Journal of Palliative Medicine. 13 (7): 903–908. doi:10.1089/jpm.2010.9808. ISSN 1096-6218. 
  94. "Glossary of Technical Terms". Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.): 820. 2013. doi:10.1176/appi.books.9780890425596.GlossaryofTechnicalTerms. 
  95. Zamboni, G.; Huey, E. D.; Krueger, F.; Nichelli, P. F.; Grafman, J. (2008). "Apathy and disinhibition in frontotemporal dementia: Insights into their neural correlates". Neurology. 71 (10): 736–742. doi:10.1212/01.wnl.0000324920.96835.95. ISSN 0028-3878. 
  96. Källmén, Håkan; Gustafson, Roland (1998). "Alcohol and Disinhibition". European Addiction Research. 4 (4): 150–162. doi:10.1159/000018948. ISSN 1022-6877. 
  97. Bettinger, Jill C.; Topper, Stephen M.; Aguilar, Sara C.; Topper, Viktoria Y.; Elbel, Erin; Pierce-Shimomura, Jonathan T. (2014). "Alcohol Disinhibition of Behaviors in C. elegans". PLoS ONE. 9 (3): e92965. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0092965. ISSN 1932-6203. 
  98. Paton, Carol (2018). "Benzodiazepines and disinhibition: a review". Psychiatric Bulletin. 26 (12): 460–462. doi:10.1192/pb.26.12.460. ISSN 0955-6036. 
  99. Fillmore, M (2003). "Effects of d-amphetamine on behavioral control in stimulant abusers: the role of prepotent response tendencies". Drug and Alcohol Dependence. 71 (2): 143–152. doi:10.1016/S0376-8716(03)00089-9. ISSN 0376-8716. 
  100. Ando, Romeo D.; Benko, Anita; Ferrington, Linda; Kirilly, Eszter; Kelly, Paul A.T.; Bagdy, Gyorgy (2006). "Partial lesion of the serotonergic system by a single dose of MDMA results in behavioural disinhibition and enhances acute MDMA-induced social behaviour on the social interaction test". Neuropharmacology. 50 (7): 884–896. doi:10.1016/j.neuropharm.2005.12.010. ISSN 0028-3908. 
  101. Lissek, Silke; Güntürkün, Onur (2003). "Dissociation of Extinction and Behavioral Disinhibition: The Role of NMDA Receptors in the Pigeon Associative Forebrain during Extinction". The Journal of Neuroscience. 23 (22): 8119–8124. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.23-22-08119.2003. ISSN 0270-6474. 
  102. 102.0 102.1 Schierenbeck, Thomas; Riemann, Dieter; Berger, Mathias; Hornyak, Magdolna (2008). "Effect of illicit recreational drugs upon sleep: Cocaine, ecstasy and marijuana". Sleep Medicine Reviews. 12 (5): 381–389. doi:10.1016/j.smrv.2007.12.004. ISSN 1087-0792. 
  103. 103.0 103.1 Sharpley, Ann L.; Cowen, Philip J. (1995). "Effect of pharmacologic treatments on the sleep of depressed patients". Biological Psychiatry. 37 (2): 85–98. doi:10.1016/0006-3223(94)00135-P. ISSN 0006-3223. 
  104. 104.0 104.1 Trivedi, M (1999). "Effects of Fluoxetine on the Polysomnogram in Outpatients with Major Depression". Neuropsychopharmacology. 20 (5): 447–459. doi:10.1016/S0893-133X(98)00131-6. ISSN 0893-133X. 
  105. Vogel, G.W.; Buffenstein, A.; Minter, K.; Hennessey, Ann (1990). "Drug effects on REM sleep and on endogenous depression". Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews. 14 (1): 49–63. doi:10.1016/S0149-7634(05)80159-9. ISSN 0149-7634. 
  106. Feinberg, I., Jones, R., Walker, J. M., Cavness, C., March, J. (April 1975). "Effects of high dosage delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol on sleep patterns in man". Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics. 17 (4): 458–466. doi:10.1002/cpt1975174458. ISSN 0009-9236. Retrieved 4 June 2022. 
  107. Hobson, J. A., Stickgold, R., Pace-Schott, E. F. (February 1998). "The neuropsychology of REM sleep dreaming:". NeuroReport. 9 (3): R1–R14. doi:10.1097/00001756-199802160-00033. ISSN 0959-4965. Retrieved 4 June 2022. 
  108. 108.0 108.1 Ueda, Satoshi; Sakayori, Takeshi; Omori, Ataru; Fukuta, Hajime; Kobayashi, Takashi; Ishizaka, Kousuke; Saijo, Tomoyuki; Okubo, Yoshiro (2016). "Neuroleptic-induced deficit syndrome in bipolar disorder with psychosis". Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment: 265. doi:10.2147/NDT.S99577. ISSN 1178-2021. 
  109. "Neurocognitive Disorders". Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.): 609. 2013. doi:10.1176/appi.books.9780890425596.dsm17. 
  110. Gur, R. E; Kohler, C. G; Ragland, J D.; Siegel, S. J; Lesko, K.; Bilker, W. B; Gur, R. C (2006). "Flat Affect in Schizophrenia: Relation to Emotion Processing and Neurocognitive Measures". Schizophrenia Bulletin. 32 (2): 279–287. doi:10.1093/schbul/sbj041. ISSN 0586-7614. 
  111. 111.0 111.1 Sansone, R. A., Sansone, L. A. (October 2010). "SSRI-Induced Indifference". Psychiatry (Edgmont (Pa.: Township)). 7 (10): 14–18. ISSN 1555-5194. 
  112. Moncrieff, J.; Cohen, D.; Mason, J. P. (2009). "The subjective experience of taking antipsychotic medication: a content analysis of Internet data". Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica. 120 (2): 102–111. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0447.2009.01356.x. ISSN 0001-690X. 
  113. Vollenweider, F. X. (31 December 2001). "Brain mechanisms of hallucinogens and entactogens". Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience. 3 (4): 265–279. doi:10.31887/DCNS.2001.3.4/fxvollenweider. ISSN 1958-5969. 
  114. Micallef, J; Tardieu, S; Gentile, S; Fakra, E; Jouve, E; Sambuc, R; Blin, O (2003). "Évaluation psychocomportementale de l'administration de faible dose de kétamine chez le sujet sain". Neurophysiologie Clinique/Clinical Neurophysiology. 33 (3): 138–147. doi:10.1016/S0987-7053(03)00028-5. ISSN 0987-7053. 
  115. Bolling, Madelon Y.; Kohlenberg, Robert J. (2004). "Reasons for Quitting Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor Therapy: Paradoxical Psychological Side Effects and Patient Satisfaction". Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics. 73 (6): 380–385. doi:10.1159/000080392. ISSN 0033-3190. 
  116. Oscar-Berman, M., Bowirrat, A. (September 2005). "Genetic influences in emotional dysfunction and alcoholism-related brain damage". Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment. 1 (3): 211–229. ISSN 1176-6328. 
  117. "Glossary of Technical Terms". Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.): 820. 2013. doi:10.1176/appi.books.9780890425596.GlossaryofTechnicalTerms. 
  118. Lleras, Alejandro; Buetti, Simona; Mordkoff, J. Toby (2013). "When Do the Effects of Distractors Provide a Measure of Distractibility?". 59: 261–315. doi:10.1016/B978-0-12-407187-2.00007-1. ISSN 0079-7421. 
  119. Ahveninen, Jyrki; Jaaskelainen, Iiro P.; Pekkonen, Eero; Hallberg, Anja; Hietanen, Marja; Naatanen, Risto; Schroger, Erich; Sillanaukee, Pekka (2000). "Increased Distractibility by Task-Irrelevant Sound Changes in Abstinent Alcoholics". Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research. 24 (12): 1850–1854. doi:10.1111/j.1530-0277.2000.tb01989.x. ISSN 0145-6008. 
  120. McCarthy, Danielle E.; Gloria, Rebecca; Curtin, John J. (2009). "Attention bias in nicotine withdrawal and under stress". Psychology of Addictive Behaviors. 23 (1): 77–90. doi:10.1037/a0014288. ISSN 1939-1501. 
  121. Vigen, Cheryl L.P.; Mack, Wendy J.; Keefe, Richard S.E.; Sano, Mary; Sultzer, David L.; Stroup, T. Scott; Dagerman, Karen S.; Hsiao, John K.; Lebowitz, Barry D.; Lyketsos, Constantine G.; Tariot, Pierre N.; Zheng, Ling; Schneider, Lon S. (2011). "Cognitive Effects of Atypical Antipsychotic Medications in Patients With Alzheimer's Disease: Outcomes From CATIE-AD". American Journal of Psychiatry. 168 (8): 831–839. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.2011.08121844. ISSN 0002-953X. 
  122. Salo, Ruth; Nordahl, Thomas E.; Natsuaki, Yutaka; Leamon, Martin H.; Galloway, Gantt P.; Waters, Christy; Moore, Charles D.; Buonocore, Michael H. (2007). "Attentional Control and Brain Metabolite Levels in Methamphetamine Abusers". Biological Psychiatry. 61 (11): 1272–1280. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2006.07.031. ISSN 0006-3223. 
  123. Lebedev, Alexander V.; Lövdén, Martin; Rosenthal, Gidon; Feilding, Amanda; Nutt, David J.; Carhart-Harris, Robin L. (2015). "Finding the self by losing the self: Neural correlates of ego-dissolution under psilocybin". Human Brain Mapping. 36 (8): 3137–3153. doi:10.1002/hbm.22833. ISSN 1065-9471. 
  124. Carhart-Harris, Robin L.; Muthukumaraswamy, Suresh; Roseman, Leor; Kaelen, Mendel; Droog, Wouter; Murphy, Kevin; Tagliazucchi, Enzo; Schenberg, Eduardo E.; Nest, Timothy; Orban, Csaba; Leech, Robert; Williams, Luke T.; Williams, Tim M.; Bolstridge, Mark; Sessa, Ben; McGonigle, John; Sereno, Martin I.; Nichols, David; Hellyer, Peter J.; Hobden, Peter; Evans, John; Singh, Krish D.; Wise, Richard G.; Curran, H. Valerie; Feilding, Amanda; Nutt, David J. (2016). "Neural correlates of the LSD experience revealed by multimodal neuroimaging". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 113 (17): 4853–4858. doi:10.1073/pnas.1518377113. ISSN 0027-8424. 
  125. Vollenweider, Franz X; Geyer, Mark A (2001). "A systems model of altered consciousness: integrating natural and drug-induced psychoses". Brain Research Bulletin. 56 (5): 495–507. doi:10.1016/S0361-9230(01)00646-3. ISSN 0361-9230. 
  126. 126.0 126.1 Horváth, Lajos; Szummer, Csaba; Szabo, Attila (2017). "Weak phantasy and visionary phantasy: the phenomenological significance of altered states of consciousness". Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences. 17 (1): 117–129. doi:10.1007/s11097-016-9497-4. ISSN 1568-7759. 
  127. 127.0 127.1 "Glossary of Technical Terms". Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.): 829. 2013. doi:10.1176/appi.books.9780890425596.GlossaryofTechnicalTerms. 
  128. Guilleminault, C. (2001). "Excessive daytime sleepiness: A challenge for the practising neurologist". Brain. 124 (8): 1482–1491. doi:10.1093/brain/124.8.1482. ISSN 1460-2156. 
  129. Bereshpolova, Y.; Stoelzel, C. R.; Zhuang, J.; Amitai, Y.; Alonso, J.-M.; Swadlow, H. A. (2011). "Getting Drowsy? Alert/Nonalert Transitions and Visual Thalamocortical Network Dynamics". Journal of Neuroscience. 31 (48): 17480–17487. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2262-11.2011. ISSN 0270-6474. 
  130. Ware, M. A.; Wang, T.; Shapiro, S.; Robinson, A.; Ducruet, T.; Huynh, T.; Gamsa, A.; Bennett, G. J.; Collet, J.-P. (2010). "Smoked cannabis for chronic neuropathic pain: a randomized controlled trial". Canadian Medical Association Journal. 182 (14): E694–E701. doi:10.1503/cmaj.091414. ISSN 0820-3946. 
  131. Landauer, Ali A.; Howat, Peter (2007). "Low and moderate alcohol doses, psychomotor performance and perceived drowsiness". Ergonomics. 26 (7): 647–657. doi:10.1080/00140138308963386. ISSN 0014-0139. 
  132. Koch-Weser, Jan; Greenblatt, David J.; Shader, Richard I.; Abernethy, Darrell R. (1983). "Current Status of Benzodiazepines". New England Journal of Medicine. 309 (7): 410–416. doi:10.1056/NEJM198308183090705. ISSN 0028-4793. 
  133. Corey, PJ; Heck, Amy M; Weathermon, Ronnie A (2016). "Amphetamines to Counteract Opioid-Induced Sedation". Annals of Pharmacotherapy. 33 (12): 1362–1366. doi:10.1345/aph.19024. ISSN 1060-0280. 
  134. Van Putten, Theodore (1981). "Subjective Response to Antipsychotic Drugs". Archives of General Psychiatry. 38 (2): 187. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.1981.01780270073010. ISSN 0003-990X. 
  135. Artaloytia, Juan Francisco; Arango, Celso; Lahti, Adrienne; Sanz, Javier; Pascual, Ana; Cubero, Pedro; Prieto, David; Palomo, Tomás (2006). "Negative Signs and Symptoms Secondary to Antipsychotics: A Double-Blind, Randomized Trial of a Single Dose of Placebo, Haloperidol, and Risperidone in Healthy Volunteers". American Journal of Psychiatry. 163 (3): 488–493. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.163.3.488. ISSN 0002-953X. 
  136. Weiler, John M.; Bloomfield, John R.; Woodworth, George G.; Grant, Angela R.; Layton, Teresa A.; Brown, Timothy L.; McKenzie, David R.; Baker, Thomas W.; Watson, Ginger S. (2000). "Effects of Fexofenadine, Diphenhydramine, and Alcohol on Driving Performance". Annals of Internal Medicine. 132 (5): 354. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-132-5-200003070-00004. ISSN 0003-4819. 
  137. 137.0 137.1 137.2 137.3 Santtila, Pekka; Ekholm, Magnus; Niemi, Pekka (1998). "Factors moderating the effects of alcohol on interrogative suggestibility". Psychology, Crime & Law. 4 (2): 139–152. doi:10.1080/10683169808401754. ISSN 1068-316X. 
  138. 138.0 138.1 138.2 Santtila, Pekka; Ekholm, Magnus; Niemi, Pekka (1999). "The effects of alcohol on interrogative suggestibility: The role of State-Anxiety and mood states as mediating factors". Legal and Criminological Psychology. 4 (1): 1–13. doi:10.1348/135532599167707. ISSN 1355-3259. 
  139. 139.0 139.1 139.2 Gudjonsson, Gisli; Hannesdottir, Kristin; Petursson, Hannes; Bjornsson, Gudbjorn (2002). "The effects of alcohol withdrawal on mental state, interrogative suggestibility and compliance: an experimental study". The Journal of Forensic Psychiatry. 13 (1): 53–67. doi:10.1080/09585180210122682. ISSN 0958-5184. 
  140. Levin, E (1996). "Nicotine-Haloperidol Interactions and Cognitive Performance in Schizophrenics". Neuropsychopharmacology. 15 (5): 429–436. doi:10.1016/S0893-133X(96)00018-8. ISSN 0893-133X. 
  141. Vermeeren, A.; Muntjewerff, N. D.; Quint, P. J.; O'Hanlon, J. F.; Jackson, J. L.; Harrison, E. M. (1995). "Comparison of acute alprazolam (0.25, 0.50 and 1.0 mg) effects versus those of lorazepam 2 mg and placebo on memory in healthy volunteers using laboratory and telephone tests". Psychopharmacology. 118 (1): 1–9. doi:10.1007/BF02245243. ISSN 0033-3158. 
  142. Johannes, Sönke; Wieringa, Bernardina M.; Nager, Wido; Dengler, Reinhard; Münte, Thomas F. (2001). "Oxazepam alters action monitoring". Psychopharmacology. 155 (1): 100–106. doi:10.1007/s002130100680. ISSN 0033-3158. 
  143. 143.0 143.1 Semlitsch, H.V.; Anderer, P.; Saletu, B. (1995). "Acute effects of the anxiolytics suriclone and alprazolam on cognitive information processing utilizing topographic mapping of event-related brain potentials (P300) in healthy subjects". European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. 49 (3). doi:10.1007/BF00192378. ISSN 0031-6970. 
  144. Naber, Dieter (2011). "Subjective effects of antipsychotic drugs and their relevance for compliance and remission". Epidemiologia e Psichiatria Sociale. 17 (03): 174–176. doi:10.1017/S1121189X00001238. ISSN 1121-189X. 
  145. Kurita, Geana Paula; Lundorff, Lena; Pimenta, Cibele Andrucioli de Mattos; Sjøgren, Per (2008). "The cognitive effects of opioids in cancer: a systematic review". Supportive Care in Cancer. 17 (1): 11–21. doi:10.1007/s00520-008-0497-y. ISSN 0941-4355. 
  146. Twillman, Robert K; Long, Teresa D; Cathers, Teresa A; Mueller, David W (1999). "Treatment of Painful Skin Ulcers with Topical Opioids". Journal of Pain and Symptom Management. 17 (4): 288–292. doi:10.1016/S0885-3924(98)00140-7. ISSN 0885-3924. 
  147. Ersek, Mary; Cherrier, Monique M; Overman, Steven S; Irving, Gordon A (2004). "The cognitive effects of opioids". Pain Management Nursing. 5 (2): 75–93. doi:10.1016/j.pmn.2003.11.002. ISSN 1524-9042. 
  148. Freyd, Jennifer J.; Martorello, Susan R.; Alvarado, Jessica S.; Hayes, Amy E.; Christman, Jill C. (1998). "Cognitive environments and dissociative tendencies: performance on the standard Stroop task for high versus low dissociators". Applied Cognitive Psychology. 12 (7): S91–S103. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1099-0720(199812)12:7<S91::AID-ACP599>3.0.CO;2-Z. ISSN 0888-4080. 
  149. Nebes, Robert D.; Pollock, Bruce G.; Halligan, Edythe M.; Houck, Patricia; Saxton, Judith A. (2011). "Cognitive Slowing Associated With Elevated Serum Anticholinergic Activity in Older Individuals is Decreased by Caffeine Use". The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry. 19 (2): 169–175. doi:10.1097/JGP.0b013e3181e4490d. ISSN 1064-7481. 
  150. Crean, Rebecca D.; Crane, Natania A.; Mason, Barbara J. (2011). "An Evidence-Based Review of Acute and Long-Term Effects of Cannabis Use on Executive Cognitive Functions". Journal of Addiction Medicine. 5 (1): 1–8. doi:10.1097/ADM.0b013e31820c23fa. ISSN 1932-0620. 
  151. Tapert, S., Schweinsburg, A., Brown, S. (1 January 2008). "The Influence of Marijuana Use on Neurocognitive Functioning in Adolescents". Current Drug Abuse Reviewse. 1 (1): 99–111. doi:10.2174/1874473710801010099. ISSN 1874-4737. Retrieved 4 June 2022. 
  152. Bhattacharyya, Sagnik; Sendt, Kyra-Verena (2012). "Neuroimaging Evidence for Cannabinoid Modulation of Cognition and Affect in Man". Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience. 6. doi:10.3389/fnbeh.2012.00022. ISSN 1662-5153. 
  153. Roberto, Aaron J.; Lorenzo, Aileen; Li, Kevin J.; Young, Jonathan; Mohan, Abhishek; Pinnaka, Subhash; Lapidus, Kyle A. B. (2016). "First-Episode of Synthetic Cannabinoid-Induced Psychosis in a Young Adult, Successfully Managed with Hospitalization and Risperidone". Case Reports in Psychiatry. 2016: 1–4. doi:10.1155/2016/7257489. ISSN 2090-682X.