Auditory effects

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Auditory effects can be defined as any subjective effect which directly alters a person's sense of hearing.

This page lists and describes the various auditory effects which can occur under the influence of certain psychoactive compounds.

Auditory distortion

Main article: Auditory distortion

An auditory distortion is the experience of perceived alterations in how audible noises present and structure themselves.[1][2][3][4]

These distortions can manifest in many styles, but commonly take the form of echoes or murmurs which rise in the wake of each sound and are accompanied by fluctuating changes in speed and pitch.[4][5][6] This can intensify up to the point where sounds are consistently followed by continuous reverberation,[7] often rendering the original sound completely unrecognizable. However, it often quickly resets to base level and starts over if the source of noise is stopped or changed.

The experience of this effect can be broken down into three distinct levels of intensity. These are described and documented below:

  1. Mild - At the lowest level of intensity, auditory distortions consist of subtle and spontaneous reverberation,[4][5][7] echo effects,[4][6] and changes in pitch[4][5][6][8][9] of noises within the external environment. They are fleeting, low in intensity, and easy to ignore.
  2. Distinct - At this level, auditory distortions consist of distinctly noticeable, spontaneous echo effects and changes in pitch attributed to noises within the external environment. Thy are long and drawn out and loud enough to become difficult to ignore.
  3. All-encompassing - At the highest level, auditory distortions become constant and impossible to ignore. The complexity of the resulting alterations quickly renders the original sound as unintelligible.[2]

Auditory distortions are often accompanied by other coinciding effects such as auditory hallucinations,[6][8][1] auditory suppression, and auditory enhancement.[2][4] They are most commonly induced under the influence of moderate dosages of psychedelic compounds,[10][11][12] such as LSD, 5-MeO-DiPT, and DMT. However, they can also occur less commonly under the influence of dissociatives such as ketamine,[13][14] PCP, and nitrous.[4][5]

Examples

The audio clip above demonstrates how it may sound to listen to a lecture while undergoing the experience of level 3 auditory distortions.

This audio clip denotes level 3 audio distortions in a forest setting.

Auditory enhancement

Main article: Auditory enhancement

An auditory enhancement is the experience of an increase or improvement of the acuteness and clarity of sound.[2] This can result in the person becoming extremely aware of all sounds around them with the perception of an enhanced ability to comprehend multiple layers of sound and to better identify their direction and location.

The most common manifestation of this effect is a greatly enhanced appreciation of music. This can allow people the experience of listening to songs in a level of detail that is unparalleled during everyday sober living.

Auditory enhancements are often accompanied by other coinciding effects such as auditory distortion and auditory hallucinations.[2] They are most commonly induced under the influence of moderate dosages of psychedelic compounds, such as LSD, psilocybin, and mescaline. However, they can also occur less commonly under the influence of stimulants, cannabinoids, and dissociatives.

Auditory hallucination

An auditory hallucination is the experience of hearing spontaneous imaginary noises.[4][15][16] The most common examples of this include hearing clips of sound such as imagined music,[17][4] voices,[18][19][4][2][1][20][8] tones,[4] popping,[4][6] and scraping,[6] but can also be an infinite variety of other potential noises that are stored within one's memory.

In terms of their behaviour, these sounds will often be based on noises which were expected to occur or have been genuinely heard on a frequent basis within the external environment. For example, a person may repeatedly hear a knock at the door when they are expecting a visitor or may hear music which they were listening to earlier on in the day. However, at other times, auditory hallucinations may also present themselves as consisting of completely novel and alien sounds that are unlike anything which could currently occur within the external environment.

Auditory hallucinations are often accompanied by other coinciding effects such as auditory distortion[1][20][8] and auditory enhancement.[4][2] They are most commonly induced under the influence of moderate dosages of hallucinogenic compounds,[21] such as psychedelics, deliriants, and dissociatives. However, they can also occur less commonly under the influence of stimulant psychosis, cannabinoids, and during sleep deprivation.[22][23]

This effect can be broken into two specific sub-types which are described and documented below:

Internal auditory hallucination

An internal auditory hallucination can be described as the perception of hallucinated audio that sounds as if the specific location of its source does not have a particular sense of distance or direction attributed to it and that the sound is instead occurring within a person's own head. This is in contrast to external auditory hallucinations, which sound as if they are occurring seamlessly within the external environment as if they were actually happening.

The experience of this effect can be broken down into three distinct levels of intensity. These are described and documented below:

  1. Fleeting hallucinations - At the lowest level, internal auditory hallucinations generally consist of ill-defined, distant, and subtle sounds that stop as soon the person notices them. For example, a person may hear vague voices, music, and tones within their own head but find that they are not remotely discernable in terms of their given details.
  2. Partially defined hallucinations - At this level, the hallucinations can be directly noticed without them immediately stopping, but are not fully defined in terms their detail. This means that, although fully audible, they will still sound partially muffled and distant. For example, a person may hear voices or music within their own head but find that they do not sound quite as crisp and detailed as similar sounds which can be heard in real life.
  3. Fully defined hallucinations - At this level, the hallucinations have become completely realistic and lifelike in terms of the detail of their sound. For example, a person may hear fully defined voices, music, or other sounds within their own head that are complex and fully defined in terms of their details.

External auditory hallucination

An external auditory hallucination can be described as the perception of a hallucinated noise that occurs seamlessly within the external environment as if the specific location of its source has a particular sense of direction and distance attributed to it. This is in stark contrast to internal auditory hallucinations that sound as if they occur exclusively within one's own head.

This effect is capable of manifesting itself across the 4 different levels of intensity described below:

  1. Partially defined embedded hallucinations - At the lowest level, the hallucinated sounds lack clarity and may be indistinct, muffled, and difficult to make out. They are also only heard embedded within real sounds occurring within the external environment. For example, a person may hear subtle music or voices embedded within the sound of the wind, cars, and rain. These hallucinations sound as if they are coming from an unspecifiable direction somewhere within the external environment.
  2. Partially defined separate hallucinations - At this level, the sounds remain only partially defined, but are heard on a separate layer of their own instead of only manifesting themselves as embedded within other noises. They will also begin to sound as if they are occurring from a vaguely specifiable direction or source within the external environment.
  3. Fully defined separate hallucinations - At this level, the sounds become fully defined in their clarity, meaning that the content of the hallucinations can be recognized and heard perfectly as if they were actually occurring. They will also sound as if they originate from a specific location within the external environment in a manner which is so lifelike that it will often confuse the person into believing it was a real sound.

Auditory suppression

Main article: Auditory suppression

Auditory suppression is the experience of sound becoming perceived as more distant, quiet, and muffled than they actually are. This effect can significantly decrease both the volume of a noise, as well as its perceived quality. It is usually described as making it difficult to comprehend or fully pay attention to music and other sounds.

Auditory suppression is often accompanied by other coinciding effects such as auditory distortion and auditory hallucinations. It is most commonly induced under the influence of moderate dosages of dissociative compounds, such as ketamine, PCP, and DXM. However, it can also occur less commonly under the influence of GABAergic depressants and antipsychotics such as alcohol and quetiapine.

See also

References

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  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 Juszczak, G. R., & Swiergiel, A. H. (2013). Recreational use of D-lysergamide from the seeds of Argyreia nervosa, Ipomoea tricolor, Ipomoea violacea, and Ipomoea purpurea in Poland. Journal of psychoactive drugs, 45(1), 79-93. https://doi.org/10.1080/02791072.2013.763570
  3. Mehta, U. M., Naveen Kumar, C., Venkatasubramanian, G., & Thirthalli, J. (2017). Multimodal sensory distortions in postpartum exacerbation of schizophrenia. Clinical schizophrenia & related psychoses, 10(4), 222-224. https://doi.org/10.3371/CSRP.MEKU.112013
  4. 4.00 4.01 4.02 4.03 4.04 4.05 4.06 4.07 4.08 4.09 4.10 4.11 4.12 Weinel, J. (2016). Entoptic Phenomena in Audio: Categories of Psychedelic Electroacoustic Composition. Contemporary Music Review, 35(2), 202-223. https://doi.org/10.1080/07494467.2016.1221633
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  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 Shulgin, A. T., & Shulgin, A. Transform Press; Berkeley, CA: 1997. TIHKAL: The Continuation.
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  11. Mowry, M., Mosher, M., & Briner, W. (2003). Acute physiologic and chronic histologic changes in rats and mice exposed to the unique hallucinogen salvinorin A. Journal of psychoactive drugs, 35(3), 379-382. https://doi.org/10.1080/02791072.2003.10400021
  12. Leake, C. D. (1972). Hallucinogenic Drug Reaction—MDA. JAMA, 219(8), 1069-1069. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.1972.03190340073029
  13. Hillhouse, T. M., Porter, J. H., & Negus, S. S. (2014). Reply to: Rapid antidepressant effects and abuse liability of ketamine. Psychopharmacology, 231(9), 2043. https://dx.doi.org/10.1007%2Fs00213-014-3544-z
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