Addiction suppression

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Addiction suppression is the experience of a total or partial suppression of a psychological addiction to a specific substance and the cravings associated with it. This can occur as an effect which lasts long after the compound which induced it wears off or it can last only while the compound is still active.

Addiction suppression is a rare effect that is most commonly associated with psychedelics[1], psilocin[2], LSD[3], ibogaine[4] and N-acetylcysteine (NAC).[5]

Analysis

In terms of psychedelics, this effect seems to be primarily triggered by the psychological self-reflection that can manifest through a combination of effects. These primarily include analysis enhancement, personal bias suppression, and introspection. The intensity and effectiveness of this experience occurring under the influence of a psychedelic is unpredictable and depends on a variety of factors such as dosage, setting, state of mind, and a general willingness to change.

In comparison, N-acetylcysteine and a small number of other compounds seem to suppress feelings of addiction in a more direct and consistent manner. This is thought to occur as a result of their action on glutaminergic and dopaminergic pathways which may reverse brain functions that have become disturbed by heavy drug addiction.[6][5][7] This mechanism has been shown to provide relief for those who struggle with compulsive redosing, reward behaviors, and psychological cravings, and has been shown to positively reverse nicotine addiction[8], cocaine addiction[9], marijuana dependence.[10], and many other compulsive behaviors.[11] However, it is worth noting that NAC's addiction suppression qualities typically only manifest themselves while the person is still under the influence of the drug and do not seem to last beyond that.

Psychoactive substances

Compounds within our psychoactive substance index which may cause this effect include:

See also

External links

References

  1. Nichols, D. E. (2016). "Psychedelics". Pharmacological Reviews. 68 (2): 264–355. doi:10.1124/pr.115.011478. ISSN 1521-0081. 
  2. Johnson, Matthew W; Garcia-Romeu, Albert; Cosimano, Mary P; Griffiths, Roland R (2014). "Pilot study of the 5-HT2AR agonist psilocybin in the treatment of tobacco addiction". Journal of Psychopharmacology. 28 (11): 983–992. doi:10.1177/0269881114548296. ISSN 0269-8811. 
  3. Krebs, Teri S; Johansen, Pål-Ørjan (2012). "Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) for alcoholism: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials". Journal of Psychopharmacology. 26 (7): 994–1002. doi:10.1177/0269881112439253. ISSN 0269-8811. 
  4. Brown, Thomas (2013). "Ibogaine in the Treatment of Substance Dependence". Current Drug Abuse Reviews. 6 (1): 3–16. doi:10.2174/15672050113109990001. ISSN 1874-4737. 
  5. 5.0 5.1 Moran, M. M. (2005). "Cystine/Glutamate Exchange Regulates Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor Presynaptic Inhibition of Excitatory Transmission and Vulnerability to Cocaine Seeking". Journal of Neuroscience. 25 (27): 6389–6393. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1007-05.2005. ISSN 0270-6474. 
  6. Pettorruso, Mauro; De Risio, Luisa; Martinotti, Giovanni; Di Nicola, Marco; Ruggeri, Filippo; Conte, Gianluigi; Di Giannantonio, Massimo; Janiri, Luigi (2014). "Targeting the Glutamatergic System to Treat Pathological Gambling: Current Evidence and Future Perspectives". BioMed Research International. 2014: 1–11. doi:10.1155/2014/109786. ISSN 2314-6133. 
  7. Reissner, Kathryn J.; Kalivas, Peter W. (2010). "Using glutamate homeostasis as a target for treating addictive disorders". Behavioural Pharmacology. 21 (5-6): 514–522. doi:10.1097/FBP.0b013e32833d41b2. ISSN 0955-8810. 
  8. Knackstedt, Lori A.; LaRowe, Steven; Mardikian, Pascale; Malcolm, Robert; Upadhyaya, Himanshu; Hedden, Sarra; Markou, Athina; Kalivas, Peter W. (2009). "The Role of Cystine-Glutamate Exchange in Nicotine Dependence in Rats and Humans". Biological Psychiatry. 65 (10): 841–845. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2008.10.040. ISSN 0006-3223. 
  9. LaRowe, Steven D.; Mardikian, Pascale; Malcolm, Robert; Myrick, Hugh; Kalivas, Peter; McFarland, Krista; Saladin, Michael; McRae, Aimee; Brady, Kathleen (2006). "Safety and Tolerability of N-Acetylcysteine in Cocaine-Dependent Individuals". American Journal on Addictions. 15 (1): 105–110. doi:10.1080/10550490500419169. ISSN 1055-0496. 
  10. Gray, Kevin M.; Watson, Noreen L.; Carpenter, Matthew J.; LaRowe, Steven D. (2010). "N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) in Young Marijuana Users: An Open-Label Pilot Study". The American Journal on Addictions. 19 (2): 187–189. doi:10.1111/j.1521-0391.2009.00027.x. ISSN 1055-0496. 
  11. Kalivas, Peter W.; LaLumiere, Ryan T.; Knackstedt, Lori; Shen, Haowei (2009). "Glutamate transmission in addiction". Neuropharmacology. 56: 169–173. doi:10.1016/j.neuropharm.2008.07.011. ISSN 0028-3908.