Adrafinil

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Summary sheet: Adrafinil
Adrafinil
Adrafinil.svg
Chemical Nomenclature
Common names Adrafinil, Olmifon
Substitutive name Adrafinil
Systematic name (±)-2-Benzhydrylsulfinylethanehydroxamic acid
Routes of Administration

WARNING: Always start with lower doses due to differences between individual body weight, tolerance, metabolism, and personal sensitivity. See responsible use section.



Oral
Dosage
Threshold Common Heavy
100 - 150 - 250 - 400 - 600 mg
Light Strong
Threshold 100 - 150 mg
Light 150 - 250 mg
Common 250 - 400 mg
Strong 400 - 600 mg
Heavy 600 mg +
Duration
Total 6 - 12 hours
Onset 1 - 2 hours
Come up 45 - 60 minutes
Peak 4.5 - 6 hours
Offset 1 - 3 hours
After effects 2 - 6 hours









DISCLAIMER: PW's dosage information is gathered from users and resources for educational purposes only. It is not a recommendation and should be verified with other sources for accuracy.

Adrafinil (also known as Olmifon) is a prodrug for modafinil - a wakefulness-promoting agent (eugeroic) with nootropic effects. Adrafinil is metabolized in the liver to produce modafinil. Both are stimulants with no amphetamine-like effects. Safety information on adrafinil is lacking because modafinil is often used instead, for treatment of narcolepsy and excessive daytime sleepiness. Long-term supplementation of adrafinil is not advised, since adrafinil is metabolized into modafinil in the liver, and may stress the liver through elevated liver enzymes with prolonged use.

Chemistry

Adrafinil chemical structure vs. Modafinil

Adrafinil is very structurally similar to its close chemical cousin and bioactive metabolite, modafinil. The only structural difference is that terminal amide hydroxyl group of adrafinil ((diphenylmethyl)sulfinyl-2 acetohydroxamic acid) is lacking in modafinil (diphenylmethyl)sulfinyl-2 acetamide).[1]

Pharmacology

The mechanism of adrafinil appears to rely on postsynaptic α-adrenergic activity since an increase in locomotion caused by adrafinil is blocked by prazosin (α1 antagonist), yohimbine (α2 antagonist), or phenoxybenzamine (mixed α-antagonist).[2] These increases through adrenergic neurotransmission are thought to be responsible for adrafinil's energetic properties.

Orally ingested adrafinil may undergo one of two metabolic results. The main metabolite is the active modafinil, which is itself metabolized to the inactive modafinilic acid, then modafinil sulfone. Adrafinil, however, can also be metabolized to inactive modafinilic acid without conversion to modafinil. [3] This may account for its lower potency.

Subjective effects

The effects listed below are based upon the subjective effects index and personal experiences of PsychonautWiki contributors. These effects should be taken with a grain of salt and will rarely (if ever) occur all at once, but heavier doses will increase the chances of inducing a full range of effects. Likewise, adverse effects become much more likely on higher doses and may include serious injury or death.

Physical effects

Cognitive effects

Toxicity and harm potential

The long-term safety and effectiveness of modafinil (adrafinil's active component) as a drug of regular usage have not been determined.[4] Anecdotal reports from people who have tried modafinil within the community suggest that there do not seem to be any negative health effects attributed to simply trying this substance at low to moderate doses by itself and using it sparingly (but nothing can be completely guaranteed).

Adrafinil is more harmful than modafinil due to slight hepatotoxicity, as adrafinil must be processed by the liver. Stomach pain, skin irritation, anxiety, and elevated liver enzymes may occur with prolonged use and have been associated with Adrafinil, specifically.[5]

It is strongly recommended that one use harm reduction practices when using this substance.

Legal status

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This legality section is a stub.

As such, it may contain incomplete or wrong information. You can help by expanding it.

Unlike modafinil, adrafinil is legal to sell and possess without a prescription in most countries.[citation needed]

See also

External links

References

  1. Adrafinil: A Novel Vigilance Promoting Agent | http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1527-3458.1999.tb00100.x/abstract
  2. A possible alpha-adrenergic mechanism for drug (CRL 40028)-induced hyperactivity. | https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/228945
  3. High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of modafinil and its two metabolites in human plasma using solid-phase extraction. | https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9551816
  4. Pharmacotherapy for excessive daytime sleepiness | http://www.smrv-journal.com/article/S1087-0792(04)00024-3/abstract
  5. Modafinil: past, present and future. | https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19810941