|Summary sheet: Adrafinil|
|Common names||Adrafinil, Olmifon|
|Systematic name||(±)-2-Benzhydrylsulfinylethanehydroxamic acid|
|Routes of Administration|
Adrafinil (also known as Olmifon) is a prodrug for modafinil - a wakefulness-promoting agent (eugeroic) with nootropic effects. Adrafinil is metabolized in the liver to produce modafinil. Both are stimulants with no amphetamine-like effects. Safety information on adrafinil is lacking because modafinil is often used instead, for treatment of narcolepsy and excessive daytime sleepiness. Long-term supplementation of adrafinil is not advised, since adrafinil is metabolized into modafinil in the liver, and may stress the liver through elevated liver enzymes with prolonged use.
Adrafinil is very structurally similar to its close chemical cousin and bioactive metabolite, modafinil. The only structural difference is that terminal amide hydroxyl group of adrafinil ((diphenylmethyl)sulﬁnyl-2 acetohydroxamic acid) is lacking in modafinil (diphenylmethyl)sulﬁnyl-2 acetamide).
The mechanism of adrafinil appears to rely on postsynaptic α-adrenergic activity since an increase in locomotion caused by adrafinil is blocked by prazosin (α1 antagonist), yohimbine (α2 antagonist), or phenoxybenzamine (mixed α-antagonist). These increases through adrenergic neurotransmission are thought to be responsible for adrafinil's energetic properties.
Orally ingested adrafinil may undergo one of two metabolic results. The main metabolite is the active modafinil, which is itself metabolized to the inactive modafinilic acid, then modafinil sulfone. Adrafinil, however, can also be metabolized to inactive modafinilic acid without conversion to modafinil.  This may account for its lower potency.
The effects listed below are based upon the subjective effects index and personal experiences of PsychonautWiki contributors. These effects should be taken with a grain of salt and will rarely (if ever) occur all at once, but heavier doses will increase the chances of inducing a full range of effects. Likewise, adverse effects become much more likely on higher doses and may include serious injury or death.
Toxicity and harm potential
The long-term safety and effectiveness of modafinil (adrafinil's active component) as a drug of regular usage have not been determined. Anecdotal reports from people who have tried modafinil within the community suggest that there do not seem to be any negative health effects attributed to simply trying this substance at low to moderate doses by itself and using it sparingly (but nothing can be completely guaranteed).
Adrafinil is more harmful than modafinil due to slight hepatotoxicity, as adrafinil must be processed by the liver. Stomach pain, skin irritation, anxiety, and elevated liver enzymes may occur with prolonged use and have been associated with Adrafinil, specifically.
It is strongly recommended that one use harm reduction practices when using this substance.
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- Adrafinil: A Novel Vigilance Promoting Agent | http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1527-3458.1999.tb00100.x/abstract
- A possible alpha-adrenergic mechanism for drug (CRL 40028)-induced hyperactivity. | https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/228945
- High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of modafinil and its two metabolites in human plasma using solid-phase extraction. | https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9551816
- Pharmacotherapy for excessive daytime sleepiness | http://www.smrv-journal.com/article/S1087-0792(04)00024-3/abstract
- Modafinil: past, present and future. | https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19810941