6-APDB

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Summary sheet: 6-APDB
6-APDB
6-APDB.svg
Chemical Nomenclature
Common names 6-APDB
Substitutive name 6-(2-aminopropyl)-2,3-dihydrobenzofuran
Systematic name 1-(2,3-dihydrobenzofuran-6-yl)propan-2-amine
Routes of Administration

WARNING: Always start with lower doses due to differences between individual body weight, tolerance, metabolism, and personal sensitivity. See responsible use section.



Oral
Dosage
Threshold 20 - 30 mg
Light 30 - 70 mg
Common 70 - 100 mg
Strong 100 - 130 mg
Heavy 130 mg +
Duration
Total 6 - 8 hours
Onset 30 - 60 minutes
Come up 30 - 60 minutes
Peak 2 - 3 hours
Offset 2 - 3 hours









DISCLAIMER: PW's dosage information is gathered from users and resources for educational purposes only. It is not a recommendation and should be verified with other sources for accuracy.

6-APDB (also known as 6-(2-aminopropyl)-2,3-dihydrobenzofuran or 4-Desoxy-MDA) is a stimulant and entactogenic research chemical of the phenethylamine and benzofuran classes. It is a closely related synthetic analogue of MDA and 6-APB and broadly shares the characteristics of serotonin-selective triple monoamine releasers and reuptake inhibitors associated with other entactogenic or empathogenic compounds.

6-APDB was first synthesized and studied along with 5-APDB in 1993 by David E. Nichols as a potential non-neurotoxic alternative to MDMA[1]. It did not come into popular recreational use until over a decade later, where it briefly entered the rave scene and global research chemicals market, in particular the "legal highs" market in the U.K., before its sale and import were subsequently banned.

Because 6-APDB and other substituted benzofurans have not been explicitly outlawed in some countries, they are often technically legal, contributing to their popularity as a substitute or replacement for serotonergic entactogens like MDMA or MDA, and are typically distributed through the online research chemicals grey market.

Chemistry

Generic structure of a phenethylamine molecule

6-APDB, also known as 6-(2-aminopropyl)-2,3-dihydrobenzofuran, is a synthetic molecule of the benzofuran family. Molecules of this class contain a phenethylamine core bound to an amino (NH2) group through an ethyl chain with an additional methyl substitution at Rα.

6-APDB does not contain a methyl substitution on RN, a motif which it shares with MDA. It is an analogue of MDA where the heterocyclic 4-position oxygen from the 3,4-methylenedioxy ring has been replaced with a methylene bridge. 6-APDB shares this furan ring with 5-APDB, 5-MAPDB and 6-MAPDB.

Pharmacology

6-APDB acts as a releasing agent and triple reuptake inhibitor of the monoamine neurotransmitters known as serotonin, dopamine and noradrenaline[2] which are the global neurotransmitters that modulate the brain's ability to feel pleasure, motivation, reward, planning, attention and focus. This is done by promoting the release and inhibiting the reuptake and reabsorption of the neurotransmitters after they have performed their function of transmitting a neural impulse through release into the synaptic cleft, essentially allowing them to accumulate and render them liable for immediate reuse. The net result is excitation in a manner which causes a combination of physically stimulating, relaxing, disinhibiting and euphoric effects.[3]

The unsaturated benzofuran derivative 6-APB, or 6-(2-aminopropyl)benzofuran is also known, but the difference in pharmacological effects between 6-APB and 6-APDB has yet to be fully elucidated.

Subjective effects

The effects listed below are based upon the subjective effects index and personal experiences of PsychonautWiki contributors. These effects should be taken with a grain of salt and will rarely (if ever) occur all at once, but heavier doses will increase the chances of inducing a full range of effects. Likewise, adverse effects become much more likely on higher doses and may include serious injury or death.

Physical effects
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Visual effects
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Cognitive effects
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After effects
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Experience reports

There are currently no anecdotal reports which describe the effects of this compound within our experience index. Additional experience reports can be found here:

Toxicity and harm potential

Due to only having a short history of human use, the toxicity and harm potential is not exactly known. Due to its similarity to MDMA, it is likely that the administration of repeated or high dosages of 6-APDB can be neurotoxic and cardiotoxic[4][5] in some form.

The exact toxic dosage is unknown. It is strongly recommended that one use harm reduction practices when using this drug.

Short-term health concerns

Short-term physical health risks of 6-APDB consumption include dehydration, insomnia, and hyperthermia.[6] Continuous activity without sufficient rest or rehydration may cause body temperature to rise to dangerous levels, and loss of fluid via excessive perspiration puts the body at further risk as the stimulatory and euphoric qualities of the drug may render the user oblivious to their energy expenditure for quite some time. Diuretics such as alcohol may exacerbate these risks further, although this is known to be more of a problem for MDMA than it is 6-APDB.

Although it has not been formally studied, like with MDMA, small changes in ambient temperature may cause large changes in 6-APDB-induced serotonin neurotoxicity and core body temperature in the rat.[7][8]

Long-term health concerns

The neurotoxicity of 6-APDB is controversial. It was specifically designed to be less neurotoxic than MDA or MDMA by circumventing the production of certain metabolic byproducts thought to underlie their toxicity (specifically alpha-methyl-dopamine).[citation needed] Although it is likely to be physically safe to try in a responsible context, it is completely possible that the administration of repeated or high dosages of 6-APDB could result in neurotoxic effects in some form, possibly manifesting as deficits in cognitive, affective and psychomotor function.

As with MDMA, long-term heavy use of 6-APDB is likely cardiotoxic and thought to lead to valvulopathy through its actions on the 5-HT2B receptor.[9][10]

Tolerance and addiction potential

As with other stimulants, the chronic use of 6-APDB can be considered moderately addictive with a high potential for abuse and is capable of causing psychological dependence among certain users. When addiction has developed, cravings and withdrawal effects may occur if a person suddenly stops their usage.

As a potent releaser of serotonin, tolerance builds quickly with prolonged and repeated use to the point that the drug eventually loses any positive effects and instead leaves the user in an uncomfortable state of anxious stimulation and dysphoria. This results in users having to administer increasingly large doses to achieve the same effects. After that, it takes about 21-30 days for the tolerance to be reduced to half and 2-3 months to be back at baseline (in the absence of further consumption). 6-APDB presents cross-tolerance with all dopaminergic stimulants, meaning that after the consumption of 6-APDB all stimulants will have a reduced effect.

Dangerous interactions

Although many psychoactive substances are safe to use on their own, they can become dangerous or even life-threatening when taken with other substances. The list below contains some potentially dangerous combinations, but may not include all of them. Certain combinations may be safe in low doses but still increase the possibility of injury of death. Independent research should always be conducted to ensure that a combination of two or more substances is safe before consumption.

  • 25x-NBOMe/25x-NBOH - Members of the 25x family are highly stimulating and physically straining. Combinations with stimulants should be avoided due to the risk of excessive stimulation. This can result in panic attacks, thought loops, seizures, increased blood pressure, vasoconstriction, and heart failure in extreme cases.
  • Alcohol - Alcohol can be dangerous to combine with stimulants due to the risk of accidental over-intoxication. Stimulants mask the sedative effects of alcohol, which is the main factor people use to assess their degree of intoxication. Once the stimulant wears off, the depressant effects of alcohol are left unopposed, which can result in blackouts and respiratory depression. If combined, one should strictly limit themselves to only drinking a certain amount of alcohol per hour.
  • DXM - Combinations with DXM should be strictly avoided due to DXM's effects on serotonin and dopamine reuptake. This can lead to panic attacks, hypertensive crisis, or serotonin syndrome.
  • MXE - Combinations with MXE may dangerously elevate blood pressure and increase the risk of psychosis.
  • Tramadol - Tramadol lowers the seizure threshold.[11] Combinations with stimulants may further increase this risk.
  • MAOIs - This combination may increase the amount of neurotransmitters such as dopamine to dangerous or even fatal levels. Examples include syrian rue, banisteriopsis caapi, 2C-T-2, 2C-T-7, αMT, and some antidepressants.[12]
  • Stimulants - The neurotoxic effects of 6-APDB may be increased when combined with other stimulants.
  • Cocaine - This combination may cause unbearable combined strain on the heart, resulting in heart attack or stroke.

Serotonin syndrome risk

Combinations with the following substances can cause dangerously high serotonin levels. Serotonin syndrome requires immediate medical attention and can be fatal if left untreated.

There is an increased risk of serotonin syndrome when 6-APDB is taken with many antidepressants, particularly selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs). Additionally, if 6-APDB is taken with SSRIs and SNRIs, the 6-APDB will be significantly less powerful or may have no distinguishable effects at all.

Legal issues

  • Canada: 6-APDB is Schedule III in Canada as it is an analogue of MDA. The CDSA was updated as a result of the Safe Streets Act changing amphetamines from Schedule 3 to Schedule 1.
  • United Kingdom: On June 10, 2013, 6-APDB and a number of analogues were classified as Temporary Class Drugs in the U.K. following an ACMD recommendation. On March 5, 2014, the U.K. Home Office announced that 6-APDB would be made a class B drug on 10 June 2014 alongside every other benzofuran entactogen and many structurally related drugs.[14]
  • United States: 6-APDB is unscheduled in the United States. It may be considered an analog of MDA (which is a Schedule I drug under the Controlled Substances Act). As such, the sale and possession for the purposes of human consumption or could be prosecuted as crimes under the Federal Analog Act.
  • Italy: 6-APDB is a prohibited substance in Italy.[15]
  • Sweden: 6-APDB is prohibited in Sweden as a "health hazard" as of 2009.
  • New Zealand and Australia: Certain countries contain a "substantially similar" catch-all clause in their drug law, such as New Zealand and Australia. This includes 6-APDB as it is similar in chemical structure to the class A drug MDA, meaning 6-APB may be viewed as a controlled substance analogue in these jurisdictions.
  • Germany: 6-APDB is a prohibited substance in Germany.

See also

External links

References

  1. "Synthesis and pharmacological examination of benzofuran, indan, and tetralin analogues of 3,4-(methylenedioxy)amphetamine"|https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8246240
  2. Effects of 6-APDB on the release of monoamines from rat brain slices https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3582025/
  3. New Insights into the Mechanism of Action of Amphetamines | http://www.annualreviews.org/doi/abs/10.1146/annurev.pharmtox.47.120505.105140
  4. Drug-induced Valvulopathy: An Update | tpx.sagepub.com/content/38/6/837.full
  5. Possible association between 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine abuse and valvular heart disease. (PubMed.gov / NCBI) | https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17950805
  6. Drug-induced hyperthermia | http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-2044.1993.tb07423.x/abstract;jsessionid=FC30A9B157A2BAFC81048D8595714565.f02t03
  7. (PubMed.gov / NCBI) | http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9634574
  8. Vasopressin and oxytocin secretion in response to the consumption of ecstasy in a clubbing population | http://jop.sagepub.com/content/20/3/400
  9. Drug-induced Valvulopathy: An Update | tpx.sagepub.com/content/38/6/837.full
  10. Possible association between 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine abuse and valvular heart disease. (PubMed.gov / NCBI) | https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17950805
  11. Talaie, H., Panahandeh, R., Fayaznouri, M. R., Asadi, Z., & Abdollahi, M. (2009). Dose-independent occurrence of seizure with tramadol. Journal of Medical Toxicology, 5(2), 63-67. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03161089
  12. Gillman, P. K. (2005). Monoamine oxidase inhibitors, opioid analgesics and serotonin toxicity. British Journal of Anaesthesia, 95(4), 434-441. https://doi.org/10.1093/bja/aei210
  13. Gillman, P. K. (2005). Monoamine oxidase inhibitors, opioid analgesics and serotonin toxicity. British Journal of Anaesthesia, 95(4), 434-441. https://doi.org/10.1093/bja/aei210
  14. http://www.legislation.gov.uk/uksi/2014/1106/contents/made
  15. http://www.salute.gov.it/imgs/C_17_pagineAree_3729_listaFile_itemName_0_file.pdf