5-APB

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Summary sheet: 5-APB
5-APB
5-APB.svg
Chemical Nomenclature
Common names 5-APB
Substitutive name 5-(2-Aminopropyl)benzofuran
Systematic name 1-(Benzofuran-5-yl)-propan-2-amine
Class Membership
Psychoactive class Entactogen / Stimulant
Chemical class Amphetamine / Benzofuran
Routes of Administration

WARNING: Always start with lower doses due to differences between individual body weight, tolerance, metabolism, and personal sensitivity. See responsible use section.



Oral
Dosage
Threshold Common Heavy
20 - 40 - 60 - 80 - 100 mg
Light Strong
Threshold 20 - 40 mg
Light 40 - 60 mg
Common 60 - 80 mg
Strong 80 - 100 mg
Heavy 100 mg +
Duration
Total 5 - 8 hours
Onset 20 - 60 minutes
Come up 45 - 90 minutes
Peak 2 - 4 hours
Offset 1.5 - 3 hours
After effects 6 - 48 hours









DISCLAIMER: PW's dosage information is gathered from users and resources for educational purposes only. It is not a recommendation and should be verified with other sources for accuracy.

5-(2-Aminopropyl)benzofuran (commonly known as 5-APB) is a lesser-known novel entactogen of the benzofuran class that produces MDA-like entactogenic and stimulating effects when administered. It is structurally related to entactogens like 5-MAPB, 6-APB, and MDA.

5-APB was first synthesized in 1993 by psychedelic chemist and researcher David E. Nichols as a potential non-neurotoxic alternative to MDMA.[1] However, it did not come into popular recreational use until over a decade later, where it briefly entered the rave scene and global research chemicals market. It was sold along with other novel benzofuran entactogens under the name "Benzofury" before its sale and import were subsequently banned.[citation needed]

Compared to other members of its family such as 6-APB and 5-MAPB, this compound in particular is known for its stimulating and euphoric effects which has resulted in its rise in popularity as a product which is easily accessible through the use of online research chemical vendors. It has been commercially distributed as a designer drug alternative to MDMA since 2010.[2]

Very little data exists about the pharmacological properties, metabolism, and toxicity of 5-APB in humans, and it has only a brief history of human usage. It is highly advised that one take proper precautions, conduct independent research, and use proper harm reduction practices if choosing to use with this substance.

History and culture

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The synthesis of 5-APB was first reported by a team led by the medicinal chemist and psychedelic researcher David E. Nichols at Purdue University. They were examining the role of the MDA dioxle ring structure in interacting with serotonergic neurons. It was also partly an effort to find an alternative to MDMA, which was gaining recognition as a potentially useful adjunct in psychotherapy, but was also being linked to neurotoxic effects.[1]

Human usage was not documented until 2010, when it emerged for sale on the research chemical market. It was particularly prominent in the UK "legal highs" market, where it was sold under the name "Benzofury".[citation needed]

On June 10, 2013 5-APB and a number of analogues were classified as Temporary Class Drugs in the UK following an ACMD recommendation.[3] On November 28, 2013 the ACMD recommended that 5-APB and related benzofurans should become Class B, Schedule 1 substances. On March 5, 2014 the UK Home Office announced that 6-APB would be made a class B drug on 10 June 2014 alongside every other benzofuran entactogen and many structurally related drugs.[4]

Chemistry

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5-(2-aminopropyl)benzofuran, also known as 5-APB, is a benzofuran and phenethylamine, meaning it has an ethylamine chain and a furan ring attached to the core benzene ring. It can also be classified as an amphetamine derivative because the ethylamine chain is alpha methylated. Molecules of the amphetamine class contain a phenethylamine core featuring a phenyl ring bound to an amino (NH2) group through an ethyl chain with an additional methyl substitution at Rα. The oxygen in the furan ring is placed at the 5 position, which generally constitutes more stimulating effects than when the oxygen is placed at the 6 position, which is usually described as being more psychedelic in effects. 5-APB is commonly found as the succinate and hydrochloride salt.[citation needed] The hydrochloride salt is 10% more potent by mass so doses should be adjusted accordingly.

Pharmacology

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5-APB is a triple reuptake inhibitor for norepinephrine, dopamine and serotonin as well as being an agonist for the 5-HT2A and 5-HT2B receptors.[5][6] It has also been speculated that 5-APB acts as a releasing agent for the previously mentioned neurotransmitters.

This means it effectively boosts the levels of the serotonin, norepinephrine and dopamine neurotransmitters in the brain by binding to and partially blocking the transporter proteins that normally remove those monoamines from the synaptic cleft. This allows dopamine and norepinephrine to accumulate within the brain, resulting in stimulating and euphoric effects.

Subjective effects

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The effects listed below are based upon the subjective effects index and personal experiences of PsychonautWiki contributors. The listed effects should be taken with a grain of salt and will rarely (if ever) occur all at once, but heavier doses will increase the chances and are more likely to induce a full range of effects. Likewise, adverse effects become much more likely on higher doses and may include serious injury or death.

Experience reports

Anecdotal reports which describe the effects of this compound within our experience index include:

Additional experience reports can be found here:

Toxicity and harm potential

The toxicity and long-term health effects of recreational 5-APB use do not seem to have been studied in any scientific context and the exact toxic dosage is unknown. This is because 5-APB has very little history of human usage.

Anecdotal evidence from people who have tried 5-APB within the community suggest that there do not seem to be any negative health effects attributed to simply trying this drug at low to moderate doses by itself and using it sparingly (but nothing can be completely guaranteed).

5-APB's high affinity for the 5-HT2b receptor makes it likely that 5-APB would be cardiotoxic with long-term use, as seen in other 5-HT2B agonists such as fenfluramine and MDMA.

It is strongly recommended that one use harm reduction practices when using this substance.

Tolerance and addiction potential

As with other stimulants, the chronic use of 5-APB can be considered moderately addictive with a high potential for abuse and is capable of causing psychological dependence among certain users. When addiction has developed, cravings and withdrawal effects may occur if a person suddenly stops their usage.

Tolerance to many of the effects of 5-APB develops with prolonged and repeated use. This results in users having to administer increasingly large doses to achieve the same effects. After that, it takes about 3 - 7 days for the tolerance to be reduced to half and 1 - 2 weeks to be back at baseline (in the absence of further consumption). 5-APB presents cross-tolerance with all dopaminergic stimulants, meaning that after the consumption of 5-APB all stimulants will have a reduced effect.

Psychosis

Main article: Stimulant psychosis

Abuse of compounds within the amphetamine chemical class at high dosages for prolonged periods of time can potentially result in a stimulant psychosis that may present with a variety of symptoms (e.g., paranoia, hallucinations, or delusions). A review on treatment for amphetamine, dextroamphetamine, and methamphetamine abuse-induced psychosis states that about 5–15% of users fail to recover completely. The same review asserts that, based upon at least one trial, antipsychotic medications effectively resolve the symptoms of acute amphetamine psychosis. Psychosis very rarely arises from therapeutic use.

Dangerous interactions

Although many psychoactive substances are safe on their own, they can become dangerous and even life-threatening when combined with other substances. The list below contains some common potentially dangerous combinations, but may not include all of them. Certain combinations may be safe in low doses of each but still increase the potential risk of death. Independent research should always be done to ensure that a combination of two or more substances is safe before consumption.

Serotonin syndrome risk

Combinations in the list below may increase the amount of neurotransmitters such as serotonin and dopamine to dangerous or even fatal levels.

Legal status

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  • Brazil: Possession, production and sale is illegal as it is listed on Portaria SVS/MS nº 344.[9]
  • United Kingdom: 5-APB is a Class B drug.[citation needed]
  • United States: 5-APB could be considered an analogue of MDA and therefore would be covered under the Federal Analogue Act if intended for human consumption.[citation needed]

See also

External links

Community

Literature

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 Monte, A. P., Marona-Lewicka, D., Cozzi, N. V., & Nichols, D. E. (1993). Synthesis and pharmacological examination of benzofuran, indan, and tetralin analogs of 3, 4-(methylenedioxy) amphetamine. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 36(23), 3700-3706. https://doi.org/10.1021/jm00075a027
  2. EMCDDA–Europol 2010 Annual Report on the implementation of Council Decision 2005/387/JHA | http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/publications/implementation-reports/2010
  3. Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs, Jeremy Browne (4 June 2013). "Temporary class drug order on benzofury and NBOMe compounds - letter from ACMD". GOV.UK.
  4. UK Home Office (28 April 2014). "The Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 (Ketamine etc.) (Amendment) Order 2014". The National Archives.
  5. The effects of benzofury (5-APB) on the dopamine transporter and 5-HT2-dependent vasoconstriction in the rat (PubMed.gov / NCBI) | https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24012617?dopt=Abstract
  6. Neurochemical profiles of some novel psychoactive substances (ScienceDirect) | http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0014299912010114
  7. Gillman, P. K. (2005). Monoamine oxidase inhibitors, opioid analgesics and serotonin toxicity. British Journal of Anaesthesia, 95(4), 434-441. https://doi.org/10.1093/bja/aei210
  8. Gillman, P. K. (2005). Monoamine oxidase inhibitors, opioid analgesics and serotonin toxicity. British Journal of Anaesthesia, 95(4), 434-441. https://doi.org/10.1093/bja/aei210
  9. http://portal.anvisa.gov.br/documents/10181/3115436/%281%29RDC_130_2016_.pdf/fc7ea407-3ff5-4fc1-bcfe-2f37504d28b7