4F-EPH

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Summary sheet: 4F-EPH
4F-EPH
4F-EPH.svg
Chemical Nomenclature
Common names 4F-EPH, 4FEPH
Substitutive name 4-Fluoroethylphenidate
Systematic name Ethyl 2-(4-fluorophenyl)-2-(piperidin-2-yl)acetate
Class Membership
Psychoactive class Stimulant
Chemical class Phenidate / Piperidine
Routes of Administration

WARNING: Always start with lower doses due to differences between individual body weight, tolerance, metabolism, and personal sensitivity. See responsible use section.



Oral
Dosage
Threshold < 5 mg
Light 5 - 10 mg
Common 10 - 15 mg
Strong 15 - 30 mg
Heavy 30 mg +
Duration
Total 5 - 6 hours
Onset 10 - 25 minutes
After effects 4 - 12 hours









DISCLAIMER: PW's dosage information is gathered from users and resources for educational purposes only. It is not a recommendation and should be verified with other sources for accuracy.

4-Fluoroethylphenidate (commonly known as 4F-EPH) is a novel synthetic stimulant of the substituted phenethylamine and piperidine classes that produces long-lasting euphoric and stimulating effects associated with potent monoamine reuptake inhibitors when administered. It is a closely related structural analog of the commonly prescribed ADHD drug methylphenidate (known by the brand-names Ritalin and Concerta) as well as a designer drug analog ethylphenidate. Based on its similarities to other memebers of this class, it is speculated to exert its activity as some form of double or triple monoamine reuptake inhibitor.

Like other members of the substituted phenidate family, anecdotal reports suggest that 4F-EPH can be corrosive to the nasal cavities, albeit not to the degree of ethylphenidate.

4F-EPH has little to no history of recreational use and has yet to be documented being sold on the streets. It was initially developed as a replacement and successor for compounds like ethylphenidate, which became illegal in the United Kingdom on April 2015, and later 4F-MPH. In 2016, it became made available for sale on the online gray market as a research chemical.

Due to its potent, long-lasting stimulant effect, likely habit-forming properties as well as unknown short and long-term toxicity profile, it is strongly recommended that one use proper harm reduction practices if choosing to use this substance.

Chemistry

4F-EPH, or 4-fluoroethylphenidate, is a synthetic molecule of the substituted phenethylamine class. It contains a phenethylamine core featuring a phenyl ring bound to an amino -NH2 group through an ethyl chain. It is structurally similar to amphetamine, featuring a substitution at Rα which is incorporated into a piperidine ring ending at the terminal amine of the phenethylamine chain. It contains an ethyl acetate bound to R2 of its structure and is fluorinated at R4 of its phenyl ring.

4F-EPH is the 4-substituted flourine derivative of ethylphenidate, and is structurally different to methylphenidate by elongation of the carbon chain and the addition of a fluorine group. Ethyl- regards the side chain of two carbon atoms, phen- indicates the phenyl ring, id- is contracted from a piperidine ring, and -ate indicates the acetate group containing the oxygens. 4F-EPH is a chiral compound, presumably produced as a racemic mixture.

Pharmacology

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4F-EPH is believed to act as a higher efficiency dopamine reuptake inhibitor than the closely related methylphenidate,[1][2][3] meaning that it effectively boosts the levels of dopamine neurotransmitters in the brain by binding to and partially blocking the transporter proteins that normally remove those monoamines from the synaptic cleft. This allows dopamine to accumulate within the certain focalized regions of the brain, resulting in stimulating and euphoric effects.

Subjective effects

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The effects listed below are based upon the subjective effects index and personal experiences of PsychonautWiki contributors. These effects should be taken with a grain of salt and will rarely (if ever) occur all at once, but heavier doses will increase the chances of inducing a full range of effects. Likewise, adverse effects become much more likely on higher doses and may include serious injury or death.

Physical effects
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Cognitive effects
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After effects
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Toxicity and harm potential

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We also recommend that you conduct independent research and use harm reduction practices when using this substance.

The toxicity and long-term health effects of recreational 4F-EPH use do not seem to have been studied in any scientific context and the exact toxic dosage is unknown. This is because 4F-EPH is a research chemical with very little history of human usage. Anecdotal evidence from people who have tried 4F-EPH suggests that there are no negative health effects attributed to simply trying the drug by itself at low to moderate doses and using it very sparingly (but nothing can be completely guaranteed).

It is strongly recommended that one use harm reduction practices when using this drug.

Tolerance and addiction potential

As with other stimulants, the chronic use of 4F-EPH can be considered moderately addictive with a high potential for abuse and is capable of causing psychological dependence among certain users. When addiction has developed, cravings and withdrawal effects may occur if a person suddenly stops their usage.

Tolerance to many of the effects of 4F-EPH develops with prolonged and repeated use. This results in users having to administer increasingly large doses to achieve the same effects. After that, it takes about 3 - 7 days for the tolerance to be reduced to half and 1 - 2 weeks to be back at baseline (in the absence of further consumption). 4F-EPH presents cross-tolerance with all dopaminergic stimulants, meaning that after the consumption of 4F-EPH all stimulants will have a reduced effect.

Dangerous interactions

Although many psychoactive substances are safe to use on their own, they can become dangerous or even life-threatening when taken with other substances. The list below contains some potentially dangerous combinations, but may not include all of them. Certain combinations may be safe in low doses but still increase the possibility of injury of death. Independent research should always be conducted to ensure that a combination of two or more substances is safe before consumption.

  • 25x-NBOMe/25x-NBOH - Members of the 25x family are highly stimulating and physically straining. Combinations with stimulants should be avoided due to the risk of excessive stimulation. This can result in panic attacks, thought loops, seizures, increased blood pressure, vasoconstriction, and heart failure in extreme cases.
  • Alcohol - Alcohol can be dangerous to combine with stimulants due to the risk of accidental over-intoxication. Stimulants mask the sedative effects of alcohol, which is the main factor people use to assess their degree of intoxication. Once the stimulant wears off, the depressant effects of alcohol are left unopposed, which can result in blackouts and respiratory depression. If combined, one should strictly limit themselves to only drinking a certain amount of alcohol per hour.
  • DXM - Combinations with DXM should be strictly avoided due to DXM's effects on serotonin and dopamine reuptake. This can lead to panic attacks, hypertensive crisis, or serotonin syndrome.
  • MXE - Combinations with MXE may dangerously elevate blood pressure and increase the risk of psychosis.
  • Tramadol - Tramadol lowers the seizure threshold.[4] Combinations with stimulants may further increase this risk.
  • MAOIs - This combination may increase the amount of neurotransmitters such as dopamine to dangerous or even fatal levels. Examples include syrian rue, banisteriopsis caapi, 2C-T-2, 2C-T-7, αMT, and some antidepressants.[5]
  • MDMA - The neurotoxic effects of MDMA may be increased when combined with other stimulants.
  • Cocaine - This combination may increase strain on the heart.

Legal status

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  • United Kingdom - 4-Fluoroethylphenidate is a class B drug in the UK as of May 31st 2017, making it illegal to possess, produce or supply. [6]

See also

External links

References

  1. Synthesis of methylphenidate analogues and their binding affinities at dopamine and serotonin transport sites (PubMed.gov / NCBI) | https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15026075
  2. Quantitative structure-activity relationship studies of threo-methylphenidate analogs (PubMed.gov / NCBI) | https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20846865
  3. Chemistry, design, and structure-activity relationship of cocaine antagonists (PubMed.gov / NCBI) | https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11749256
  4. Talaie, H., Panahandeh, R., Fayaznouri, M. R., Asadi, Z., & Abdollahi, M. (2009). Dose-independent occurrence of seizure with tramadol. Journal of Medical Toxicology, 5(2), 63-67. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03161089
  5. Gillman, P. K. (2005). Monoamine oxidase inhibitors, opioid analgesics and serotonin toxicity. British Journal of Anaesthesia, 95(4), 434-441. https://doi.org/10.1093/bja/aei210
  6. The Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 (Amendment) Order 2017 (Legislation.gov.uk) | http://www.legislation.gov.uk/uksi/2017/634/made