|Summary sheet: 3-FPM|
|Common names||3-FPM, PAL-593|
|Chemical class||Amphetamine / Phenylmorpholine|
|Routes of Administration|
3-Fluorophenmetrazine (also known as 3F-Phenmetrazine, PAL-593, and 3-FPM) is a novel stimulant substance of the phenylmorpholine class. 3-FPM is a derivative of phenmetrazine, a once-popular stimulant substance that was clinically used as an anorectic in Europe in the 1950s. It produces its activity by increasing the levels of serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine in the brain.
The synthesis and pharmacology of 3-FPM was first reported in a patent filed in 2011. Reports of human use first surfaced in early 2015 after it appeared for sale on the online research chemical market.
Subjective effects include stimulation, enhanced focus and motivation, thought acceleration, and euphoria. Users commonly report that 3-FPM produces classical stimulant effects comparable to those of amphetamine. Many reports describe 3-FPM as having a relatively subtle and controlled stimulant effect which produces less nervousness, insomnia and euphoria than other stimulants, which makes it suitable as a study-aid or productivity-enhancer. A few but significant number of anecdotal reports indicate some people experience serious nervous system reactions to 3-FPM.
Very little data exists about the pharmacological properties, metabolism, and toxicity of 3-FPM. Due to the lack of information on its properties, it is highly advised to use harm reduction practices if using this substance.
3-Fluorophenmetrazine (3-FPM) is a synthetic molecule of the amphetamine family. Molecules of the amphetamine class contain a phenethylamine core featuring a phenyl ring bound to an amino (NH2) group through an ethyl chain with an additional methyl substitution at Rα. Amphetamines are alpha-methylated phenethylamines. 3-FPM contains a fluorine atom attached at R3 of the phenyl ring. Additionally, part of its amphetamine skeleton is incorporated into a morpholine ring. At R2 of its chain, an oxygen group is bound -- this oxygen group is linked by an ethyl chain to the terminal amine of the amphetamine chain to form a morpholine group. 3-FPM is a fluorinated derivative of phenmetrazine.
3-FPM is a sympathomimetic drug which has classical stimulant effects when consumed. Its mechanism of action appears to function by acting as a releasing agent for dopamine and norepinephrine, increasing their concentrations in the synaptic clefts of neurons in the brain. This accumulation of neurotransmitters results in the experience of euphoric and stimulating effects. Its parent compound, phenmetrazine, was previously marketed as an appetite suppressant in the 60s and 70s but has since been withdrawn from the market due to concerns of abuse and addiction.
Below is a table showing 3-FPM's potency for inducing release (EC50) of dopamine (DA), serotonin (5-HT) and noradrenaline (NE) in comparison to phenmetrazine:
|This subjective effects section is a stub.|
As such, it is still in progress and may contain incomplete or wrong information.
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According to anecdotal reports, 3-FPM is considered to be more subtle in its effects when compared to other stimulants and produces less nervousness, euphoria, and insomnia than substances of the substituted amphetamine class, leading to its adoption as a study and productivity-enhancing drug as opposed to the more typical recreational stimulant with pronounced euphoric properties.
Disclaimer: The effects listed below cite the Subjective Effect Index (SEI), an open research literature based on anecdotal user reports and the personal analyses of PsychonautWiki contributors. As a result, they should be viewed with a healthy degree of skepticism.
It is also worth noting that these effects will not necessarily occur in a predictable or reliable manner, although higher doses are more liable to induce the full spectrum of effects. Likewise, adverse effects become increasingly likely with higher doses and may include addiction, severe injury, or death ☠.
- Stimulation - In terms of its effects on the physical energy levels of the user, 3-FPM is usually considered to be mildly to moderately energetic and stimulating in a fashion that is considerably weaker in comparison to that of traditional recreational stimulants such as amphetamine, MDMA or cocaine. This encourages physical activities such as performing chores and repetitive tasks which would otherwise be boring and strenuous physical activities.
- Abnormal heartbeat
- Increased heart rate - In comparison to other stimulants such as amphetamine or cocaine, 3-FPM only has a mild effect on one's heart rate. This effect may be more pronounced with higher doses aswell with redosing.
- Stamina enhancement
- Appetite suppression - The above components are also accompanied by a suppression of appetite which is usually much less intense in strength in comparison to the appetite suppression experienced with amphetamine or methamphetamine.
- Increased perspiration
- Frequent urination
- Dry mouth
- Vasoconstriction
- Increased libido - 3-FPM is known for having aphrodisiac properties and is said to enhance sex drive and improve sexual performance.
- Decreased libido - 3-FPM is known for increasing sexual activity. But while being a CNS stimulant vasoconstriction that occurs with stimulants can make sexual activity more strenuous
- Pupil dilation
- Teeth grinding - This component can be considered to be less intense when compared with that of MDMA and many other stimulants.
- Analysis enhancement
- Disinhibition - While 3-FPM is often noted for its potential functional applications, higher doses can result in the kind of disinhibition seen in traditional stimulants like amphetamine or cocaine, leading to increased sociability.
- Cognitive euphoria - This component is much less intense than the euphoria experienced with other stimulants such as amphetamine, cocaine, or methamphetamine.
- Ego inflation
- Focus enhancement - This component is most effective at low to moderate doses as anything higher will usually impair concentration.
- Motivation enhancement - This component is experienced in a functional form even at moderate to high doses.
- Immersion enhancement
- Increased music appreciation
- Thought acceleration
- Time distortion - This can be described as the experience of time speeding up and passing much quicker than it usually would when sober.
- Although many report 3-FPM to have minor comedowns, many also report redosing can produce moderate to full on of the effects which occur during the offset of a stimulant experience generally feel negative and uncomfortable in comparison to the effects which occurred during its peak. This is often referred to as a "comedown" and occurs because of neurotransmitter depletion. Its effects commonly include:
The visual effects of 3-FPM are usually less consistent and only mildly noticeable at higher dosages and sleep deprivation. They are somewhat comparable to deliriants and occur more readily in darker areas. Visual effects include:
- Brightness alteration - People often report an increase of Brightness on 3-FPM in their subjective experiences. Based on anecdotal reports
Anecdotal reports which describe the effects of this compound within our experience index include:
Additional experience reports can be found here:
Toxicity and harm potential
The toxicity and long-term health effects of recreational 3-FPM use do not seem to have been studied in any scientific context and the exact toxic dosage is unknown. This is because 3-FPM has very little history of human usage.
Anecdotal evidence suggests that 3-FPM is relatively well-tolerated, with most users encountering few side-effects at low to moderate doses. However, several users have encountered serious flu-like symptoms on the comedown of 3-FPM, consisting of muscle and joint aches, fever and chills, and headaches, sometimes with migraine auras present. This is speculated to be systemic inflammation induced by 3-FPM. Therefore new users should exercise great caution in dosing to gauge their own physiological response to 3-FPM.
It is strongly recommended that one use harm reduction practices when using this substance.
Dependence and abuse potential
As with other stimulants, the chronic use of 3-FPM can be considered moderately addictive with a high potential for abuse and is capable of causing psychological dependence among certain users. When addiction has developed, cravings and withdrawal effects may occur if a person suddenly stops their usage.
Tolerance to many of the effects of 3-FPM develops with prolonged and repeated use. This results in users having to administer increasingly large doses to achieve the same effects. After that, it takes about 3 - 7 days for the tolerance to be reduced to half and 1 - 2 weeks to be back at baseline (in the absence of further consumption). 3-FPM presents cross-tolerance with all dopaminergic stimulants, meaning that after the consumption of 3-FPM all stimulants will have a reduced effect.
Warning: Many psychoactive substances that are reasonably safe to use on their own can suddenly become dangerous and even life-threatening when combined with certain other substances. The following list provides some known dangerous interactions (although it is not guaranteed to include all of them).
Always conduct independent research (e.g. Google, DuckDuckGo, PubMed) to ensure that a combination of two or more substances is safe to consume. Some of the listed interactions have been sourced from TripSit.
- 25x-NBOMe & 25x-NBOH - 25x compounds are highly stimulating and physically straining. Combinations with 3-FPM should be strictly avoided due to the risk of excessive stimulation and heart strain. This can result in increased blood pressure, vasoconstriction, panic attacks, thought loops, seizures, and heart failure in extreme cases.
- Alcohol - Combining alcohol with stimulants can be dangerous due to the risk of accidental over-intoxication. Stimulants mask alcohol's depressant effects, which is what most people use to assess their degree of intoxication. Once the stimulant wears off, the depressant effects will be left unopposed, which can result in blackouts and severe respiratory depression. If mixing, the user should strictly limit themselves to only drinking a certain amount of alcohol per hour.
- DXM - Combinations with DXM should be avoided due to its inhibiting effects on serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake. There is an increased risk of panic attacks and hypertensive crisis, or serotonin syndrome with serotonin releasers (MDMA, methylone, mephedrone, etc.). Monitor blood pressure carefully and avoid strenuous physical activity.
- MDMA - Any neurotoxic effects of MDMA are likely to be increased when other stimulants are present. There is also a risk of excessive blood pressure and heart strain (cardiotoxicity).
- MXE - Some reports suggest combinations with MXE may dangerously increase blood pressure and increase the risk of mania and psychosis.
- Dissociatives - Both classes carry a risk of delusions, mania and psychosis, and these risk may be multiplied when combined.
- Stimulants - 3-FPM may be dangerous to combine with other stimulants like cocaine as they can increase one's heart rate and blood pressure to dangerous levels.
- Tramadol - Tramadol is known to lower the seizure threshold and combinations with stimulants may further increase this risk.
- MAOIs - This combination may increase the amount of neurotransmitters such as dopamine to dangerous or even fatal levels. Examples include syrian rue, banisteriopsis caapi, and some antidepressants.
- Germany: 3-FPM is controlled under the NpSG (New Psychoactive Substances Act) as of November 26, 2016. Production and import with the aim to place it on the market, administration to another person and trading is punishable. Possession is illegal but not penalized.
- Israel: 3-FPM is illegal to buy, sell or possess in Israel as of 2017.
- Sweden: The public health agency suggested the classification of the drug as an illegal narcotic on June 1, 2015.
- Switzerland: 3-FPM is a controlled substance specifically named under Verzeichnis E. It was added to the list of controlled substances in December 2015.
- Turkey: 3-FPM is a classed as drug and is illegal to possess, produce, supply, or import.
- United Kingdom: 3-FPM is illegal to produce, supply, or import under the Psychoactive Substance Act, which came into effect on May 26th, 2016.
- United States: 3-FPM may be considered to be an analogue of phenmetrazine, a Schedule II drug, under the Federal Analogue Act if it is intended for human consumption.
- ↑ Kalant, O. J. (1966). The amphetamines; toxicity and addiction. [Springfield, Ill.] Thomas [Toronto, Univ. of Toronto Press].
- ↑ Blough, B. E., Rothman, R., Landavazo, A., Page, K. M., Decker, A. M., Phenylmorpholines and analogues thereof
- ↑ Sisquitch (2021), I had the 3-FPM that caused mild paralysis and damage to a Reddit user’s peroneal nerve NMR tested. Results in the description.
- ↑ Blough, B. E., Rothman, R., Landavazo, A., Page, K. M., Decker, A. M., Phenylmorpholines and analogues thereof
- ↑ Talaie, H.; Panahandeh, R.; Fayaznouri, M. R.; Asadi, Z.; Abdollahi, M. (2009). "Dose-independent occurrence of seizure with tramadol". Journal of Medical Toxicology. 5 (2): 63–67. doi:10.1007/BF03161089. eISSN 1937-6995. ISSN 1556-9039. OCLC 163567183.
- ↑ Gillman, P. K. (2005). "Monoamine oxidase inhibitors, opioid analgesics and serotonin toxicity". British Journal of Anaesthesia. 95 (4): 434–441. doi:10.1093/bja/aei210 . eISSN 1471-6771. ISSN 0007-0912. OCLC 01537271. PMID 16051647.
- ↑ "Anlage NpSG" (in German). Bundesministerium der Justiz und für Verbraucherschutz. Retrieved December 19, 2019.
- ↑ "Gesetz zur Bekämpfung der Verbreitung neuer psychoaktiver Stoffe" (PDF) (in German). Bundesanzeiger Verlag. Retrieved December 19, 2019.
- ↑ "§ 4 NpSG" (in German). Bundesministerium der Justiz und für Verbraucherschutz. Retrieved December 19, 2019.
- ↑ פקודת הסמים המסוכנים [נוסח חדש], תשל"ג-1973
- ↑ http://www.folkhalsomyndigheten.se/nyheter-och-press/nyhetsarkiv/2015/juni/23-nya-amnen-kan-klassas-som-narkotika-eller-halsofarlig-vara
- ↑ "Verordnung des EDI über die Verzeichnisse der Betäubungsmittel, psychotropen Stoffe, Vorläuferstoffe und Hilfschemikalien" (in German). Bundeskanzlei [Federal Chancellery of Switzerland]. Retrieved January 1, 2020.
- ↑ https://resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2017/01/20170112-8.pdf
- ↑ Psychoactive Substances Act 2016
- ↑ https://www.deadiversion.usdoj.gov/schedules/orangebook/c_cs_alpha.pdf
- ↑ 21 U.S. Code § 813 - Treatment of controlled substance analogues