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Summary sheet: ALD-52
Molecular structure of of ALD-52
Chemical Nomenclature
Common names ALD-52, 1-Acetyl-LSD, 1A-LSD, 1A-LAD, "Orange Sunshine"
Substitutive name 1-Acetyl-N,N-diethyllysergamide
Systematic name (6aR,9R)-4-Acetyl-N,N-diethyl-7-methyl-4,6,6a,7,8,9-hexahydroindolo-[4,3-fg]-quinoline-9-carboxamide
Class Membership
Psychoactive class Psychedelic
Chemical class Lysergamide
Routes of Administration

WARNING: Always start with lower doses due to differences between individual body weight, tolerance, metabolism, and personal sensitivity. See responsible use section.

Threshold 30 µg
Light 30 - 100 µg
Common 100 - 175 µg
Strong 175 - 325 µg
Heavy 325 µg +
Total 8 - 14 hours
Onset 20 - 40 minutes
Come up 1 - 2 hours
Peak 3 - 5 hours
Offset 3 - 5 hours
After effects 4 - 24 hours

DISCLAIMER: PW's dosage information is gathered from users and resources for educational purposes only. It is not a recommendation and should be verified with other sources for accuracy.

1-Acetyl-N,N-diethyllysergamide (also known as ALD-52, 1-Acetyl-LSD, 1A-LSD, 1A-LAD, and mistakenly as Orange Sunshine) is a lesser-known psychedelic substance of the lysergamide class that produces LSD-like psychedelic effects when administered. It is structurally related to psychedelic lysergamides like LSD and 1P-LSD and is reported to produce largely indistinguishable effects.

ALD-52 was originally discovered by Albert Hofmann in his study of LSD analogs,[citation needed] but it did not enter mainstream awareness until the 1960s Western youth counterculture. ALD-52 gained public notoriety when it was supposedly distributed as LSD in the 1960s under the now-famous name "Orange Sunshine." This was later disproven (see section below).

Alexander Shulgin touches briefly on the subject of ALD-52 in the commentary section of LSD-25 in the book TiHKAL ("Tryptamines I have Known and Loved").[1] His writings are based on second-hand accounts which state that doses in the 50-175 µg range result in various effects that are not particularly distinct from LSD. His reports indicate that it produces less visual distortion than with LSD as well as less anxiety and tenseness, while also being somewhat less potent than LSD. Another report found the two substances to be indistinguishable.[1]

As with LSD itself, ALD-52 does not meet the criteria to be considered addictive or toxic by the scientific community.[2][3] Nevertheless, unpredictable adverse reactions such as anxiety, paranoia, delusions and psychosis are always possible, particularly among those who are predisposed to psychiatric disorders.[4] While these negative reactions or "bad trips" can often be attributed to factors like user inexperience or improper preparation of set and setting, they are known to happen spontaneously among even highly experienced users as well. It is highly advised to approach this very potent, long-lasting hallucinogenic substance with the proper amount of preparation, and harm reduction practices if using it.

History and culture

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In 1968 and 1969, a famous batch of LSD known as "Orange Sunshine" was synthesized by Nick Sands and Tim Scully and made widely available in California. This "Orange Sunshine" was long held by the hippie generation to be ALD-52 until 2005, when it was revealed by Nick Sands that "Orange Sunshine" was just a particularly well made batch of LSD dosed at 300 micrograms per unit. This was confirmed by Tim Scully in a 2017 Reddit AMA, where Scully explained that the claim that "Orange Sunshine" was technically not LSD arose from an "ill-advised desperate defense strategy that failed miserably" during his trial for LSD manufacture.[5]


ALD-52, or 1-Acetyl-N,N-diethyllysergamide, is a semisynthethic molecule of the lysergamide chemical class. ALD-52 is a substituted derivative of lysergic acid. ALD-52's structure contains four rings, a bicyclic hexahydroindole fused to a bicyclic quinoline group. This core structure of ALD-52 is an ergoline derivative, and has tryptamine and phenethylamine structures embedded within it. ALD-52 contains a N,N-diethylcarboxamide functional group bound to R8 of the chemical structure. It is additionally substituted at carbon 6 with a methyl group.

ALD-52 is homologous to 1P-LSD, which contains a propionyl group bound to CH3CO- instead of the acetyl group bound to the same location. It is unknown how these differences account for differences in the two compound's activity.


Further information: Serotonergic psychedelic

ALD-52 likely acts as a 5-HT2A partial agonist. The psychedelic effects are believed to come from ALD-52's efficacy at the 5-HT2A receptors. However, the role of these interactions and how they result in the psychedelic experience continues to remain elusive.

ALD-52, alongside with 1P-LSD, is believed to act as a prodrug to LSD, though it is unclear as to whether it is capable of exerting its own effects.[citation needed]

Subjective effects

Anecdotal reports from many users suggest that the effects of ALD-52 are virtually identical to LSD. In comparison to other psychedelics such as psilocin, LSA and ayahuasca, ALD-52 is significantly more stimulating and fast-paced regarding the specific style of its physical and cognitive effects, as is the case with other lysergamides.

Anecdotal reports from the community tend to report ALD-52 as being slightly less potent and visual, with a mellower, less anxiety-provoking headspace that comes at the expense of less depth, giving it the reputation for being a more recreational variant of LSD. It has been speculated that this is due to a slightly extended, less jarring come up period that allows the user to become more acclimated to the changes in head space. As one increases the dose, it is reported to lose this character and converge with the effects of a high-dose LSD experience.

The effects listed below are based upon the subjective effects index and personal experiences of PsychonautWiki contributors. The listed effects should be taken with a grain of salt and will rarely (if ever) occur all at once, but heavier doses will increase the chances and are more likely to induce a full range of effects. Likewise, adverse effects become much more likely on higher doses and may include serious injury or death.

Physical effects

Visual effects

Cognitive effects

Multi-sensory effects

Experience reports

Anecdotal reports which describe the effects of this compound within our experience index include:

Additional experience reports can be found here:


  • Cannabis - When used in conjunction with cannabis, both the visual and cognitive effects of ALD-52 can be intensified and extended with extreme efficiency. This should be used with extreme caution, especially if one is not experienced with psychedelics. Many users sometimes report a dramatically more intense visual trip when combining it with THC concentrates such as hashish as opposed to cannabis flower; however, this can also amplify the anxiety, paranoia, confusion and psychosis producing aspects of cannabis to a dangerous degree, which can often act as a catalyst for suddenly turning an enjoyable experience into an overwhelming "bad trip".
  • Dissociatives - When used in combination with dissociatives, the geometry, euphoria, dissociation and hallucinatory effects are often greatly enhanced. Dissociative-induced holes, spaces, and voids while under the influence of ALD-52 can result in significantly more vivid visuals than dissociatives alone present, along with more intense internal hallucinations, confusion, delusions and chances of a psychotic reaction. Additionally, users should be aware that there are reasons to believe that this combination may result in unforeseen neurotoxic effects, so a strong sense of caution and independent research are highly advised if one decides to experiment with this combination.
  • MDMA - When used in conjunction with MDMA, the physical and cognitive effects of MDMA become amplified. The visual, physical and cognitive effects of ALD-52 are also intensified with an overwhelming euphoric pleasure manifested through uniquely pleasurable body highs and headspaces, and uniquely colorful and awe-inspiring visuals. The synergy between these substances is unpredictable, and it is best to start with markedly lower dosages than one would take for both substances individually. Additionally, users should be aware that there are reasons to believe that this combination may result in unforeseen neurotoxic effects,[citation needed] so a strong sense of caution and independent research are highly advised if one decides to experiment with this combination.
  • Alcohol - This interaction is not typically recommended due to alcohol’s ability to cause dehydration, depression and thought disorganization which can negatively affect a trip if taken in high dosages. This combination is however reasonably safe in low doses and when used responsibly, this can often take the edge off a trip as well as dull its psychedelic effects in a fashion somewhat similar to benzodiazepines, albeit more stressful on the body.
  • Benzodiazepines - When used in combination with benzodiazepines, benzodiazepines can, depending on the dosage, slightly to completely reduce the intensity of the cognitive, physical and visual effects of an ALD-52 trip. They are very efficient at stopping "bad trips" at the cost of amnesia and reduced trip intensity. Caution is advised when acquiring them for this purpose, however, due to the very high addiction potential that benzodiazepines possess.
  • Psychedelics - When used in combination with other psychedelics, each drug's physical, cognitive and visual effects intensify and synergize strongly. The synergy between those substances is unpredictable, and for this reason generally not advised. If choosing to combine psychedelics, it is recommended to start with lower dosages than one would take for either substance individually.

Toxicity and harm potential

The toxicity and long-term health effects of recreational ALD-52 use do not appear to have been studied in any scientific context and the exact toxic dose is unknown. This is because ALD-52 is a research chemical with a very limited history of human use.

Anecdotal evidence from people within the community who have tried ALD-52 suggests that there are no negative health effects attributed to simply trying the drug by itself at low to moderate doses and using it very sparingly (although nothing can be completely guaranteed). Independent research should always be conducted to ensure that a combination of two or more substances is safe before consumption.

As with other psychedelic substances, there are relatively few physical side effects that have been reported associated with acute ALD-52 exposure. Although no formal studies have been conducted, it is likely that as with LSD itself,[6] ALD-52 is able to be considered non-addictive, with an extremely low toxicity relative to dose. It is also likely that as with LSD, there are little to no negative physical, cognitive, psychiatric or other toxic consequences associated with acute ALD-52 exposure.

However, as with LSD and psychedelics in general, it is possible that ALD-52 can act as a potential trigger for those with underlying psychiatric conditions. Those with a personal or family history of mental illness are generally advised not to use this substance, particularly outside of a supervised medical setting.

It is strongly recommended that one uses harm reduction practices when using this substance.

Tolerance and addiction potential

Although no formal studies have been conducted, it is not unreasonable to assume that like LSD itself, ALD-52 is not habit-forming and that the desire to use it can actually decrease with use.

Tolerance to the effects of ALD-52 are built almost immediately after ingestion. After that, it takes about 5-7 days for the tolerance to be reduced to half and 14 days to be back at baseline (in the absence of further consumption). ALD-52 presents cross-tolerance with all psychedelics, meaning that after the use of ALD-52 all psychedelics will have a reduced effect.

Dangerous interactions

Although many psychoactive substances are safe on their own, they can become dangerous and even life-threatening when combined with other substances. The list below contains some common potentially dangerous combinations, but may not include all of them. Certain combinations may be safe in low doses of each but still increase the potential risk of death. Independent research should always be done to ensure that a combination of two or more substances is safe before consumption.

Legal status


This legality section is a stub.

As such, it may contain incomplete or wrong information. You can help by expanding it.

  • International - ALD-52 is currently a gray area compound within many parts of the world. This means that it is not known to be specifically illegal within most countries, but people may still be charged for its possession under certain circumstances such as under analog laws and with the intent to sell or consume.
  • Austria: ALD-52 is technically not illegal but it may fall in the NPSG (Neue-Psychoaktive-Substanzen-Gesetz Österreich) as an analogue of LSD.[citation needed]
  • Latvia: ALD-52 is illegal in Latvia. Although it isn't officially scheduled, it is controlled as an LSD structural analog due to an amendment made on June 1, 2015.[8]
  • United Kingdom: As of January 7th, 2015, ALD-52 is specifically named in the U.K. Misuse of Drugs Act as a Class A drug.[9]

See also

External links




  1. 1.0 1.1 Shulgin, A., & Shulgin, A. (1991). Erowid Online Books: "TIHKAL" - #26 LSD-25. Retrieved April 14, 2017.
  2. Lüscher, C., & Ungless, M. A. (2006). The Mechanistic Classification of Addictive Drugs, 3(11).
  3. Nichols, D. E. (2016). "Psychedelics." Pharmacological Reviews, 68(2), 264-355.
  4. Strassman, R. J. (1984). Adverse Reactions to Psychedelic Drugs: A Review of the Literature. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 172(10), 577-595. PMID: 6384428
  5. Ask Erowid: ID 3189 : Was Orange Sunshine actually ALD-52? |
  6. Passie, T., Halpern, J. H., Stichtenoth, D. O., Emrich, H. M., & Hintzen, A. (2008). The Pharmacology of Lysergic Acid Diethylamide: A Review, 14, 295–314.
  7. Talaie, H., Panahandeh, R., Fayaznouri, M. R., Asadi, Z., & Abdollahi, M. (2009). Dose-independent occurrence of seizure with tramadol. Journal of medical toxicology, 5(2), 63-67. doi:10.1007/BF03161089
  8. Noteikumi par Latvijā kontrolējamajām narkotiskajām vielām, psihotropajām vielām un prekursoriem (2.4.punkts) |
  9. ACMD (10 June 2014). "Update of the Generic Definition for Tryptamines" (PDF). UK Home Office. p. 12. Retrieved 10 June 2014.