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Wakefulness is an increased ability to stay conscious without feeling sleepy combined with a decreased need to sleep.[1] It is contrasted with stimulation in that it does not directly increase one's energy levels above a normal baseline but instead produces feelings of a wakeful, well-rested, and alert state.[2][3] If one is sleepy before using this substance, the impulse to sleep will fade, keeping one’s eyes open will become easier, and the cognitive fog of exhaustion will be reduced.[4] However, sufficiently accumulated sleep deficiency can overpower or negate this effect in extreme cases.[2]

Wakefulness is most commonly induced under the influence of moderate dosages of a wide variety of compounds such as stimulants, nootropics, and psychedelics. However, it is worth noting that the few compounds which selectively induce this effect without a number of other accompanying effects are referred to as eugeroics or wakefulness-promoting agents. These include modafinil[2][3][5][6] and armodafinil.[2]

Psychoactive substances

Experience reports

Anecdotal reports which describe this effect within our experience index include:

See also

External links


  1. Porkka-Heiskanen, T., Strecker, R. E., Thakkar, M., Bjørkum, A. A., Greene, R. W., & McCarley, R. W. (1997). Adenosine: a mediator of the sleep-inducing effects of prolonged wakefulness. Science, 276(5316), 1265-1268. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.276.5316.1265
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 Repantis, D., Schlattmann, P., Laisney, O., & Heuser, I. (2010). Modafinil and methylphenidate for neuroenhancement in healthy individuals: a systematic review. Pharmacological research, 62(3), 187-206. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrs.2010.04.002
  3. 3.0 3.1 Engber, T. M., Dennis, S. A., Jones, B. E., Miller, M. S., & Contreras, P. C. (1998). Brain regional substrates for the actions of the novel wake-promoting agent modafinil in the rat: comparison with amphetamine. Neuroscience, 87(4), 905-911. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0306-4522(98)00015-3
  4. Caldwell, J. A., Caldwell, J. L., Smyth, N. K., & Hall, K. K. (2000). A double-blind, placebo-controlled investigation of the efficacy of modafinil for sustaining the alertness and performance of aviators: a helicopter simulator study. Psychopharmacology, 150(3), 272-282. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10923755
  5. Myrick, H., Malcolm, R., Taylor, B., & LaRowe, S. (2004). Modafinil: preclinical, clinical, and post-marketing surveillance—a review of abuse liability issues. Annals of Clinical Psychiatry, 16(2), 101-109. https://doi.org/10.1080/10401230490453743
  6. Scammell, T. E., Estabrooke, I. V., McCarthy, M. T., Chemelli, R. M., Yanagisawa, M., Miller, M. S., & Saper, C. B. (2000). Hypothalamic arousal regions are activated during modafinil-induced wakefulness. Journal of Neuroscience, 20(22), 8620-8628. https://doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.20-22-08620.2000