Cyclazodone

From PsychonautWiki
Jump to: navigation, search
Proofread.png

This article requires proofreading.

As such, it may contain incorrect grammar, spelling, or punctuation.

Yellow-warning-sign1.svg

This page has not been approved by the PsychonautWiki administrators.

It may contain incorrect information, particularly with respect to dosage, duration, subjective effects, toxicity and other risks.

Summary sheet: Cyclazodone
Cyclazodone
Cyclazodone.svg
Chemical Nomenclature
Common names Cyclazodone
Substitutive name N-Cyclopropylpemoline
Systematic name 2-(Cyclopropylamino)-5-phenyl-1,3-oxazol-4-one
Class Membership
Psychoactive class Stimulant
Chemical class 4-Oxazolidinone
Routes of Administration

WARNING: Always start with lower doses due to differences between individual body weight, tolerance, metabolism, and personal sensitivity. See responsible use section.



Oral
Dosage
Threshold 5 mg
Light 5 - 15 mg
Common 15 - 25 mg
Strong 25 - 40 mg
Heavy 40 mg + Liver damage may result from heavy or sustained usage.
Duration
Total 5 - 7 hours
Onset 20 - 45 minutes









DISCLAIMER: PW's dosage information is gathered from users and resources for educational purposes only. It is not a recommendation and should be verified with other sources for accuracy.

N-Cyclopropylpemoline (also known as Cyclazodone) is a novel stimulant substance of the 4-oxazolidinone class that produces stimulating and focus enhancing effects when administered. It is structurally related to pemoline and 4-methylaminorex.

Cyclazodone was developed in the 1960s by the American Cyanamid Company. Its non-clinical use has only found recent attention as a research chemical study aid. It should be noted that the lack of pharmacological data and extremely limited history of human usage pose considerable concern regarding its long-term use as a substitute for prescription stimulants.

Cyclazodone has no documented history of recreational human usage before it appeared on the online research chemical market in 2017. Based on related compounds, it is speculated that it likely possesses hepatotoxic and other not-yet-known toxic properties. It is strongly advised to use harm reduction practices if using this substance.

Chemistry

Cyclazodone is a phenyl 4-oxazolidinone that differs from the parent pemoline by an N-cyclopropyl group. Compounds like cyclazodone of the 4-oxazolidinone class can be considered as 4-oxy derivatives of the 2-amino-5-aryloxazoline class including aminorex, fluminorex, and 4-methylaminorex, conformationally restricted analogues of phenethylamines and amphetamines. Cyclazodone is structurally most closely related, not to pemoline, but rather to two N-substituted derivatives of pemoline — fenozolone (N-ethyl pemoline) and thozalinone (N,N-dimethyl pemoline).

Pharmacology

Cyclazodone is an approximately 3x - 5x more potent N-cyclopropyl derivative of pemoline. Pemoline is considered to be dopaminergic, but its precise method of action has not been fully determined.[1] Pemoline has minimal affinity for noradrenaline receptors and thus has minimal sympathomimetic side effects compared with typical dopaminergic central nervous system stimulants such as methylphenidate and dextro-amphetamine.

According to patents filed by the inventors, cyclazodone exhibited central nervous system stimulating properties and anorexigenic properties much more potent than those of pemoline, and more potent than those of various other N-lower-alkyl-substituted pemoline derivatives. At the time cyclazodone also offered a much more favorable therapeutic index and margin of safety than pemoline and other N-lower-alkyl-substituted pemoline derivatives.[2]

In animal models, cyclazodone exhibits central nervous system stimulant and antidepressant efficacy and potency at least equal to that of dextro-amphetamine. The duration of maximum activity spanned 180 minutes, and the total duration of excitation was in excess of 6 hours.[3] Furthermore, according to the inventor's patents, cyclazodone also possessed anorexic efficacy and potency at least equal to that of dextro-amphetamine in animal models, yet the toxicity of cyclazodone was found to be low in comparison with the activity thereof.[4]

Pharmacodynamics

Cyclazodone is an amphetamine-like agonist of the Trace Amine Associated Receptor 1 (TAAR1), which is a key regulator of common and trace brain monoamines such as dopamine, serotonin and noradrenaline.[5][6][7] The agonism of this set of receptors results in the release of increased concentrations of dopamine, serotonin and noradrenaline in the synaptic cleft. This leads to cognitive and physical stimulation within the user.

Subjective effects

The effects of cyclazodone have been compared to those of amphetamine, but with the addition of a low to moderate affinity for serotonin release comparable to that of methamphetamine and 3-FMA.

Some anecdotal reports suggest that cyclazodone and its parent compound pemoline may have nootropic properties similar to central nervous system stimulants such as methylphenidate and amphetamine.

The effects listed below are based upon the subjective effects index and personal experiences of PsychonautWiki contributors. These effects should be taken with a grain of salt and will rarely (if ever) occur all at once, but heavier doses will increase the chances of inducing a full range of effects. Likewise, adverse effects become much more likely on higher doses and may include serious injury or death.

Physical effects
Child.svg

Visual effects
Eye.svg

Cognitive effects
User.svg

After effects
Aftereffects (3).svg

Experience reports

There are currently 0 experience reports which describe the effects of this substance in our experience index.


Toxicity and harm potential

The toxicity and long-term health effects of recreational cyclazodone use do not seem to have been studied in any scientific context and the exact toxic dosage is unknown. This is because cyclazodone has a very limited history of human usage.

Another compound related in structure, 4-methylaminorex, is associated with pulmonary hypertension[8]; though, it is reported to induce far stronger stimulation than that of cyclazodone.

The structurally related compound pemoline was removed from the market after it was found to cause liver damage in children.[9]

In rodents and primates, sufficiently high doses of monoamine releasing agents cause dopaminergic neurotoxicity, or damage to dopamine neurons, which is characterized by reduced transporter and receptor function. There is no evidence that releasing agents are directly neurotoxic in humans. However, large doses of releasing agents may cause indirect neurotoxicity as a result of increased oxidative stress from reactive oxygen species and autoxidation of dopamine.[citation needed]

It is strongly recommended that one use harm reduction practices when using this substance.

Tolerance and addiction potential

Addiction is a serious risk with heavy recreational stimulant use but is unlikely to arise from typical long-term medical use at therapeutic doses. Notably, the structurally related compound pemoline fails to demonstrate a potential for self-administration in primates and is considered to have reduced risk of dependence relative to those more typical dopaminergic stimulants. Caution is nonetheless advised, as with other monoamine releasing agents.

Tolerance to many of the effects of cyclazodone develops with prolonged and repeated use. This results in users having to administer increasingly large doses to achieve the same effects. After that, it takes about 3 - 7 days for the tolerance to be reduced to half and 1 - 2 weeks to be back at baseline (in the absence of further consumption). Cyclazodone presents all dopaminergic stimulants, meaning that after the consumption of amphetamine all stimulants will have a reduced effect.

Psychosis

Main article: Stimulant psychosis

Based on its pharmacological similarity to other stimulants, it is likely that misuse of this compound can result in state of psychosis marked by a variety of symptoms (e.g., paranoia, hallucinations, or delusions).[10][11] A review on the treatment for amphetamine and methamphetamine abuse-induced psychosis states that about 5–15% of users fail to recover completely.[11][12] The same review asserts that based upon at least one trial, antipsychotic medications effectively resolve the symptoms of acute amphetamine psychosis.[11] Psychosis very rarely arises from therapeutic use. The combination of the prolonged use of high doses combined with sleep deprivation significantly increases the risk of stimulant psychosis.[citation needed]

Dangerous interactions

Although many psychoactive substances are safe to use on their own, they can become dangerous or even life-threatening when taken with other substances. The list below contains some potentially dangerous combinations, but may not include all of them. Certain combinations may be safe in low doses but still increase the possibility of injury of death. Independent research should always be conducted to ensure that a combination of two or more substances is safe before consumption.

  • 25x-NBOMe/25x-NBOH - Members of the 25x family are highly stimulating and physically straining. Combinations with stimulants should be avoided due to the risk of excessive stimulation. This can result in panic attacks, thought loops, seizures, increased blood pressure, vasoconstriction, and heart failure in extreme cases.
  • Alcohol - Alcohol can be dangerous to combine with stimulants due to the risk of accidental over-intoxication. Stimulants mask the sedative effects of alcohol, which is the main factor people use to assess their degree of intoxication. Once the stimulant wears off, the depressant effects of alcohol are left unopposed, which can result in blackouts and respiratory depression. If combined, one should strictly limit themselves to only drinking a certain amount of alcohol per hour.
  • DXM - Combinations with DXM should be strictly avoided due to DXM's effects on serotonin and dopamine reuptake. This can lead to panic attacks, hypertensive crisis, or serotonin syndrome.
  • MXE - Combinations with MXE may dangerously elevate blood pressure and increase the risk of psychosis.
  • Tramadol - Tramadol lowers the seizure threshold.[14] Combinations with stimulants may further increase this risk.
  • MDMA - The neurotoxic effects of MDMA may be increased when combined with other amphetamine-like stimulants.
  • MAOIs - This combination may increase the amount of neurotransmitters such as dopamine to dangerous or even fatal levels. Examples include syrian rue, banisteriopsis caapi, 2C-T-2, 2C-T-7, αMT, and some antidepressants.[15]
  • Cocaine - This combination may increase strain on the heart to dangerous levels.

Legal status

Cyclazodone is currently a gray area compound within all parts of the world, meaning its regulation lies in a legal gray area and that it is not known to be specifically illegal ("scheduled") within any country. However, people may still be charged for its possession under certain circumstances such as under analogue laws and with intent to sell or consume. It is a banned stimulant under the World Anti-Doping Agency prohibited list.

  • United States: Cyclazodone being an analogue of pemoline, a Schedule IV controlled substance in the US, may fall under Federal Analogue Act, 21 U.S.C. § 813[16] when intended for human consumption.

See also

External links

Literature

  • Segal, D. S., Cox Jr, R. H., Stern, W. C., & Maickel, R. P. (1967). Stimulatory effects of pemoline and cyclopropylpemoline on continuous avoidance behavior: similarity to effects of D-amphetamine. Life Sciences, 6(23), 2567-2572. https://doi.org/10.1016/0024-3205(67)90322-0

References

  1. "Cylert (Pemoline)" (PDF). FDA. December 2002.
  2. Val De Marne, Don Pierre R. L. Guidicelli, and Henry Najer. 5-Phenyl-2-Cyclopropylamino-4-Oxazolidinone. Les Laboratoires Dausse, assignee. Patent US3609159. 28 Sept. 1971.
  3. Val De Marne, Don Pierre R. L. Guidicelli, and Henry Najer. 5-Phenyl-2-Cyclopropylamino-4-Oxazolidinone. Les Laboratoires Dausse, assignee. Patent US3609159. 28 Sept. 1971.
  4. Val De Marne, Don Pierre R. L. Guidicelli, and Henry Najer. 5-Phenyl-2-Cyclopropylamino-4-Oxazolidinone. Les Laboratoires Dausse, assignee. Patent GB1005738A. 29 Sept. 1965.
  5. The Emerging Role of Trace Amine Associated Receptor 1 in the Functional Regulation of Monoamine Transporters and Dopaminergic Activity (PubMed.gov / NCBI) | http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3005101/
  6. Drug banks amphetamine targets | http://www.drugbank.ca/drugs/DB00182#targets
  7. TA1 receptor | http://www.iuphar-db.org/DATABASE/ObjectDisplayForward?objectId=364
  8. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11083709
  9. Marotta, P. J., & Roberts, E. A. (1998). Pemoline hepatotoxicity in children. The Journal of Pediatrics, 132(5), 894-897.
  10. http://www.drugabuse.gov/drugs-abuse/emerging-trends
  11. 11.0 11.1 11.2 Shoptaw, S. J., Kao, U., & Ling, W. (2009). Treatment for amphetamine psychosis. The Cochrane Library.
  12. Hofmann FG (1983). A Handbook on Drug and Alcohol Abuse: The Biomedical Aspects (2nd ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. p. 329. ISBN 9780195030570.
  13. Adderall Prescription info | http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2013/021303s026lbl.pdf
  14. Talaie, H., Panahandeh, R., Fayaznouri, M. R., Asadi, Z., & Abdollahi, M. (2009). Dose-independent occurrence of seizure with tramadol. Journal of Medical Toxicology, 5(2), 63-67. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03161089
  15. Gillman, P. K. (2005). Monoamine oxidase inhibitors, opioid analgesics and serotonin toxicity. British Journal of Anaesthesia, 95(4), 434-441. https://doi.org/10.1093/bja/aei210
  16. https://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/text/21/813