Desoxypipradrol

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Desoxypipradrol may lead to states of psychosis, mania and addiction at a significantly higher rate than other stimulants.

Due to its unusually long half-life and extreme potency, it is strongly discouraged to abuse this substance in high doses, multiple days in a row, or in combination with other substances known to increase the risk of psychosis. Please see this section for more details.

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It may potentially contain incorrect information, particularly regarding that of dosage, duration, subjective effects, toxicity and other risks.

Summary sheet: Desoxypipradrol
Desoxypipradrol
Molecular structure of Desoxypipradol
Desoxypipradol.svg
Chemical Nomenclature
Common names Desoxypipradol, 2-DPMP, Ivory Wave
Substitutive name 2-diphenylmethylpiperidine
Systematic name (RS)-2-benzhydrylpiperidine
Class Membership
Psychoactive class Stimulant
Chemical class Piperidine
Routes of Administration

WARNING: Always start with lower doses due to differences between individual body weight, tolerance, metabolism, and personal sensitivity. See responsible use section.



Oral
Dosage
Threshold 0.25 - 1 mg
Light 1 - 2 mg
Common 2 - 6 mg
Strong 6 - 8 mg
Heavy 8 mg + Heavy doses may result in psychosis and mania.
Duration
Total 16 - 72 hours
Onset 60 - 240 minutes
Peak 9 - 30 hours
Offset 6 - 40 hours









DISCLAIMER: PW's dosage information is gathered from users and resources for educational purposes only. It is not a recommendation and should be verified with other sources for accuracy.

Desoxypipradrol (also known as 2-DPMP, 2-diphenylmethylpiperidine, or Ivory Wave) is a piperidine-based stimulant drug which is closely related to methylphenidate and pipradol.

Developed by Ciba in the 1950s and researched for applications such as the treatment of narcolepsy and ADHD; it was dropped from development after the related drug methylphenidate was developed by the same company. Methylphenidate was felt to be the superior drug for treating ADHD due to its shorter duration of action and more predictable pharmacokinetics, and while desoxypipradrol was researched for other applications (such as facilitation of rapid recovery from anesthesia), its development was not continued. However, the hydroxylated derivative pipradrol was introduced as a clinical drug indicated for depression, narcolepsy and cognitive enhancement in organic dementia.

As with methylphenidate and pipradol, it is thought to act as a norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitor (NDRI), . Of these three piperidines, it is noteworthy that desoxypipradrol has the longest elimination half-life, as it is a highly lipophilic molecule lacking polar functional groups that are typically targeted by metabolic enzymes, giving it an unusually long duration of action when compared to most stimulants. This property combined with its ultra-high potency (starting at 2mg) has given this compound a reputation for being extremely dangerous when abused or mishandled.

Desoxypipradrol is rarely if ever found on the streets, but instead typically sold as a gray market research chemical through online vendors.

Chemistry

Desoxypipradrol is a synthetic stimulant of the substituted piperidine class. It contains a substituted phenethylamine skeleton with an additional phenyl ring bound to Rα. The terminal amino group of the phenethylamine chain is incorporated into a piperidine ring. As a result of lacking polar functional groups it is a highly lipophilic molecule, giving it an extremely long-lasting multi-day duration of action that is rarely observed in stimulant drugs -- notably with the exception of MDPV.

Pharmacology

Desoxypipradrol primarily acts as a norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitor (NDRI)[1], but one with an unusually high potency, extreme duration and unpredictable dose-response for a stimulant drug. These risks likely owe themselves to its abnormally high lipophilicity and long elimination half-life, which among other things likely increases the relative risk it has in triggering states of stimulant psychosis when abused, with which it has been demonstrated in humans to be an uncommonly low threshold.

Subjective effects

Desoxypipradrol possesses an unusually high potency, extreme duration and unpredictable dose-response for a stimulant drug. However, due to the relative "cleanness" or subtleness of the stimulation some reports indicate a tendency in users to redose it compulsively until dangerous amounts end up becoming consumed, which can lead to overdose, hospitalizations, and even fatalities. Those who wish to experiment with this compound are advised to use proper harm-reduction practices and approach with this substance with extreme caution (such as not redosing, and using volumetric dosing techniques).

The effects listed below are based upon the subjective effects index and personal experiences of PsychonautWiki contributors. The listed effects should be taken with a grain of salt and will rarely (if ever) occur all at once, but heavier doses will increase the chances and are more likely to induce a full range of effects. Likewise, adverse effects become much more likely on higher doses and may include injury or death.

Physical effects
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Visual effects
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Cognitive effects
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After effects
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Experience reports

There are currently no anecdotal reports which describe the effects of this compound within our experience index. Additional experience reports can be found here:

Toxicity and harm potential

Toxicity

Desoxypipradrol may be quantitated in blood, plasma or urine by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to confirm a diagnosis of poisoning in hospitalized patients or to provide evidence in a medicolegal death investigation. Blood or plasma desoxypipradrol concentrations are expected to be in a range of 10–50 μg/L in persons using the drug recreationally, >100 μg/L in intoxicated patients and >600 μg/L in victims of acute overdosage.[2]

It is strongly recommended that one use harm reduction practices when using this substance.

Tolerance and addiction potential

In terms of its tolerance, desoxypipradrol can be used for multiple days in a row for extended periods of time. Acute tolerance to many of the effects of desoxypipradrol develops with prolonged and repeated use. This results in users having to administer increasingly large doses to achieve the same effects. After that, it takes about 3 - 7 days for the tolerance to be reduced to half and 1 - 2 weeks to be back at baseline (in the absence of further consumption). desoxypipradrol presents cross-tolerance with all dopaminergic stimulants, meaning that after the consumption of desoxypipradrol all stimulants will have a reduced effect.

As with other stimulants, the chronic use of desoxypipradrol can be considered moderately addictive with a high potential for abuse and is capable of causing psychological dependence among certain users. When addiction has developed, cravings and withdrawal effects may occur if a person suddenly stops their usage.

User reports suggest that compared to many other stimulants, desoxypipradrol has some unique and atypical hazards that can accompany its misuse -- especially when it is eye-balled, not dosed volumetrically, or otherwise handled without the proper degree of caution. Desoxypipradrol, like other stimulants, increases dopamine levels in the brain which can lead to severe manic psychosis in the short-term in addition to persisting dopamine receptor down regulation in the long-term.

Psychosis

Main article: Stimulant psychosis

User reports indicate that chronic abuse or single exposure overdose of desoxypipradrol can potentially lead to psychosis more readily than the vast majority of stimulants. Psychotic symptoms from desoxypipradrol can include hearing voices, visual hallucinations, urges to harm oneself, severe anxiety, mania, grandiosity, paranoid delusions, confusion, increased aggression, and irritability.

Dangerous interactions

Although many psychoactive substances are safe on their own, they can become dangerous and even life-threatening when combined with other substances. The list below contains some common potentially dangerous combinations, but may not include all of them. Certain combinations may be safe in low doses of each but still increase the potential risk of death. Independent research should always be done to ensure that a combination of two or more substances is safe before consumption.

Legal status

  • China: As of October 2015 2-DPMP is a controlled substance in China.[4]
  • United States: Desoxypipradrol is unscheduled in the United States, and thus legal to possess and import. However, it is an analog of pipradol which is a Schedule IV Controlled Substance.

United Kingdom

As of 4 November 2010, the UK Home Office announced a ban on the importation of 2-DPMP, following a recommendation from the ACMD.[5]

Prior to the import ban, desoxypipradrol was sold as a 'legal high' in several products, most notably "Ivory wave". Its use lead to several Emergency Department visits which prompted the UK government to commission a review from the ACMD. One man had ingested nearly 1 gram of the drug which may have been fatal without sedation with an anaesthetic dose of a benzodiazepine administered in accident and emergency.[citation needed]

The Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs stated in their report[6] that:

"there are serious harms associated with 2-DPMP... typically prolonged agitation (lasting up to 5 days after drug use which is sometimes severe, requiring physical restraint), paranoia, hallucinations and myoclonus (muscle spasms/twitches)."

2-DPMP was due to become a class B drug[7] on 28 March 2012,[8] but the bill was scrapped as two steroids deemed not to be abusable were included in the bill but were later recommended to remain uncontrolled.[9] There was a new discussion about its fate on April 23, 2012, where it was decided that the bill would be rewritten and 2-DPMP would still be banned. It was also decided that the bill would be a blanket ban of related chemicals.[10]

Desoxypipradrol was eventually made a class B drug and placed in Schedule I on 13 June 2012.[11] There were no recorded deaths from the drug between the banning of its import and the banning of its possession. "Esters and ethers of pipradrol" were controlled with the same amendment as class C drugs.[11]

See also

External links

References

  1. "Comparison of the effects of the isomers of amphetamine, methylphenidate and deoxypipradrol on the uptake of l-3Hnorepinephrine and 3Hdopamine by synaptic vesicles from rat whole brain, striatum and hypothalamus" | PMID 39160
  2. Template:Disposition of toxic drugs and chemicals in man
  3. Gillman, P. K. (2005). Monoamine oxidase inhibitors, opioid analgesics and serotonin toxicity. British Journal of Anaesthesia, 95(4), 434-441. https://doi.org/10.1093/bja/aei210
  4. "关于印发《非药用类麻醉药品和精神药品列管办法》的通知" (in Chinese). China Food and Drug Administration. 27 September 2015. Retrieved 1 October 2015. 
  5. Import ban on psychoactive drug UK Home Office
  6. "ACMD advice on 'Ivory Wave'" (PDF). UK Home Office. 2012-01-27. Retrieved 2012-03-11. 
  7. "The Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 (Amendment) Order 2012" (PDF). UK Home Office. 2012-01-27. Retrieved 2012-03-11. 
  8. "Government accepts ACMD's advice to schedule D2PM, 2-DPMP and phenzepam" (PDF). UK Home Office. 2012-01-27. Retrieved 2012-03-11. 
  9. "ACMD letter on further advice on the classification of two steroidal substances - February 2012" (PDF). UK Home Office. 2012-02-14. Retrieved 2012-03-18. 
  10. "Draft Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 (Amendment) Order 2012". UK Home Office. 2012-04-23. Retrieved 2012-05-04. 
  11. 11.0 11.1 "A Change to the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971: control of pipradrol-related compounds and phenazepam". UK Home Office. 7 Jun 2012. Retrieved 2012-07-30.