|Summary sheet: N-Ethylhexedrone|
|Common names||Hexen, Hex-en, NEH, Ethyl-Hexedrone|
|Substitutive name||N-Ethylhexedrone, N-Ethyl-nor-hexedrone|
|Routes of Administration|
N-Ethylhexedrone (also known as NEH and hexen) is a lesser-known novel stimulant substance of the cathinone class. N-Ethylhexedrone is a derivative of hexedrone and is part of a diverse group of compounds called the substituted cathinones. Little is known about its pharmacology, although it likely acts by increasing levels of norepinephrine and dopamine in the brain.
The original synthesis date of N-ethylhexedrone is unknown. It appears to have emerged on the online research chemical market in late 2015. It is an example of a novel psychoactive substance specifically chosen to mimic the features of prohibited substances and bypass drug laws. It is one of a number of substances collectively referred to in popular culture as "bath salts".
User reports characterize N-ethylhexedrone as having euphoric stimulant effects comparable to those of crack-cocaine and α-PVP-type compounds, particularly when they insufflated or vaporized. Like other substituted cathinones, N-ethylhexedrone has gained notoriety for its association with compulsive redosing and addictive behaviors when abused.
Very little is known about the pharmacology, metabolism, and toxicity of N-ethylhexedrone. Due to this, it is highly advised to use harm reduction practices if using this substance.
- 1 History and culture
- 2 Chemistry
- 3 Pharmacology
- 4 Subjective effects
- 5 Toxicity and harm potential
- 6 Legal status
- 7 See also
- 8 External links
- 9 References
History and culture
This History and culture section is a stub.
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N-Ethylhexedrone was first identified in a sample from the Belgian Customs laboratory which was received at the JRC on November 2015. In January 2016, it was identified at the JRC in a sample provided by French Customs. Subsequently, in February 2016, the EMCDDA received notifications of the identification of this substance from other countries, such as Sweden, The Netherlands, France, Belgium and Slovenia.
N-ethylhexedrone is a molecule of the cathinone chemical class. The term "substituted cathinone" refers to a broad array of substances based on cathinone, the principally active constituent of the khat plant. Cathinone is principally constituted of a amphetamine core (a phenethylamine core with an alkyl group attached to the alpha carbon) and an oxygen group attached to the beta carbon. Cathinones are also known as the beta-ketone (βk) (double-bonded oxygen to the β-carbon) analogs of amphetamines.
Notably, the cathinone backbone can be modified in three different places to create hundreds of possible compounds, which include substituents such as on the aromatic ring, the alpha carbon, or the amine group.
Very little data exists on the human pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of N-ethylhexedrone and other substituted cathinones. Like amphetamines, synthetic cathinones exert their stimulating and sympathomimetic effects via increasing synaptic concentration of catecholamines such as dopamine, serotonin and norepinephrine. These molecules are able to inhibit monoamine reuptake transporters producing a decreased clearance of the neurotransmitters from the synapse. Furthermore, they may cause release of biogenic amines from intracellular stores.
Synthetic cathinones are generally less able than amphetamines to cross the blood–brain barrier because the beta-keto group causes an increase in polarity. Unlike other synthetic cathinones, pyrrolidine derivatives have a higher ability to cross the blood–brain barrier because the pyrrolidine ring confers a low polarity to these molecules. The studies on the metabolism of synthetic cathinones have shown that they are N-demethylated, the keto group is reduced to hydroxyl and ring alkyl groups are oxidised.
|This subjective effects section is a stub.|
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User reports suggests that N-ethylhexedrone has more side effects compared to other stimulants like mephedrone or NEP. This can lead to excessive redosing, sobriety delusions and toxicity, which can eventually lead to highly uncomfortable experiences. The effects of vaporized N-ethylhexedrone are reported to be much stronger and more euphoric with less side effects than when insufflated or taken orally, but extreme care should be taken with this route of administration due to the degree it promotes compulsive and reckless use.
The effects listed below are based upon the subjective effects index and personal experiences of PsychonautWiki contributors. These effects should be taken with a grain of salt and will rarely (if ever) occur all at once, but heavier doses will increase the chances of inducing a full range of effects. Likewise, adverse effects become much more likely on higher doses and may include serious injury or death.
- Stimulation - N-ethylhexedrone is reported to be be moderately to extremely stimulating and energetic.
- Spontaneous bodily sensations - As with related cathininones, it is commonly reported that medium to high doses of N-ethylhexedrone can produce a pleasurable "body high" characterized by pleasant tingling sensations, which are stronger than that of amphetamine but weaker than a-PVP.
- Tactile enhancement
- Vasoconstriction - A number of reports indicate, N-ethylhexedrone can be considered slightly vasoconstrictive, though this has yet to be scientifically demonstrated.
- Increased blood pressure
- Increased heart rate
- Increased perspiration
- Appetite suppression
- Stamina enhancement
- Nausea - Mild to moderate nausea can occur at moderate to heavy dosages.
- Body odor alteration - This happens at a less consistent rate than with methamphetamine.
- Dry mouth
- Temporary erectile dysfunction -
- Teeth grinding - This component can be considered to be less intense when compared with that of MDMA and more similar to the teeth-grinding that can result from general cathinone use like a-PHP or NEP.
The headspace of N-ethylhexedrone is typically described as extreme mental stimulation accompanied by a powerful sense of euphoria.
- Thought acceleration
- Euphoria - This effect is usually not as powerful as with amphetamine or mephedrone.
- Analysis enhancement - This effect is mostly present in lower doses and is considered weak compared to other stimulant compounds. At high doses, it becomes overshadowed by euphoric stimulation.
- Immersion enhancement
- Focus enhancement - This component is most effective at low doses as anything higher will usually impair concentration due to the accompanying euphoria.
- Motivation enhancement
- Time compression
- Ego inflation
- Increased music appreciation
- Compulsive redosing - This is perhaps the most well-known aspect of this substance. This can result in unwanted binges of sometimes excessive amounts and a higher risk of addiction.
- N-ethylhexedrone's comedown is usually described as more slow and less dysphoric than the same effect found within MDMA or methamphetamine but harsher than that of NEP. The effects which occur during the offset of a stimulant experience generally feel negative and uncomfortable in comparison to the effects which occurred during its peak. This is often referred to as a "comedown" and occurs because of neurotransmitter depletion. Its effects commonly include:
Anecdotal reports which describe the effects of this compound within our experience index include:
Additional experience reports can be found here:
Toxicity and harm potential
The toxicity and long-term health effects of recreational N-ethylhexedrone use do not seem to have been studied in any scientific context and the exact toxic dosage is unknown. This is because N-ethylhexedrone has a very brief history of human usage.
Early anecdotal reports from those who have tried N-ethylhexedrone suggests that there do not seem to be any negative health effects attributed to simply trying it at low to moderate doses by itself and using it in a sparing and controlled fashion (but nothing can be completely guaranteed).
Some users have reported N-ethylhexedrone to be caustic to the nasal membrane when it is insufflated.
It is strongly recommended that one use harm reduction practices when using this substance.
Tolerance and addiction potential
As with other stimulants, the chronic use of N-ethylhexedrone can be considered moderately addictive with a high potential for abuse and seems to be readily liable of causing psychological dependence among certain users. When addiction has developed, cravings and withdrawal effects may occur if a person suddenly stops their usage.
Tolerance to many of the effects of N-ethylhexedrone develops with prolonged and repeated use. This results in users having to administer increasingly large doses to achieve the same effects. After that, it takes about 3 - 7 days for the tolerance to be reduced to half and 1 - 2 weeks to be back at baseline (in the total absence of further consumption). N-ethylhexedrone presents cross-tolerance with all noradrenergic and dopaminergic stimulants, meaning that after the consumption of N-ethylhexedrone all stimulants will have a reduced effect.
Abuse of compounds within the stimulant class at high dosages for prolonged periods of time can potentially result in a stimulant psychosis that may present with a variety of symptoms (e.g., anxiety and paranoia, hallucinations, or delusions). A review on treatment for (dextro)amphetamine, and methamphetamine abuse-induced psychosis states that about 5–15% of users fail to recover completely. The same review asserts that, based upon at least one trial, antipsychotic medications effectively resolve the symptoms of acute amphetamine psychosis.
Although many psychoactive substances are reasonably safe to use on their own, they can quickly become dangerous or even life-threatening when taken with other substances. The following lists some known dangerous combinations, but cannot be guaranteed to include all of them. Independent research should always be conducted to ensure that a combination of two or more substances is safe to consume. Some interactions listed have been sourced from TripSit.
- Stimulants - N-ethylhexedrone can be dangerous to combine with with other stimulants as it can unpredictably increase one's heart rate and blood pressure to dangerous levels.
- MDMA - The neurotoxic effects of MDMA may be increased when combined with other amphetamines.
- Cocaine - This combination may increase strain on the heart.
- Stimulants - N-Ethylhexedrone can be potentially dangerous in combination with other stimulants as it can increase one's heart rate and blood pressure to dangerous levels.
- 25x-NBOMe & 25x-NBOH - Members of the 25x family are highly stimulating and physically straining. Combinations with stimulants should be avoided due to the risk of excessive stimulation. This can result in panic attacks, thought loops, seizures, increased blood pressure, vasoconstriction, and heart failure in extreme cases.
- Alcohol - Alcohol can be dangerous to combine with stimulants due to the risk of accidental over-intoxication. Stimulants mask the sedative effects of alcohol, which is the main factor people use to assess their degree of intoxication. Once the stimulant wears off, the depressant effects of alcohol are left unopposed, which can result in blackouts and respiratory depression. If combined, one should strictly limit themselves to only drinking a certain amount of alcohol per hour.
- DXM - Combinations with DXM should be strictly avoided due to DXM's effects on serotonin and dopamine reuptake. This can lead to panic attacks, hypertensive crisis, or serotonin syndrome.
- MXE - Combinations with MXE may dangerously elevate blood pressure and increase the risk of psychosis.
- Tramadol - Tramadol lowers the seizure threshold. Combinations with stimulants may further increase this risk.
- MDMA - The neurotoxic effects of MDMA are generally thought to increase when combined with amphetamine and other stimulants.
- MAOIs - This combination may increase the amount of neurotransmitters such as dopamine to dangerous or even fatal levels. Examples include syrian rue, banisteriopsis caapi, 2C-T-2, 2C-T-7, αMT, and some antidepressants.
- Cocaine - This combination may increase strain on the heart to dangerous levels.
This legality section is a stub.
As such, it may contain incomplete or wrong information. You can help by expanding it.
- Brazil: Possession, production and sale is illegal as it is listed on Portaria SVS/MS nº 344.
- Germany: N-Ethylhexedrone is controlled under the NpSG, as it is a derivative of 2-Phenethylamine. Production and sale is illegal. Possession and import, although illegal, is not penalized if intended for self-consumption.
- Sweden: N-Ethylhexedrone was classified as an illegal narcotic in Sweden on June 21st, 2016.
- United Kingdom: N-Ethylhexedrone is a Class B drug in the United Kingdom as a result of the cathinone catch-all clause.
- Guillou, C., Reniero, F., Vicente, J. L., Holland, M., Kolar, K., Chassaigne, H., ... & Schepers, H. (2018). Collaboration of the Joint Research Centre and European Customs Laboratories for the Identification of New Psychoactive Substances. Current pharmaceutical biotechnology, 19(2), 91-98. https://doi.org/10.2174/1389201019666180523122717
- Liu, C., Jia, W., Li, T., Hua, Z., & Qian, Z. (n.d.). Identification and analytical characterization of nine synthetic cathinone derivatives N-ethylhexedrone, 4-Cl-pentedrone, 4-Cl--EAPP, propylone, N-ethylnorpentylone, 6-MeO-bk-MDMA, -PiHP, 4-Cl--PHP, and 4-F--PHP. https://doi.org/10.1002/dta.2136
- Cozzi, N.V., Sievert, M.K., Shulgin, A.T., Jaco 3rd., P., Ruoho, A.E., 1999. Inhibition of plasma membrane monoamine transporters by beta-ketoamphetamines. Eur. J. Pharmacol. 381, 63–69.
- Meyer, M.R., Maurer, H.H., 2010. Metabolism of designer drugs of abuse: an updated review. Curr. Drug Metab. 11, 468–482
- Treatment for amphetamine psychosis | 
- Treatment for amphetamine psychosis | 
- Hofmann FG (1983). A Handbook on Drug and Alcohol Abuse: The Biomedical Aspects (2nd ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. p. 329. ISBN 9780195030570.
- Treatment for amphetamine psychosis | 
- Talaie, H., Panahandeh, R., Fayaznouri, M. R., Asadi, Z., & Abdollahi, M. (2009). Dose-independent occurrence of seizure with tramadol. Journal of Medical Toxicology, 5(2), 63-67. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03161089
- Gillman, P. K. (2005). Monoamine oxidase inhibitors, opioid analgesics and serotonin toxicity. British Journal of Anaesthesia, 95(4), 434-441. https://doi.org/10.1093/bja/aei210
- 31 nya ämnen kan klassas som narkotika eller hälsofarlig vara | https://www.folkhalsomyndigheten.se/nyheter-och-press/nyhetsarkiv/2016/juni/31-nya-amnen-kan-klassas-som-narkotika-eller-halsofarlig-vara/
- United Kingdom. (2010). Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 (S.I. 2010/1207). London: The Stationery Office Limited. Retrieved February 9, 2018, from https://www.legislation.gov.uk/uksi/2010/1207/made