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NEP

Summary sheet: NEP
NEP
Molecular structure of N-Ethyl-(nor)-pentedrone
N-ethyl-nor-pentedrone.svg
Chemical Nomenclature
Common names N-Ethylpentedrone, NEP, Ethyl-Pentedrone
Substitutive name N-ethyl-(nor)-pentedrone
Systematic name 2-(Ethylamino)-1-phenyl-1-pentanone
Class Membership
Psychoactive class Stimulant
Chemical class Cathinone
Routes of Administration

WARNING: Always start with lower doses due to differences between individual body weight, tolerance, metabolism, and personal sensitivity. See responsible use section.


Smoked
Dosage
WARNING: Always start with lower doses due to differences between individual body weight, tolerance, metabolism, and personal sensitivity. See responsible use section.
DISCLAIMER: PW's dosage information is gathered from users and resources for educational purposes only. It is not a recommendation.
Threshold < 5 mg
Light 5 - 20 mg
Common 20 - 35 mg
Strong 35 - 60 mg
Heavy 60 mg +
Duration
Total 90 minutes - 3 hours
Oral
Dosage
Threshold 10 - 15 mg
Light 15 - 30 mg
Common 30 - 45 mg
Strong 45 - 70 mg
Heavy 70 mg +
Duration
Total 4 - 5 hours



Insufflated
Dosage
Threshold < 10 mg
Light 10 - 20 mg
Common 20 - 40 mg
Strong 40 - 80 mg.
Heavy 80 mg +
Duration
Total 2 - 4 hours






DISCLAIMER: PW's dosage information is gathered from users and resources for educational purposes only. It is not a recommendation and should be verified with other sources for accuracy.

N-Ethyl-nor-pentedrone (also known as N-Ethylpentedrone, Ethyl-pentedrone or more commonly, NEP) is a novel synthetic stimulant substance of the cathinone chemical class that produces cathinone-like stimulating, disinhibiting, immersion enhancing, euphoric, and mild entactogenic effects when administered.

The stimulating effects of NEP are believed to mainly be caused by its activity as a norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitor (NDRI). The reported entactogenic effects it displays may also be due to its activity as a serotonin reuptake inhibitor or releasing agent in moderate to high doses, although this has yet to be confirmed scientifically.[citation needed]

NEP shares a close structural relationship to its parent compound pentedrone, differing by an addition ethyl group on the terminal nitrogen on the carbon chain. This addition reportedly makes it about three times as potent as pentedrone.[citation needed] NEP is also closely related to N-Ethylhexedrone (commonly known as Hexen), and has been reported as producing largely-similar effects.

NEP first became known in the research chemical market during 2016. It is an example of a contemporary designer drug specifically chosen to mimic/replace the functional and structural features of its popular potent and short-lived-type stimulant predecessors, which are sometimes imprecisely referred to as "bath salts".

As with its parent compound pentedrone, very little data exists about the pharmacological properties, metabolism, and toxicity of NEP in humans. Due to its novelty and extremely short history of human usage, all information related to the use of this compound should be treated with extreme caution. It is highly advised that one use harm reduction practices if choosing to use this substance.

Contents

Chemistry

NEP, or N-Ethyl-(nor)-pentedrone, belongs to the cathinone chemical class. It features a phenethylamine core with an alkyl group attached to the alpha carbon and an oxygen group attached to the beta carbon. Cathinones are beta-ketone analogues of amphetamines. Cathinones refer to a class of molecules which are principally constituted of a phenethylamine core with an alkyl group attached to the alpha carbon and an oxygen group attached to the beta carbon. They are also known as the beta-ketone (double-bonded oxygen to the β-carbon) analogs of amphetamines. The cathinone backbone can be modified in three different places to create hundreds of possible compounds, which include substituents on the aromatic ring, the alpha carbon, and the amine group.[1]

Pharmacology

Due to the lack of research regarding the substance, all discussion regarding the pharmacology of it is purely based upon its structure and subjective effect similarities to other cathinones such as mephedrone and others. NEP most likely acts as both a dopamine and norepinephrine releasing agent or reuptake inhibitor. This allows dopamine and norepinephrine to accumulate within the brain, resulting in stimulating and euphoric effects. Additionally, it has been speculated that it may possess some serotonergic properties, as users have described experiencing mild entactogenic effects on common to strong doses of this compound.

Subjective effects

The effects listed below are based upon the subjective effects index and personal experiences of PsychonautWiki contributors. The listed effects should be taken with a grain of salt and will rarely (if ever) occur all at once, but heavier doses will increase the chances and are more likely to induce a full range of effects. Likewise, adverse effects become much more likely on higher doses and may include injury or death.

Physical effects
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Cognitive effects
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After effects
Aftereffects (3).svg

Experience reports

Anecdotal reports which describe the effects of this compound within our experience index include:


Toxicity and harm potential

The toxicity and long-term health effects of recreational NEP use do not seem to have been studied in any scientific context and the exact toxic dosage is unknown. This is because NEP has an extremely brief history of human usage. Early anecdotal evidence from people who have tried NEP within the community suggests that there do not seem to be any negative health effects attributed to simply trying this substance at low to moderate doses by itself and using it in a sparing and controlled fashion (but nothing can be completely guaranteed)

It is strongly recommended that one use harm reduction practices when using this substance.

Tolerance and addiction potential

As with other stimulants, the chronic use of N-ethyl-(nor)-pentedrone can be considered moderately addictive with a high potential for abuse and is capable of causing psychological dependence among certain users. When addiction has developed, cravings and withdrawal effects may occur if a person suddenly stops their usage.

Tolerance to many of the effects of NEP develops with prolonged and repeated use. This results in users having to administer increasingly large doses to achieve the same effects. After that, it takes about 3 - 7 days for the tolerance to be reduced to half and 1 - 2 weeks to be back at baseline (in the absence of further consumption). NEP presents cross-tolerance with all dopaminergic stimulants, meaning that after the consumption of N-ethyl-(nor)-pentedrone all stimulants will have a reduced effect.

Psychosis

Main article: Stimulant psychosis

Abuse of compounds within the stimulant class at high dosages for prolonged periods of time can potentially result in a stimulant psychosis that may present with a variety of symptoms (e.g., paranoia, hallucinations, or delusions).[2] A review on treatment for amphetamine, dextroamphetamine, and methamphetamine abuse-induced psychosis states that about 5–15% of users fail to recover completely.[3][4] The same review asserts that, based upon at least one trial, antipsychotic medications effectively resolve the symptoms of acute amphetamine psychosis.[5]

Dangerous interactions

Although many psychoactive substances are safe on their own, they can become dangerous and even life-threatening when combined with other substances. The list below contains some common potentially dangerous combinations, but may not include all of them. Certain combinations may be safe in low doses of each but still increase the potential risk of death. Independent research should always be done to ensure that a combination of two or more substances is safe before consumption.

Serotonin syndrome risk

Combinations in the list below may increase the amount of neurotransmitters such as serotonin and dopamine to dangerous or even fatal levels.

Legality

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This legality section is a stub.

As such, it may contain incomplete or wrong information. You can help by expanding it.

  • United Kingdom - It is illegal to produce, supply, or import this drug under the Psychoactive Substance Act, which came into effect on May 26th, 2016.[8]

See also

External links

References

  1. Liu, C., Jia, W., Li, T., Hua, Z., & Qian, Z. (n.d.). Identification and analytical characterization of nine synthetic cathinone derivatives N-ethylhexedrone, 4-Cl-pentedrone, 4-Cl--EAPP, propylone, N-ethylnorpentylone, 6-MeO-bk-MDMA, -PiHP, 4-Cl--PHP, and 4-F--PHP. https://doi.org/10.1002/dta.2136
  2. Treatment for amphetamine psychosis | [1]
  3. Treatment for amphetamine psychosis | [2]
  4. Hofmann FG (1983). A Handbook on Drug and Alcohol Abuse: The Biomedical Aspects (2nd ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. p. 329. ISBN 9780195030570.
  5. Treatment for amphetamine psychosis | [3]
  6. Gillman, P. K. (2005). Monoamine oxidase inhibitors, opioid analgesics and serotonin toxicity. British Journal of Anaesthesia, 95(4), 434-441. https://doi.org/10.1093/bja/aei210
  7. Gillman, P. K. (2005). Monoamine oxidase inhibitors, opioid analgesics and serotonin toxicity. British Journal of Anaesthesia, 95(4), 434-441. https://doi.org/10.1093/bja/aei210
  8. Psychoactive Substances Act 2016 (Legislation.gov.uk) | http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/2016/2/contents/enacted