|Summary sheet: DOB|
|Common names||DOB, Brolamfetamine, Bromo-DMA|
|Routes of Administration|
4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamine (also known as dimethoxybromoamphetamine, brolamfetamine, bromo-DMA, and commonly as DOB) is a psychedelic substance of the amphetamine class that produces unusually long-lived psychedelic effects when administered. It is a member of the DOx family of psychedelic amphetamines.
While DOB had first been synthesized in 1967 and briefly tested in 1971, it took until the 1991 publication of the book PiHKAL ("Phenethylamines I Have Known And Loved") by Alexander Shulgin to be documented in-depth.
Today, DOB is used as a recreational drug and an entheogen. It is still rarely sold online but is more commonly found in the streets the form of misrepresented LSD due to its ability to fit onto similar-sized blotter paper.
Very little data exists about the pharmacological properties, metabolism, and toxicity of DOB in humans. Along with its sensitive dose-response, unusually long and unpredictable duration, many reports also suggest that this substance may be overly difficult to use safely for those who are not already very experienced with using hallucinogens. It is highly advised to use harm reduction practices if using this substance.
DOB or 4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxy-amphetamine is a molecule of the amphetamine class. Amphetamines are substituted phenethylamines containing a phenyl ring bound to an amino (NH2) group through an ethyl chain and a methyl group bound to the alpha carbon Rα. DOB contains methoxy functional groups OCH3 attached to carbons R2 and R5 as well as a bromine atom attached to carbon R4 of the phenyl ring. DOB is the amphetamine analogue of the phenethylamine 2C-B.
DOB has a stereocenter and R-(–)-DOB is the eutomer. This is an important finding as it is suggestive that it is targeting different receptors relative to most other phenethylamines where the R-isomer serves as the distomer. The toxicity of DOB is not fully known, although high doses may cause serious vasoconstriction of the extremities. DOB is one of the most potent compounds in PiHKAL.
While the active dose is similar to that of DOI, another psychedelic amphetamine, DOB has been shown to have a higher efficacy in triggering downstream effects mediated by 5-HT2 receptors, making it likely to be slightly more dangerous than DOI in overdose, due to greater vasoconstrictive action. Omission of the amphetamine related α-methyl leads to 2C-B, a compound that possesses a lower affinity for the 5-HT2A receptor and is a weaker receptor agonist which results in drastically reduced vasoconstriction.
DOB's psychedelic effects are believed to come from its efficacy at the 5-HT2 receptor family as a partial agonist. DOB appears to be quite selective for the 5-HT2B receptor and is often used in scientific research when studying the 5-HT2 receptor subfamily. It has been suggested that DOB is a prodrug metabolized in the lungs. Due to its selectivity, DOB is often used in scientific research when studying the 5-HT2 receptor subfamily. However, the role of these interactions and how they result in the psychedelic experience continues to remain elusive.
Excessively high doses of this hallucinogen may cause diffuse arterial spasm. The vasospasm responded readily to intra-arterial and intravenous vasodilators, such as tolazoline.
Disclaimer: The effects listed below cite the Subjective Effect Index (SEI), an open research literature based on anecdotal user reports and the personal analyses of PsychonautWiki contributors. As a result, they should be viewed with a healthy degree of skepticism.
It is also worth noting that these effects will not necessarily occur in a predictable or reliable manner, although higher doses are more liable to induce the full spectrum of effects. Likewise, adverse effects become increasingly likely with higher doses and may include addiction, severe injury, or death ☠.
- Stimulation - DOB is usually considered to be extremely stimulating at levels which do not become overwhelming and are encouraged instead of forced. This results in a shakiness and unsteadiness of the hands at high dosages, but encourages the person to move around, run, dance, climb and generally engage in physical activities. The level of stimulation varies between users with some people reporting it to be somewhat similar to amphetamine in its intensity and others reporting that it is extremely subtle even at higher dosages. In comparison, other more commonly used psychedelics such as psilocin are generally sedating and relaxed.
- Spontaneous bodily sensations - The "body high" of DOB is manifested as somewhat intense in comparison to most classical psychedelics such as LSD. The sensation itself can be described as a constantly present yet somewhat mild energetic pins and needles sensation that encompasses a person’s entire body. It is usually static in its position and felt over every square inch of the skin as if it was coming from behind the user's body. Occasionally, however, it manifests itself in the form of a continuously shifting tingling sensation that travels up and down the body in spontaneous waves.
- Physical euphoria - It should be noted that this effect is not as reliably induced as it is with substances like stimulants or entactogens, and can just as easily manifest as physical discomfort without any apparent reason. DOB and other psychedelic amphetamines tend to lean towards physical dysphoria more so than other psychedelics.
- Changes in felt bodily form
- Bodily control enhancement
- Tactile enhancement - Feelings of enhanced tactile sensation are consistently present at moderate levels throughout most DOB experiences.
- Stamina enhancement
- Bodily pressures
- Temperature regulation suppression
- Abnormal heartbeat
- Increased heart rate
- Increased blood pressure
- Increased perspiration
- Muscle contractions
- Muscle spasms
- Muscle cramps
- Necrosis - Serious overdoses have sometimes led to necrosis.
- Difficulty urinating
- Nausea - Mild to extreme nausea is typically reported when consumed in moderate to high dosages and either passes once the user has vomited or gradually fades by itself as the peak sets in.
- Appetite suppression
- Stomach cramps
- Vasoconstriction - This effect is reported to be more common than with other psychedelics and can feel prominent and uncomfortable.
- Increased salivation
- Pupil dilation
- Teeth grinding
- Restless legs
- Drifting (melting, flowing, breathing and morphing) - In comparison to other psychedelics, this effect can be described as highly detailed, slow and smooth in motion, static in appearance and unrealistic/cartoon-like in style.
- Colour shifting
- Depth perception distortions
- Perspective distortions
- Symmetrical texture repetition
- After images
- Brightness alteration
DOB visual geometry can be described as more similar in appearance to that of LSD, 25I-NBOMe or 2C-B than that of mescaline, psilocin or DMT. It can be comprehensively described through its variations as intricate in complexity, algorithmic in form, synthetic in feel, brightly lit, multicoloured in scheme, glossy in shading, sharp in edges, large in size, fast in speed, smooth in motion, equally rounded and angular in its corners, non-immersive in-depth and consistent in intensity. Higher dosages are significantly more likely to result in states of Level 8A visual geometry over Level 8B.
DOB and other substituted amphetamines produce a full range of high-level hallucinatory states in a fashion that is more or less consistent and reproducible than that of many other commonly used psychedelics. These effects include:
- Internal hallucination (autonomous entities; settings, sceneries, and landscapes; perspective hallucinations and scenarios and plots) - In comparison to other psychedelics such as LSD, DOB is extremely high in internal hallucinations when approaching higher dosages. They are more common within dark environments and can be comprehensibly described through its variations as lucid in believability, interactive in style, new experiences in content, autonomous in controllability, geometry-based in style and almost exclusively of a personal, religious, spiritual, science-fiction, fantasy, surreal, nonsensical or transcendental nature in their overall theme.
- External hallucinations - These are often present during the comedown and can include shadow people, among other indescribable beings. These external hallucinations are often lucid, interactive, autonomous, and robust. As sleep deprivation and stimulant psychosis surface, a trip sitter should accompany individuals sensitive to stimulants for the last part of the comedown. The visual effects of psychosis have been reported to blend into the psychedelic visuals around the 16-24 hour mark, sometimes accompanied by auditory hallucinations.
The head space of DOB is described by many as one of prominent mental stimulation and a powerful enhancement of a person's current mental state. Many users report that it may not be as deep as other traditional psychedelics such as LSD or psilocin and that it is comparatively empty regarding its insightfulness.
- Anxiety & Paranoia
- Analysis enhancement
- Conceptual thinking
- Thought acceleration
- Thought connectivity
- Cognitive euphoria
- Analysis suppression
- Emotion enhancement
- Empathy, affection, and sociability enhancement - This component is inconsistently manifested only in the context of social settings in which one is within the company of others. These feelings of sociability, love and empathy are much weaker and less sharp than those found on substances such as MDMA and 2C-B, but still prove strong enough to provide therapeutic effects.
- Increased music appreciation
- Increased sense of humor
- Immersion enhancement
- Novelty enhancement
- Suggestibility enhancement
- Language suppression
- Memory suppression
- Ego death - While DOB is technically able to produce states of ego dissolution, it tends to more often than not develop only in extremely high doses, with grave physical and mental side effects being apparent and is often of a terrifying nature.
- Time distortion
- Thought loops
- Synaesthesia - In its fullest manifestation, this is a very rare and non-reproducible effect. Increasing the dosage can increase the likelihood of this occurring but seems only to be a prominent part of the experience among those who are already predisposed to synaesthetic states.
- Transpersonal states are reported to be less consistent and reproducible than on other psychedelics like LSD or psilocybin mushrooms. This can perhaps be attributed to the noticeable physical and stimulating effects that this substance produces, which tends to interfere with the ability for the user to immerse themselves in the experience fully.
Anecdotal reports which describe the effects of this compound within our experience index include:
Additional experience reports can be found here:
Toxicity and harm potential
The toxicity and long-term health effects of recreational DOB use do not seem to have been studied in any scientific context and the exact toxic dose is unknown. This is because DOB is a research chemical with very little history of human usage.
Anecdotal reports from those who have tried DOB suggests that there are no negative health effects attributed to simply trying the substance by itself at low to moderate doses and using it very sparingly (but nothing can be completely guaranteed). Independent research should always be done to ensure that a combination of two or more substances is safe before consumption.
It is strongly recommended that one use harm reduction practices when using this substance.
Tolerance and addiction potential
DOB is not habit-forming, and the desire to use it can decrease with use. It is most often self-regulating.
Tolerance to the effects of DOB is built almost immediately after ingestion. After that, it takes about 4-7 days for the tolerance to be reduced to half and 7-10 days to be back at baseline (in the absence of further consumption). DOB presents cross-tolerance with all psychedelics, meaning that after the consumption of DOB all psychedelics will have a reduced effect.
The risk of a DOx overdose is present starting in or past the heavy dose range with sensitive people, or when a DOx is mixed with other substances, particularly stimulants or MAOIs. Non-oral routes also seem to exhibit a higher chance of overdosing, perhaps owing to differences in bioavailability, potency and unpredictability of dosage and effects. The effects of a DOx overdose typically include bizarre, delusional and sometimes violent behavior, amnesia, numbness, confusion and anxiety. The user may not be able to communicate and can be severely agitated. At appropriately high doses, more serious side effects such as psychosis, panic attacks and seizures which in turn further affect a dangerously elevated heart rate, blood pressure and vasoconstriction may occur. Severe vasoconstriction typically develops to its peak several hours into the intoxication and may require medical assistance if blood flow is significantly cut off for extended periods of time.
In the event of an overdose, benzodiazepines or antipsychotics can be administered to mitigate the hyperagitative effects. A powerful vasodilator may also need to be administered to prevent a hypertensive emergency, or in more serious cases, necrosis, organ failure and death from the resulting hypoxia. As a result, emergency medical services should always be sought in the event of a DOx overdose.
Warning: Many psychoactive substances that are reasonably safe to use on their own can suddenly become dangerous and even life-threatening when combined with certain other substances. The following list provides some known dangerous interactions (although it is not guaranteed to include all of them).
Always conduct independent research (e.g. Google, DuckDuckGo, PubMed) to ensure that a combination of two or more substances is safe to consume. Some of the listed interactions have been sourced from TripSit.
- Lithium - Lithium is commonly prescribed for the treatment of bipolar disorder. There is a large body of anecdotal evidence that suggests taking it with psychedelics significantly increases the risk of psychosis and seizures. As a result, this combination is strictly discouraged.
- Cannabis - Cannabis may have an unexpectedly strong and unpredictable synergy with the effects of DOB. Caution is advised with this combination as it can significantly increase the risk of adverse psychological reactions like anxiety, paranoia, panic attacks, and psychosis. Users are advised to start off with only a fraction of their normal cannabis dose and take long breaks between hits to avoid unintentional overdose.
- Stimulants - Stimulants like amphetamine, cocaine or methylphenidate affect many parts of the brain and alter dopaminergic function. This combination can increase the risk of anxiety, paranoia, panic attacks, and thought loops. This interaction may also result in an elevated risk of mania and psychosis.
- Tramadol - Tramadol is well-documented to lower the seizure threshold and psychedelics may act to trigger seizures in susceptible individuals.
Internationally, DOB is a Schedule I drug under the Convention on Psychotropic Substances.
- Australia: DOB is listed as a Schedule II substance in Australia.
- Austria: DOB is illegal to possess, produce and sell under the SMG (Suchtmittelgesetz Österreich).
- Canada: DOB is listed as a Schedule 1 as it is an analogue of amphetamine.
- Germany: DOB is controlled under Anlage I BtMG (Narcotics Act, Schedule I) as of September 1, 1984. It is illegal to manufacture, possess, import, export, buy, sell, procure or dispense it without a license.
- Latvia: DOB is a Schedule I controlled substance.
- New Zealand: DOB is Schedule I (Class A) in New Zealand. DOB would also qualify as an analogue under New Zealand's catch-all analogues section in Schedule 3 / Class C of their drug laws which would make 2C-I, 2C-E, DOI, DOB, ephedrine and pseudoephedrine Schedule 3 compounds in the country.
- Poland: DOB is controlled in Poland.
- Romania: DOB is a controlled substance, classified as a high-risk drug.
- Switzerland: DOB is a controlled substance specifically named under Verzeichnis D.
- United Kingdom: DOB is Schedule I/Class A in the U.K., making it illegal to sell, buy, or possess without a license.
- United States: DOB is Schedule I in the U.S., making it illegal to sell, buy, gift, produce or possess without a DEA license.
- Alexander Shulgin; Ann Shulgin (1991). "#62. DOB". PiHKAL: A Chemical Love Story. United States: Transform Press. ISBN 0963009605. OCLC 1166889264.
- Parrish, J. C., Braden, M. R., Gundy, E., Nichols, D. E. (December 2005). "Differential phospholipase C activation by phenylalkylamine serotonin 5-HT2A receptor agonists". Journal of Neurochemistry. 95 (6): 1575–1584. doi:10.1111/j.1471-4159.2005.03477.x. ISSN 0022-3042.
- Alexander Shulgin (May 3, 2005). "DOB and Other Possible Prodrugs". Ask Dr. Shulgin Online. Center for Cognitive Liberty and Ethics (CCLE).
- Bowen, J. S. (18 March 1983). "Diffuse Vascular Spasm Associated With 4-Bromo-2,5-Dimethoxyamphetamine Ingestion". JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association. 249 (11): 1477. doi:10.1001/jama.1983.03330350053028. ISSN 0098-7484.
- Talaie, H.; Panahandeh, R.; Fayaznouri, M. R.; Asadi, Z.; Abdollahi, M. (2009). "Dose-independent occurrence of seizure with tramadol". Journal of Medical Toxicology. 5 (2): 63–67. doi:10.1007/BF03161089. ISSN 1556-9039.
- "List of psychotropic substances under international control (Green List)" (PDF) (23rd ed.). International Narcotics Control Board (INCB). August 2003. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 2, 2007.
- "Schedule III". Controlled Drugs and Substances Act (CDSA). Isomer Design. Retrieved October 10, 2020.
- "Gesetz über den Verkehr mit Betäubungsmitteln: Anlage I" (in German). Bundesamt für Justiz [Federal Office of Justice]. Retrieved December 10, 2019.
- "Erste Verordnung zur Änderung betäubungsmittelrechtlicher Vorschriften" (PDF). Bundesgesetzblatt Jahrgang 1984 Teil I Nr. 36 (in German). Bundesanzeiger Verlag (published August 8, 1984). August 6, 1984. p. 1081-1086. ISSN 0341-1095. OCLC 231871244.
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- "Noteikumi par Latvijā kontrolējamajām narkotiskajām vielām, psihotropajām vielām un prekursoriem" (in Latvian). VSIA Latvijas Vēstnesis. November 10, 2005. Retrieved January 1, 2020.
- "Details Servlet". Sejm Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej [Sejm of the Republic of Poland].[dead link]
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