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Summary sheet: 6-APDB
Chemical Nomenclature
Common names 6-APDB
Substitutive name 6-(2-aminopropyl)-2,3-dihydrobenzofuran
Systematic name 1-(2,3-dihydrobenzofuran-6-yl)propan-2-amine
Class Membership
Psychoactive class Entactogen / Stimulant
Chemical class Amphetamine / Benzofuran
Routes of Administration

WARNING: Always start with lower doses due to differences between individual body weight, tolerance, metabolism, and personal sensitivity. See responsible use section.

Threshold 20 mg
Light 30 - 70 mg
Common 70 - 100 mg
Strong 100 - 130 mg
Heavy 130 mg +
Total 6 - 8 hours
Onset 30 - 60 minutes
Come up 30 - 60 minutes
Peak 2 - 3 hours
Offset 2 - 3 hours

DISCLAIMER: PW's dosage information is gathered from users and resources for educational purposes only. It is not a recommendation and should be verified with other sources for accuracy.

Serotonin releasers

6-APDB (also known as 6-(2-aminopropyl)-2,3-dihydrobenzofuran or 4-Desoxy-MDA) is a stimulant and entactogenic research chemical of the phenethylamine and benzofuran classes. It is a closely related synthetic analogue of MDA and 6-APB and broadly shares the characteristics of serotonin-selective triple monoamine releasers and reuptake inhibitors associated with other entactogenic or empathogenic compounds.

6-APDB was first synthesized and studied along with 5-APDB in 1993 by David E. Nichols as a potential non-neurotoxic alternative to MDMA[1]. It did not come into popular recreational use until over a decade later, where it briefly entered the rave scene and global research chemicals market, in particular the "legal highs" market in the U.K., before its sale and import were subsequently banned.

Because 6-APDB and other substituted benzofurans have not been explicitly outlawed in some countries, they are often technically legal, contributing to their popularity as a substitute or replacement for serotonergic entactogens like MDMA or MDA, and are typically distributed through the online research chemicals grey market.


Generic structure of a phenethylamine molecule

6-APDB, also known as 6-(2-aminopropyl)-2,3-dihydrobenzofuran, is a synthetic molecule of the benzofuran family. Molecules of this class contain a phenethylamine core bound to an amino (NH2) group through an ethyl chain with an additional methyl substitution at Rα.

6-APDB does not contain a methyl substitution on RN, a motif which it shares with MDA. It is an analogue of MDA where the heterocyclic 4-position oxygen from the 3,4-methylenedioxy ring has been replaced with a methylene bridge. 6-APDB shares this furan ring with 5-APDB, 5-MAPDB and 6-MAPDB.


6-APDB acts as a releasing agent and triple reuptake inhibitor of the monoamine neurotransmitters known as serotonin, dopamine and noradrenaline[2] which are the global neurotransmitters that modulate the brain's ability to feel pleasure, motivation, reward, planning, attention and focus. This is done by promoting the release and inhibiting the reuptake and reabsorption of the neurotransmitters after they have performed their function of transmitting a neural impulse through release into the synaptic cleft, essentially allowing them to accumulate and render them liable for immediate reuse. The net result is excitation in a manner which causes a combination of physically stimulating, relaxing, disinhibiting and euphoric effects.[3]

The unsaturated benzofuran derivative 6-APB, or 6-(2-aminopropyl)benzofuran is also known, but the difference in pharmacological effects between 6-APB and 6-APDB has yet to be fully elucidated.

Subjective effects

Disclaimer: The effects listed below cite the Subjective Effect Index (SEI), an open research literature based on anecdotal user reports and the personal analyses of PsychonautWiki contributors. As a result, they should be viewed with a healthy degree of skepticism.

It is also worth noting that these effects will not necessarily occur in a predictable or reliable manner, although higher doses are more liable to induce the full spectrum of effects. Likewise, adverse effects become increasingly likely with higher doses and may include addiction, severe injury, or death ☠.

Physical effects

Visual effects

Cognitive effects

After effects
Aftereffects (3).svg

Experience reports

There are currently no anecdotal reports which describe the effects of this compound within our experience index. Additional experience reports can be found here:

Toxicity and harm potential

Due to only having a short history of human use, the toxicity and harm potential is not exactly known. Due to its similarity to MDMA, it is likely that the administration of repeated or high dosages of 6-APDB can be neurotoxic and cardiotoxic[4][5] in some form.

The exact toxic dosage is unknown. It is strongly recommended that one use harm reduction practices when using this drug.

Short-term health concerns

Short-term physical health risks of 6-APDB consumption include dehydration, insomnia, and hyperthermia.[6] Continuous activity without sufficient rest or rehydration may cause body temperature to rise to dangerous levels, and loss of fluid via excessive perspiration puts the body at further risk as the stimulatory and euphoric qualities of the drug may render the user oblivious to their energy expenditure for quite some time. Diuretics such as alcohol may exacerbate these risks further, although this is known to be more of a problem for MDMA than it is 6-APDB.

Although it has not been formally studied, like with MDMA, small changes in ambient temperature may cause large changes in 6-APDB-induced serotonin neurotoxicity and core body temperature in the rat.[7][8]

Long-term health concerns

The neurotoxicity of 6-APDB is controversial. It was specifically designed to be less neurotoxic than MDA or MDMA by circumventing the production of certain metabolic byproducts thought to underlie their toxicity (specifically alpha-methyl-dopamine).[citation needed] Although it is likely to be physically safe to try in a responsible context, it is completely possible that the administration of repeated or high dosages of 6-APDB could result in neurotoxic effects in some form, possibly manifesting as deficits in cognitive, affective and psychomotor function.

As with MDMA, long-term heavy use of 6-APDB is likely cardiotoxic and thought to lead to valvulopathy through its actions on the 5-HT2B receptor.[4][5]

Tolerance and addiction potential

As with other stimulants, the chronic use of 6-APDB can be considered moderately addictive with a high potential for abuse and is capable of causing psychological dependence among certain users. When addiction has developed, cravings and withdrawal effects may occur if a person suddenly stops their usage.

As a potent releaser of serotonin, tolerance builds quickly with prolonged and repeated use to the point that the drug eventually loses any positive effects and instead leaves the user in an uncomfortable state of anxious stimulation and dysphoria. This results in users having to administer increasingly large doses to achieve the same effects. After that, it takes about 21-30 days for the tolerance to be reduced to half and 2-3 months to be back at baseline (in the absence of further consumption). 6-APDB presents cross-tolerance with all dopaminergic stimulants, meaning that after the consumption of 6-APDB all stimulants will have a reduced effect.

Dangerous interactions

Warning: Many psychoactive substances that are reasonably safe to use on their own can suddenly become dangerous and even life-threatening when combined with certain other substances. The following list provides some known dangerous interactions (although it is not guaranteed to include all of them).

Always conduct independent research (e.g. Google, DuckDuckGo, PubMed) to ensure that a combination of two or more substances is safe to consume. Some of the listed interactions have been sourced from TripSit.

Serotonin syndrome risk

Combinations with the following substances can cause dangerously high serotonin levels. Serotonin syndrome requires immediate medical attention and can be fatal if left untreated.

There is an increased risk of serotonin syndrome when 6-APDB is taken with many antidepressants, particularly selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs). Additionally, if 6-APDB is taken with SSRIs and SNRIs, the 6-APDB will be significantly less powerful or may have no distinguishable effects at all.

Legal status

  • Australia and New Zealand: Certain countries contain a "substantially similar" catch-all clause in their drug law, such as New Zealand and Australia. This includes 6-APDB as it is similar in chemical structure to the class A drug MDA, meaning 6-APB may be viewed as a controlled substance analogue in these jurisdictions.[citation needed]
  • Canada: 6-APDB is Schedule III in Canada as it is an analogue of MDA. The CDSA was updated as a result of the Safe Streets Act changing amphetamines from Schedule 3 to Schedule 1.[citation needed]
  • Germany: 6-APDB is controlled under the NpSG (New Psychoactive Substances Act)[12] as of November 26, 2016.[13] Production and import with the aim to place it on the market, administration to another person and trading is punishable. Possession is illegal but not penalized.[14]
  • Italy: 6-APDB is a prohibited substance in Italy.[15]
  • Sweden: 6-APDB is prohibited in Sweden as a "health hazard" as of 2009.[citation needed]
  • Switzerland: 6-APDB is a controlled substance specifically named under Verzeichnis E.[16]
  • United Kingdom: On June 10, 2013, 6-APDB and a number of analogues were classified as Temporary Class Drugs in the U.K. following an ACMD recommendation. On March 5, 2014, the U.K. Home Office announced that 6-APDB would be made a class B drug on 10 June 2014 alongside every other benzofuran entactogen and many structurally related drugs.[17]
  • United States: 6-APDB is unscheduled in the United States. It may be considered an analog of MDA (which is a Schedule I drug under the Controlled Substances Act). As such, the sale and possession for the purposes of human consumption or could be prosecuted as crimes under the Federal Analog Act.[citation needed]

See also

External links


  1. Monte, A. P., Marona-Lewicka, D., Cozzi, N. V., Nichols, D. E. (12 November 1993). "Synthesis and pharmacological examination of benzofuran, indan, and tetralin analogues of 3,4-(methylenedioxy)amphetamine". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 36 (23): 3700–3706. doi:10.1021/jm00075a027. ISSN 0022-2623. 
  2. Iversen, L., Gibbons, S., Treble, R., Setola, V., Huang, X.-P., Roth, B. L. (30 January 2013). "Neurochemical Profiles of some novel psychoactive substances". European journal of pharmacology. 700 (1–3): 147–151. doi:10.1016/j.ejphar.2012.12.006. ISSN 0014-2999. 
  3. Fleckenstein, A. E., Volz, T. J., Riddle, E. L., Gibb, J. W., Hanson, G. R. (1 February 2007). "New Insights into the Mechanism of Action of Amphetamines". Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology. 47 (1): 681–698. doi:10.1146/annurev.pharmtox.47.120505.105140. ISSN 0362-1642. 
  4. 4.0 4.1 Elangbam, C. S. (October 2010). "Drug-induced Valvulopathy: An Update". Toxicologic Pathology. 38 (6): 837–848. doi:10.1177/0192623310378027. ISSN 0192-6233. 
  5. 5.0 5.1 Droogmans, S., Cosyns, B., D’haenen, H., Creeten, E., Weytjens, C., Franken, P. R., Scott, B., Schoors, D., Kemdem, A., Close, L., Vandenbossche, J.-L., Bechet, S., Van Camp, G. (1 November 2007). "Possible association between 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine abuse and valvular heart disease". The American Journal of Cardiology. 100 (9): 1442–1445. doi:10.1016/j.amjcard.2007.06.045. ISSN 0002-9149. 
  6. Nimmo, S. M., Kennedy, B. W., Tullett, W. M., Blyth, A. S., Dougall, J. R. (October 1993). "Drug-induced hyperthermia". Anaesthesia. 48 (10): 892–895. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2044.1993.tb07423.x. ISSN 0003-2409. 
  7. Malberg, J. E., Seiden, L. S. (1 July 1998). "Small changes in ambient temperature cause large changes in 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)-induced serotonin neurotoxicity and core body temperature in the rat". The Journal of Neuroscience: The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience. 18 (13): 5086–5094. ISSN 0270-6474. 
  8. Wolff, K., Tsapakis, E. M., Winstock, A. R., Hartley, D., Holt, D., Forsling, M. L., Aitchison, K. J. (May 2006). "Vasopressin and oxytocin secretion in response to the consumption of ecstasy in a clubbing population". Journal of Psychopharmacology. 20 (3): 400–410. doi:10.1177/0269881106061514. ISSN 0269-8811. 
  9. Talaie, H.; Panahandeh, R.; Fayaznouri, M. R.; Asadi, Z.; Abdollahi, M. (2009). "Dose-independent occurrence of seizure with tramadol". Journal of Medical Toxicology. 5 (2): 63–67. doi:10.1007/BF03161089. eISSN 1937-6995. ISSN 1556-9039. OCLC 163567183. 
  10. Gillman, P. K. (2005). "Monoamine oxidase inhibitors, opioid analgesics and serotonin toxicity". British Journal of Anaesthesia. 95 (4): 434–441. doi:10.1093/bja/aei210Freely accessible. eISSN 1471-6771. ISSN 0007-0912. OCLC 01537271. PMID 16051647. 
  11. Gillman, P. K. (2005). "Monoamine oxidase inhibitors, opioid analgesics and serotonin toxicity". British Journal of Anaesthesia. 95 (4): 434–441. doi:10.1093/bja/aei210Freely accessible. eISSN 1471-6771. ISSN 0007-0912. OCLC 01537271. PMID 16051647. 
  12. "Anlage NpSG" (in German). Bundesministerium der Justiz und für Verbraucherschutz. Retrieved December 18, 2019. 
  13. "Gesetz zur Bekämpfung der Verbreitung neuer psychoaktiver Stoffe" (PDF) (in German). Bundesanzeiger Verlag. Retrieved December 18, 2019. 
  14. "§ 4 NpSG" (in German). Bundesministerium der Justiz und für Verbraucherschutz. Retrieved December 18, 2019. 
  15. http://www.salute.gov.it/imgs/C_17_pagineAree_3729_listaFile_itemName_0_file.pdf
  16. "Verordnung des EDI über die Verzeichnisse der Betäubungsmittel, psychotropen Stoffe, Vorläuferstoffe und Hilfschemikalien" (in German). Bundeskanzlei [Federal Chancellery of Switzerland]. Retrieved January 1, 2020. 
  17. The Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 (Ketamine etc.) (Amendment) Order 2014