|Summary sheet: 3-MMC|
|Common names||3-MMC, Metaphedrone|
|Psychoactive class||Stimulant / Entactogen|
|Routes of Administration|
|Selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors|
|Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors|
3-Methylmethcathinone (also known as 3-MMC or metaphedrone) is a novel stimulant-entactogen substance of the cathinone class. It is a structural analog of mephedrone (4-MMC). It is thought to produce its effects by promoting the release of dopamine and serotonin, although studies are lacking.
3-MMC first became available on the online research chemical market shortly after the banning of mephedrone. It is a prominent example of a contemporary designer drug specifically chosen to mimic and/or replace the functional and structural features of its recently-controlled predecessors.
Subjective effects include stimulation, anxiety suppression, disinhibition, enhanced empathy and sociability, relaxation, increased libido, and euphoria. 3-MMC's effects are reported to be similar to those of mephedrone, which is sometimes described as a hybrid of MDMA and cocaine. However, 3-MMC is described as being slightly less entactogenic and more stimulating, and some report more side effects. Like mephedrone and cocaine, it is associated with compulsive redosing and abuse.
Limited data exists about the pharmacological properties, metabolism, and toxicity of 3-MMC, and it has little history of human use. Preliminary evidence suggests it may possess neurotoxic and cardiotoxic properties. It is highly advised to use harm reduction practices if using this substance.
- 1 Chemistry
- 2 Pharmacology
- 3 Subjective effects
- 4 Toxicity and harm potential
- 5 Legal status
- 6 See also
- 7 External links
- 8 References
3-MMC, or 3-Methylmethcathinone, is a molecule of the substituted cathinone class. Cathinones are a sub-category of amphetamines, sharing the core amphetamine structure of a phenyl ring bound to an amino (NH2) group through an ethyl chain and an additional methyl substitution at Rα.
3-MMC and other cathinones are differentiated by their ketone substitution on the beta carbon of the amphetamine skeleton, meaning they are β-keto-amphetamines. 3-MMC has two methyl substitutions on its cathinone skeleton, one at R3 of the phenyl ring, and a second at the nitrogen group RN. 3-MMC is analogous to mephedrone; it is identical in structure except for the placement of the methyl group at R4 instead of R3
3-MMC contains a chiral centre at the C-2 carbon of the propane side-chain, so that two enantiomers exist: R-3-MMC and S-3-MMC. Due to the similarity with cathinone the S form is thought to be more potent than the R form.
The hydrochloride salt of 3-MMC is a white crystalline powder. It has a melting point of 193.2 ± 0.2°C (hydrochloride salt) and a boiling point of 280.5 ± 23.0°C at 760 mm Hg. It is sparingly soluble in PBS; slightly soluble in ethanol, dimethyl sulfoxide, and dimethyl formamide.
Due to the lack of research regarding the substance, all discussion regarding the pharmacology of it is purely speculation based upon its structure and subjective effect similarities to other stimulants such as mephedrone, amphetamine and 2-FMA. 3-MMC most likely acts as both a dopamine and norepinephrine releasing agent. This means it may effectively boost the levels of the norepinephrine and dopamine neurotransmitters in the brain by binding to and partially blocking the transporter proteins that normally remove those monoamines from the synaptic cleft. This allows dopamine and norepinephrine to accumulate within the brain, resulting in stimulating and euphoric effects.
|This subjective effects section is a stub.|
As such, it is still in progress and may contain incomplete or wrong information.
You can help by expanding or correcting it.
Disclaimer: The effects listed below cite the Subjective Effect Index (SEI), a literature which relies on collected anecdotal reports and the personal experiences of PsychonautWiki contributors. As a result, they should be taken with a healthy amount of skepticism. It is worth noting that these effects will not necessarily occur in a consistent or reliable manner, although higher doses (common+) are more likely to induce the full spectrum of reported effects. Likewise, adverse effects become much more likely with higher doses and may include serious injury or death.
- Stimulation - Regarding its effects on the user's physical energy levels, 3-MMC is commonly regarded as extremely stimulating and energetic. This encourages activities such as running, climbing and dancing in a way that makes it a popular choice for musical events such as festivals and raves. The distinct style of stimulation which 3-MMC presents can be described as forced. This means that at higher doses, it becomes difficult or impossible to keep still as jaw clenching, involuntarily body shakes and vibrations become present, resulting in an extreme unsteadiness of the hands and a general lack of motor control. This can also paradoxically be accompanied by persistent or wave-like feelings of deep sedation and relaxation, typically at moderate to strong doses.
- Spontaneous bodily sensations - The "body high" of 3-MMC can be characterized as a moderate to extreme euphoric tingling sensation that encompasses the entire body. It is capable of becoming overwhelmingly pleasurable at higher doses. This sensation maintains a consistent presence that steadily rises with the onset and hits its limit once the peak has been reached.
- Tactile enhancement
- Bodily control enhancement
- Stamina enhancement
- Temperature regulation suppression
- Vasoconstriction ”
- Abnormal heartbeat
- Increased heart rate
- Increased perspiration
- Nausea - Nausea is most commonly present during the come up phase of the experience, and at higher doses, but has been reported to occur spontaneously in those who are thought to be susceptible to it.
- Dry mouth
- Appetite suppression
- Muscle contractions
- Pupil dilation
- Increased libido - This effect is typically very strong. It is reported that this effect is often more prominent than that experienced from using mephedrone. This effect may contribute to excessive redosing, which is a commonly reported effect for this substance.
- Orgasm suppression
- Vibrating vision - At high doses, the user's eyeballs may begin to spontaneously wiggle back and forth in a rapid motion, causing the vision to become blurry and temporarily out of focus. This is a condition known as nystagmus.
- Teeth grinding - This effect when experienced alongside euphoria can often lead to users mildly or intensely clenching their jaw muscles, sometimes even to the point where the individual’s facial expression begins to change. This is sometimes colloquially called “gurning” and is typically only experienced in common to high dosages.
- Shortness of breath - Due to the strong vasoconstriction 3-MMC causes, the blood flow to organs can be limited. When this happens in the lungs or in the chest muscles, the vasoconstriction can cause a blood oxygen deficiency and difficulty breathing.
- Seizure - This is a rare effect but can likely happen in those predisposed to them, especially when taking heavy doses or redosing while in physically taxing conditions such as being dehydrated, undernourished, overheated or fatigued.
- Anxiety suppression
- Empathy, affection, and sociability enhancement
- Cognitive euphoria
- Increased music appreciation
- Compulsive redosing
- Immersion enhancement
- Motivation enhancement
- Thought acceleration
- Delirium & Confusion - This effect typically only occurs with overly high doses, and is associated with temperature dysregulation and overheating, particularly when 3-MMC is taken in crowded, physically strenuous environments that leaves the user unable to cool off, rest, or rehydrate adequately.
- Time compression - Strong feelings of time compression are commonly produced by 3-MMC and speed up the experience of time noticeably.
3-MMC presents an array of visual enhancements which are mild in comparison to traditional psychedelics, but still distinctly present. These generally include:
- The effects which occur during the offset of a stimulant experience generally feel negative and uncomfortable in comparison to the effects which occurred during its peak. This is often referred to as a "comedown" and occurs because of neurotransmitter depletion. Its effects commonly include:
Anecdotal reports which describe the effects of this compound within our experience index include:
Additional experience reports can be found here:
Toxicity and harm potential
This toxicity and harm potential section is a stub.
As such, it may contain incomplete or even dangerously wrong information. You can help by expanding or correcting it.
As with most research chemicals, the long-term effects of 3-MMC have not been researched extensively enough to provide accurate information of its risks and harm.
It is strongly recommended that one use harm reduction practices when using this substance.
Dependence and abuse potential
As with other stimulants, the chronic use of 3-MMC can be considered highly addictive with a high potential for abuse and is capable of causing psychological dependence among certain users. When addiction has developed, cravings and withdrawal effects may occur if a person suddenly stops their usage. It is said that this compound is considerably more addictive than that of mephedrone.
Tolerance to many of the effects of 3-MMC develops with prolonged and repeated use. This results in users having to administer increasingly large doses to achieve the same effects. After that, it takes about 3 - 7 days for the tolerance to be reduced to half and 1 - 2 weeks to be back at baseline (in the absence of further consumption). 3-MMC presents cross-tolerance with all dopaminergic stimulants, meaning that after the consumption of 3-MMC all stimulants will have a reduced effect.
Although many psychoactive substances are reasonably safe to use on their own, they can quickly become dangerous or even life-threatening when combined with other substances. The list below includes some known dangerous combinations (although it cannot be guaranteed to include all of them). Independent research (e.g. Google, DuckDuckGo) should always be conducted to ensure that a combination of two or more substances is safe to consume. Some interactions listed have been sourced from TripSit.
- 25x-NBOMe & 25x-NBOH - Members of the 25x family are highly stimulating and physically straining. Combinations with stimulants should be avoided due to the risk of excessive stimulation. This can result in panic attacks, thought loops, seizures, increased blood pressure, vasoconstriction, and heart failure in extreme cases.
- Alcohol - Alcohol can be dangerous to combine with stimulants due to the risk of accidental over-intoxication. Stimulants mask the sedative effects of alcohol, which is the main factor people use to assess their degree of intoxication. Once the stimulant wears off, the depressant effects of alcohol are left unopposed, which can result in blackouts and respiratory depression. If combined, one should strictly limit themselves to only drinking a certain amount of alcohol per hour.
- DXM - Combinations with DXM should be handled with extreme care due to DXM's effects on serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake. This can lead to panic attacks, hypertensive crisis, or serotonin syndrome with stimulants that increase levels of serotonin (MDMA, methylone, mephedrone, etc.). Monitor blood pressure carefully and avoid strenuous physical activity.
- MDMA - The neurotoxic effects of MDMA may be increased when combined with other stimulants. There is also a risk of excessive heart strain.
- MXE - Combinations with MXE may dangerously elevate blood pressure and increase the risk of psychosis.
- Stimulants - 3-MMC can be potentially dangerous in combination with other stimulants as they can increase one's heart rate and blood pressure to dangerous levels.
- Cocaine - This combination may increase strain on the heart.
- Tramadol - Tramadol lowers the seizure threshold. Combinations with stimulants may further increase this risk.
Serotonin syndrome risk
Combinations with the following substances can cause dangerously high serotonin levels. Serotonin syndrome requires immediate medical attention and can be fatal if left untreated.
- MAOIs such as syrian rue, banisteriopsis caapi, 2C-T-7, αMT, phenelzine, selegiline, and moclobemide
- Serotonin releasers such as MDMA, 4-FA, methamphetamine, methylone and αMT
- Selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs)
- Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) such as tramadol and DXM
- Austria: 3-MMC is illegal to possess, produce and sell under the NPSG (Neue-Psychoaktive-Substanzen-Gesetz Österreich).
- Brazil: Possession, production and sale is illegal as it is listed on Portaria SVS/MS nº 344.
- China: Since October 2015, 3-MMC has been banned (along with many other chemicals) in China. Due to this ban, many chemicals have become increasingly difficult to attain since the manufacturing was mainly done by Chinese chemical companies.
- Czech Republic: 3-MMC is banned in the Czech Republic.
- Germany: 3-MMC is controlled under Anlage I BtMG (Narcotics Act, Schedule I) as of December 13, 2014. It is illegal to manufacture, possess, import, export, buy, sell, procure or dispense it without a license.
- Switzerland: 3-MMC can be considered a controlled substance as a defined derivative of Cathinone under Verzeichnis E point 1. It is legal when used for scientific or industrial use.
- Turkey: 3-MMC is a classed as drug and is illegal to possess, produce, supply, or import. 
- United Kingdom: 3-MMC is a Class B drug in the United Kingdom as a result of the cathinone catch-all clause.
- United States: 3-MMC is not formally listed but is categorized by the DEA as a Schedule I Positional Isomer. 
- Adamowicz, P., Gieron, J., Gil, D., Lechowicz, W., Skulska, A., & Tokarczyk, B. (2016). 3-Methylmethcathinone—Interpretation of blood concentrations based on analysis of 95 cases. Journal of analytical toxicology, 40(4), 272-276. https://doi.org/10.1093/jat/bkw018
- References The effects and toxicity of cathinones from the users' perspectives: A qualitative study. (2017, June 20). Wiley Online Library. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/hup.2610
- Urban Dictionary page on "gurning" http://www.urbandictionary.com/define.php?term=gurning
- Talaie, H., Panahandeh, R., Fayaznouri, M. R., Asadi, Z., & Abdollahi, M. (2009). Dose-independent occurrence of seizure with tramadol. Journal of Medical Toxicology, 5(2), 63-67. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03161089
- Gillman, P. K. (2005). Monoamine oxidase inhibitors, opioid analgesics and serotonin toxicity. British Journal of Anaesthesia, 95(4), 434-441. https://doi.org/10.1093/bja/aei210
- 关于印发《非药用类麻醉药品和精神药品列管办法》的通知 | http://www.sfda.gov.cn/WS01/CL0056/130753.html
- "Anlage I BtMG" (in German). Bundesministerium der Justiz und für Verbraucherschutz. Retrieved December 25, 2019.
- "Achtundzwanzigste Verordnung zur Änderung betäubungsmittelrechtlicher Vorschriften" (PDF) (in German). Bundesanzeiger Verlag. Retrieved December 25, 2019.
- "§ 29 BtMG" (in German). Bundesministerium der Justiz und für Verbraucherschutz. Retrieved December 25, 2019.
- "Verordnung des EDI über die Verzeichnisse der Betäubungsmittel, psychotropen Stoffe, Vorläuferstoffe und Hilfschemikalien" (in German). Bundeskanzlei [Federal Chancellery of Switzerland]. Retrieved January 1, 2020.
- United Kingdom. (2010). Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 (S.I. 2010/1207). London: The Stationery Office Limited. Retrieved February 9, 2018, from https://www.legislation.gov.uk/uksi/2010/1207/made