|Summary sheet: 3-MMC|
|Common names||3-MMC, Metaphedrone|
|Psychoactive class||Stimulant / Entactogen|
|Routes of Administration|
3-Methylmethcathinone (also known as 3-MMC or metaphedrone) is a novel stimulant-entactogen substance of the cathinone class that produces a mixture of classical stimulant and entactogenic effects when administered. It is a member of a group known as the substituted cathinones, all of which are derivatives of cathinone, the principal active component in the khat plant (Cathulla edullis) of eastern Africa.
As with many of its research chemical cathinone predecessors, 3-MMC is known to come in the form of either a white powder or crystallized shards which users can ingest to produce a powerful, fast-acting but short-lived euphoric stimulant-entactogen effects, particularly when they are insufflated, vaporized or injected.
It has gained notoriety for its associated tendency to induce compulsive redosing and addictive behaviors in a seemingly significant percentage of its users as well the ability to readily induce paranoid, anxiety, various delusional states and stimulant psychosis when taken too frequently, in excessive amounts, or over extended periods of time.
Very little data exists about the pharmacological properties, metabolism, and toxicity of 3-MMC, and it has little history of human usage. 3-MMC first became available on the online research chemical market, shortly after the banning of mephedrone. It is a prominent example of a contemporary designer drug specifically chosen to mimic and/or replace the functional and structural features of its recently-controlled predecessors.
- 1 Chemistry
- 2 Pharmacology
- 3 Subjective effects
- 4 Toxicity and harm potential
- 5 Legal status
- 6 See also
- 7 External links
- 8 References
3-MMC, or 3-Methylmethcathinone, is a molecule of the substituted cathinone class. Cathinones are a sub-category of amphetamines, sharing share the core amphetamine structure of a phenyl ring bound to an amino (NH2) group through an ethyl chain and an additional methyl substitution at Rα.
3-MMC and other cathinones are differentiated by their ketone substitution on the beta carbon of the amphetamine skeleton, meaning they are β-keto-amphetamines. 3-MMC has two methyl substitutions on its cathinone skeleton, one at R3 of the phenyl ring, and a second at the nitrogen group RN.
3-MMC is analogous to mephedrone; it is identical in structure except for the placement of the methyl group at R3 instead of R4.
Due to the lack of research regarding the substance, all discussion regarding the pharmacology of it is purely speculation based upon its structure and subjective effect similarities to other stimulants such as mephedrone, amphetamine and 2-FMA. 3-MMC most likely acts as both a dopamine and norepinephrine releasing agent. This means it may effectively boost the levels of the norepinephrine and dopamine neurotransmitters in the brain by binding to and partially blocking the transporter proteins that normally remove those monoamines from the synaptic cleft. This allows dopamine and norepinephrine to accumulate within the brain, resulting in stimulating and euphoric effects.
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The effects listed below are based upon the subjective effects index and personal experiences of PsychonautWiki contributors. The listed effects should be taken with a grain of salt and will rarely (if ever) occur all at once, but heavier doses will increase the chances and are more likely to induce a full range of effects. Likewise, adverse effects become much more likely on higher doses and may include serious injury or death.
- Stimulation - Regarding its effects on the user's physical energy levels, 3-MMC is commonly regarded as extremely stimulating and energetic. This encourages activities such as running, climbing and dancing in a way that makes it a popular choice for musical events such as festivals and raves. The distinct style of stimulation which 3-MMC presents can be described as forced. This means that at higher doses, it becomes difficult or impossible to keep still as jaw clenching, involuntarily body shakes and vibrations become present, resulting in an extreme unsteadiness of the hands and a general lack of motor control. This can also paradoxically be accompanied by persistent or wave-like feelings of deep sedation and relaxation, typically at moderate to strong doses.
- Spontaneous physical sensations - The "body high" of 3-MMC can be characterized as a moderate to extreme euphoric tingling sensation that encompasses the entire body. It is capable of becoming overwhelmingly pleasurable at higher doses. This sensation maintains a consistent presence that steadily rises with the onset and hits its limit once the peak has been reached.
- Tactile enhancement
- Bodily control enhancement
- Stamina enhancement
- Temperature regulation suppression
- Vasoconstriction
- Abnormal heartbeat
- Increased heart rate
- Increased perspiration
- Nausea - This effect is most commonly present during the come up phase of the experience, and at higher doses, but has been reported to occur spontaneously in those who are thought to be susceptible to it.
- Dry mouth
- Appetite suppression
- Muscle contractions
- Pupil dilation
- Increased libido
- Orgasm suppression
- Vibrating vision - At high doses, the user's eyeballs may begin to spontaneously wiggle back and forth in a rapid motion, causing the vision to become blurry and temporarily out of focus. This is a condition known as nystagmus.
- Teeth grinding - This effect when experienced alongside euphoria can often lead to users mildly or intensely clenching their jaw muscles, sometimes even to the point where the individual’s facial expression begins to change. This is sometimes colloquially called “gurning” and is typically only experienced in common to high dosages.
- Seizure - This is a rare effect but can likely happen in those predisposed to them, especially when taking heavy doses or redosing while in physically taxing conditions such as being dehydrated, undernourished, overheated or fatigued.
- Anxiety suppression
- Empathy, affection, and sociability enhancement
- Cognitive euphoria
- Increased music appreciation
- Compulsive redosing
- Immersion enhancement
- Motivation enhancement
- Thought acceleration
- Delirium & Confusion - This effect typically only occurs with overly high doses, and is associated with temperature dysregulation and overheating, particularly when 3-MMC is taken in crowded, physically strenuous environments that leaves the user unable to cool off, rest, or rehydrate adequately.
- Time compression - Strong feelings of time compression are commonly produced by 3-MMC and speed up the experience of time noticeably.
3-MMC presents an array of visual enhancements which are mild in comparison to traditional psychedelics, but still distinctly present. These generally include:
- The effects which occur during the offset of a stimulant experience generally feel negative and uncomfortable in comparison to the effects which occurred during its peak. This is often referred to as a "comedown" and occurs because of neurotransmitter depletion. Its effects commonly include:
Anecdotal reports which describe the effects of this compound within our experience index include:
Additional experience reports can be found here:
Toxicity and harm potential
As with most research chemicals, the long-term effects of 3-MMC have not been researched extensively enough to provide accurate information of its risks and harm.
It is strongly recommended that one use harm reduction practices when using this substance.
Tolerance and addiction potential
As with other stimulants, the chronic use of 3-MMC can be considered moderately addictive with a high potential for abuse and is capable of causing psychological dependence among certain users. When addiction has developed, cravings and withdrawal effects may occur if a person suddenly stops their usage. It is said that this compound is considerably more addictive than that of mephedrone.
Tolerance to many of the effects of 3-MMC develops with prolonged and repeated use. This results in users having to administer increasingly large doses to achieve the same effects. After that, it takes about 3 - 7 days for the tolerance to be reduced to half and 1 - 2 weeks to be back at baseline (in the absence of further consumption). 3-MMC presents cross-tolerance with all dopaminergic stimulants, meaning that after the consumption of 3-MMC all stimulants will have a reduced effect.
Although many psychoactive substances are safe to use on their own, they can become dangerous or even life-threatening when taken with other substances. The list below contains some potentially dangerous combinations, but may not include all of them. Certain combinations may be safe in low doses but still increase the possibility of injury of death. Independent research should always be conducted to ensure that a combination of two or more substances is safe before consumption.
- 25x-NBOMe - Members of the 25x-NBOMe family are very stimulating and should not be combined with stimulants due to the risk of excessive stimulation. This can result in panic attacks, thought loops, seizures, increased blood pressure, vasoconstriction, and heart failure in extreme cases.
- Alcohol - Alcohol can be dangerous to combine with stimulants due to the risk of accidental over-intoxication. Stimulants mask the sedative effects of alcohol, which is the main factor people use to assess their degree of intoxication. Once the stimulant wears off, the depressant effects of alcohol are left unopposed, which can result in blackouts and respiratory depression. If combined, one should strictly limit themselves to only drinking a certain amount of alcohol per hour.
- DXM - DXM should not be combined with stimulants due to its effects on serotonin and dopamine reuptake. This can lead to panic attacks, hypertensive crisis, or serotonin syndrome.
- MXE - Combining stimulants with MXE may dangerously elevate blood pressure and increase the risk of psychosis.
- Tramadol - Combining stimulants with tramadol increases the risk of seizures.
- MDMA - The neurotoxic effects of MDMA may be increased when combined with other stimulants.
- Cocaine - This combination may increase strain on the heart.
Serotonin syndrome risk
- MAOIs such as syrian rue, banisteriopsis caapi, 2C-T-2, 2C-T-7, αMT, and some antidepressants
- Serotonin releasers such as MDMA, 4-FA, methylone and αMT
- Selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs)
- Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) such as tramadol and DXM
- Austria: 3-MMC is illegal to possess, produce and sell under the NPSG. (Neue-Psychoaktive-Substanzen-Gesetz Österreich)
- Brazil - Possession, production and sale is illegal as it is listed on Portaria SVS/MS nº 344.
- China - Since October 2015, the drug has been banned (along with an enormous amount of other chemicals) in China. Due to this ban, many chemicals have become increasingly difficult to attain since the manufacturing was mainly done by Chinese chemical companies.
- Czech Republic - 3-MMC is banned in the Czech Republic.
- United Kingdom - 3-MMC is a Class B drug in the United Kingdom as a result of the cathinone catch-all clause.
- Germany - On December 13th, 2014, 3-MMC was added to the controlled substance act ("BtMG"), making it illegal to produce, sell or possess.
- Adamowicz, P., Gieron, J., Gil, D., Lechowicz, W., Skulska, A., & Tokarczyk, B. (2016). 3-Methylmethcathinone—Interpretation of blood concentrations based on analysis of 95 cases. Journal of analytical toxicology, 40(4), 272-276. https://doi.org/10.1093/jat/bkw018
- Urban Dictionary page on "gurning" http://www.urbandictionary.com/define.php?term=gurning
- Gillman, P. K. (2005). Monoamine oxidase inhibitors, opioid analgesics and serotonin toxicity. British Journal of Anaesthesia, 95(4), 434-441. https://doi.org/10.1093/bja/aei210
- 关于印发《非药用类麻醉药品和精神药品列管办法》的通知 | http://www.sfda.gov.cn/WS01/CL0056/130753.html
- United Kingdom. (2010). Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 (S.I. 2010/1207). London: The Stationery Office Limited. Retrieved February 9, 2018, from https://www.legislation.gov.uk/uksi/2010/1207/made
- Achtundzwanzigste Verordnung zur Änderung betäubungsmittelrechtlicher Vorschriften (28. BtMÄndV)| http://www.buzer.de/gesetz/11392/a189949.htm