A-PVP

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Summary sheet: A-PVP
A-PVP
Molecular structure of A-PVP
Α-PVP.svg
Chemical Nomenclature
Common names α-PVP, alpha-PVP, Flakka, O-2387, β-ketone-prolintane, Prolintanone
Substitutive name alpha-pyrrolidinovalerophenone
Systematic name (RS)-1-Phenyl-2-(1-pyrrolidinyl)-1-pentanone
Class Membership
Psychoactive class Stimulant
Chemical class Cathinone / Pyrrolidine
Routes of Administration

WARNING: Always start with lower doses due to differences between individual body weight, tolerance, metabolism, and personal sensitivity. See responsible use section.


Smoked
Dosage
Threshold 1 - 2 mg
Light 2 - 5 mg
Common 5 - 15 mg
Strong 15 - 25 mg
Heavy 25 mg +
Duration
Total 30 - 60 minutes
Onset 20 - 60 seconds
Peak 3 - 6 minutes
Offset 15 - 30 minutes
After effects 1 - 3 hours
Oral
Dosage
Threshold 1 - 5 mg
Light 5 - 10 mg
Common 10 - 25 mg
Strong 25 - 40 mg
Heavy 40 mg +
Duration
Total 2 - 6 hours
Onset 2 - 20 minutes
Peak 1 - 2.5 hours
Offset 1 - 5 hours
After effects 4 - 12 hours



Insufflated
Dosage
Threshold 0.5 - 1 mg
Light 1 - 5 mg
Common 5 - 15 mg
Strong 15 - 25 mg
Heavy 25 mg +
Duration
Total 2 - 5 hours
Onset 10 - 30 minutes
Peak 20 - 45 minutes
Offset 30 - 90 minutes
After effects 2 - 4 hours






DISCLAIMER: PW's dosage information is gathered from users and resources for educational purposes only. It is not a recommendation and should be verified with other sources for accuracy.

alpha-Pyrrolidinovalerophenone (also known as α-PVP, A-PVP, alpha-PVP, and Flakka) is a synthetic stimulant substance of the cathinone and pyrrolidine chemical classes. It produces medium-lived cathinone-like stimulation and disinhibition with a pronounced euphoric "rush" component when administered.

α-PVP is chemically similar to other pyrrolidine compounds such as MDPV and to other cathinone compounds found in the khat shrub of eastern Africa.[citation needed] It generally comes in the form of either a crystalline powder or crystallized shards which users can ingest to produce powerful but short-lived euphoric stimulant effects which are comparable to those of methamphetamine and cocaine when insufflated or vaporized.[citation needed]

α-PVP has been subject to much scrutiny by the media, similar to how MDPV and "bath salts" were portrayed in early 2011.[citation needed] Very little data exists about the pharmacological properties, metabolism, and toxicity of a-PVP and it has little history of human usage. It is commonly mass produced in China and commercially distributed as a research chemical by online vendors.[citation needed]

Due to its potent psychostimulant effects, dependence and addiction-producing potential and toxicity profile if misused, it is highly advised that one take proper precautions, conduct sufficient independent research, and use proper harm reduction practices if choosing to use with this substance.

Chemistry

α-PVP, or alpha-Pyrrolidinovalerophenone, is a compound of the substituted cathinone and substituted pyrrolidine chemical classes. Its structure is comprised of pentanal bound to a phenyl ring at the 1 position and the nitrogen of a pyrrolidine ring at the 2 position.

Pharmacology

The mechanism of action is unknown for α-PVP. It is believed to act similarly to the designer drug MDPV, which acts as a norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitor (NDRI),[1] although no substantial research on this compound has been conducted.

Subjective effects

The effects listed below are based upon the subjective effects index and personal experiences of PsychonautWiki contributors. The listed effects should be taken with a grain of salt and will rarely (if ever) occur all at once, but heavier doses will increase the chances and are more likely to induce a full range of effects. Likewise, adverse effects become much more likely on higher doses and may include injury or death.

Physical effects
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Visual effects
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Cognitive effects
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After effects
Aftereffects (3).svg

Experience reports

There are currently no anecdotal reports which describe the effects of this compound within our experience index. Additional experience reports can be found here:

Toxicity and harm potential

The toxicity and long-term health effects of recreational α-PVP use do not seem to have been studied in any scientific context and the exact toxic dosage is unknown. This is because α-PVP has very little history of human usage. Anecdotal evidence from people who have tried α-PVP within the community suggests that there do not seem to be any negative health effects attributed to simply trying this drug at low to moderate doses by itself and using it sparingly (but nothing can be completely guaranteed).

α-PVP has been reported to be the cause, or a significant contributory cause, of death in suicides and overdoses caused by combinations of drugs.[2][3][4][5] α-PVP has also been linked to at least one death where it was combined with pentedrone and caused heart failure.[6]

It is strongly recommended that one use harm reduction practices when using this substance.

Tolerance and addiction potential

As with other stimulants, the chronic use of α-PVP can be considered moderately addictive with a high potential for abuse and is capable of causing psychological dependence among certain users. When addiction has developed, cravings and withdrawal effects may occur if a person suddenly stops their usage.

Tolerance to many of the effects of α-PVP develops with prolonged and repeated use. This results in users having to administer increasingly large doses to achieve the same effects. After that, it takes about 3 - 7 days for the tolerance to be reduced to half and 1 - 2 weeks to be back at baseline (in the absence of further consumption). α-PVP presents cross-tolerance with all dopaminergic stimulants, meaning that after the consumption of α-PVP all stimulants will have a reduced effect.

Psychosis

Main article: Stimulant psychosis

α-PVP, like other stimulants, can result in a stimulant psychosis that may present with a variety of symptoms (e.g., paranoia, hallucinations, or delusions).[7][8] A review on treatment for amphetamine, dextroamphetamine, and methamphetamine abuse-induced psychosis states that about 5–15% of users fail to recover completely.[8][9] The same review asserts that, based upon at least one trial, antipsychotic medications effectively resolve the symptoms of acute amphetamine psychosis.[8]

Dangerous interactions

Although many psychoactive substances are safe on their own, they can become dangerous and even life-threatening when combined with other substances. The list below contains some common potentially dangerous combinations, but may not include all of them. Certain combinations may be safe in low doses of each but still increase the potential risk of death. Independent research should always be done to ensure that a combination of two or more substances is safe before consumption.

Serotonin syndrome risk

Combinations in the list below may increase the amount of neurotransmitters such as serotonin and dopamine to dangerous or even fatal levels.

Legality

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This legality section is a stub.

As such, it may contain incomplete or wrong information. You can help by expanding it.

  • Australia - The drug was explicitly made illegal in New South Wales after it was illegally marketed with the imprimatur of erroneous legal advice that it was not encompassed by analog provisions of the relevant act. It is encompassed by those provisions, and therefore has been illegal for many years in New South Wales. The legislative action followed the death of two individuals from using it; one jumping off a balcony, another having a heart attack after a state of delirium.[11][12]
  • Brazil - Possession, production and sale is illegal as it is listed on Portaria SVS/MS nº 344.[13]
  • China - As of October 2015 α-PVP is a controlled substance in China.[14]
  • Europe - α-PVP is banned in Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Slovenia, Sweden, United Kingdom, Turkey, Belgium,[15] and Norway,[16] as well as the Czech Republic.[17]
  • United Kingdom - It is illegal to produce, supply, or import this drug under the Psychoactive Substance Act, which came into effect on May 26th, 2016.[18]
  • United States - On January 28, 2014, the U.S. DEA listed α-PVP, along with 9 other synthetic cathinones, on the Schedule 1 with a temporary ban, effective February 27, 2014.[19]

See also

External links

References

  1. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2602954
  2. Analysis of synthetic cathinones commonly found in bath salts in human performance and postmortem toxicology: method development, drug distribution and interpretation of results (PubMed.gov / NCBI) | https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23361867
  3. http://www.aafs.org/sites/default/files/pdf/ProceedingsWashingtonDC2013.pdf
  4. Cheap, synthetic 'flakka' dethroning cocaine on Florida drug scene | http://news.yahoo.com/cheap-synthetic-flakka-dethroning-cocaine-florida-drug-scene-140910992.html
  5. Suicide attempt with a mix of synthetic cannabinoids and synthetic cathinones: Case report of non-fatal intoxication with AB-CHMINACA, AB-FUBINACA, alpha-PHP, alpha-PVP and 4-CMC (ScienceDirect) | http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0379073816000372
  6. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25737339
  7. http://www.drugabuse.gov/drugs-abuse/emerging-trends
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 Shoptaw, S. J., Kao, U., & Ling, W. (2009). Treatment for amphetamine psychosis. The Cochrane Library.
  9. Hofmann FG (1983). A Handbook on Drug and Alcohol Abuse: The Biomedical Aspects (2nd ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. p. 329. ISBN 9780195030570.
  10. Gillman, P. K. (2005). Monoamine oxidase inhibitors, opioid analgesics and serotonin toxicity. British Journal of Anaesthesia, 95(4), 434-441. https://doi.org/10.1093/bja/aei210
  11. Bath salts' death: lethal drug was a top seller | http://www.smh.com.au/nsw/bath-salts-death-lethal-drug-was-a-top-seller-20131008-2v5jp
  12. Flakka, synthetic drug behind increasingly bizarre crimes | http://bigstory.ap.org/article/f3667988d0e042cfbb9b40838a78ab65/naked-paranoids-begging-police-save-them-thats-flakka
  13. http://portal.anvisa.gov.br/documents/10181/3115436/%281%29RDC_130_2016_.pdf/fc7ea407-3ff5-4fc1-bcfe-2f37504d28b7
  14. 关于印发《非药用类麻醉药品和精神药品列管办法》的通知 | http://www.sfda.gov.cn/WS01/CL0056/130753.html
  15. http://www.ejustice.just.fgov.be/cgi_loi/change_lg.pl?language=fr&la=N&cn=1998012251&table_name=wet
  16. http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/publications/joint-reports/alpha-pvp
  17. Látky, o které byl doplněn seznam č. 4 psychotropních látek (příloha č. 4 k nařízení vlády č. 463/2013 Sb.) | http://www.mzcr.cz/Admin/_upload/files/3/Nov%C3%A9%20PL.pdf
  18. Psychoactive Substances Act 2016 (Legislation.gov.uk) | http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/2016/2/contents/enacted
  19. http://www.deadiversion.usdoj.gov/fed_regs/rules/2014/fr0128.htm