|Summary sheet: A-PVP|
|Molecular structure of A-PVP|
|Common names||α-PVP, alpha-PVP, Flakka, O-2387, β-ketone-prolintane, Prolintanone|
|Chemical class||Cathinone / Pyrrolidine|
|Routes of Administration|
alpha-Pyrrolidinovalerophenone (also known as α-PVP, A-PVP, alpha-PVP, and Flakka) is a synthetic stimulant substance of the cathinone and pyrrolidine chemical classes. It produces medium-lived cathinone-like stimulation and disinhibition with a pronounced euphoric "rush" component when administered.
α-PVP is chemically similar to other pyrrolidine compounds such as MDPV and to other cathinone compounds found in the khat shrub of eastern Africa. It generally comes in the form of either a crystalline powder or crystallized shards which users can ingest to produce powerful but short-lived euphoric stimulant effects which are comparable to those of methamphetamine and cocaine when insufflated or vaporized.
α-PVP has been subject to much scrutiny by the media, similar to how MDPV and "bath salts" were portrayed in early 2011. Very little data exists about the pharmacological properties, metabolism, and toxicity of a-PVP and it has little history of human usage. It is commonly mass produced in China and commercially distributed as a research chemical by online vendors.
Due to its potent psychostimulant effects, dependence and addiction-producing potential and toxicity profile if misused, it is highly advised that one take proper precautions, conduct sufficient independent research, and use proper harm reduction practices if choosing to use with this substance.
- 1 Chemistry
- 2 Pharmacology
- 3 Subjective effects
- 4 Toxicity and harm potential
- 5 Legality
- 6 See also
- 7 External links
- 8 References
α-PVP, or alpha-Pyrrolidinovalerophenone, is a compound of the substituted cathinone and substituted pyrrolidine chemical classes. Its structure is comprised of pentanal bound to a phenyl ring at the 1 position and the nitrogen of a pyrrolidine ring at the 2 position.
The mechanism of action is unknown for α-PVP. It is believed to act similarly to the designer drug MDPV, which acts as a norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitor (NDRI), although no substantial research on this compound has been conducted.
The effects listed below are based upon the subjective effects index and personal experiences of PsychonautWiki contributors. The listed effects should be taken with a grain of salt and will rarely (if ever) occur all at once, but heavier doses will increase the chances and are more likely to induce a full range of effects. Likewise, adverse effects become much more likely on higher doses and may include injury or death.
- Stimulation - In terms of its effects on the user's physical energy levels, α-PVP can be considered to be extremely stimulating and energetic. This encourages activities such as running, climbing and dancing, although it can also encourage just sitting immobile engaged in repetitive tasks. The particular style of stimulation which α-PVP presents can be described as forced. This means that at higher dosages it becomes difficult or impossible to keep still as jaw clenching, involuntarily bodily shakes and vibrations become present, resulting in an extreme unsteadiness of the hands and a general loss of motor control.
- Spontaneous physical sensations - The "body high" of α-PVP can be described as a moderate to extreme euphoric tingling sensation that encompasses the entire body. It is capable of becoming overwhelming at higher dosages. This sensation maintains a consistent presence that steadily rises with the onset and hits its limit once the peak has been reached.
- Tactile enhancement - α-PVP can enhance one's sense of touch to extreme degrees, often leading to states of sexual arousal.
- Vibrating vision - A person's eyeballs may begin to spontaneously wiggle back and forth in a rapid motion, causing vision to become blurry and temporarily out of focus-- a condition known as nystagmus.
- Appetite suppression
- Abnormal heartbeat - Due to the potency of its rush, α-PVP can cause various uncomfortable or painful sensations in the heart, especially when abused or used for extended periods. Those with genetic a family history of heart issues are discouraged from using this drug in its most potent methods of administration, if not avoid it entirely.
- Increased blood pressure - α-PVP, especially when it is vaporized or injected, can lead to sudden spikes of blood pressure that may manifest in an extremely uncomfortable "exploding heart" sensation.
- Increased heart rate
- Decreased heart rate - Although sympathomimetic cathinones like α-PVP typically raise one's heart rate and blood pressure, it is possible to experience the reverse, sometimes triggering sudden fainting spells. While the cause is not yet well understood, it seems this happens less commonly in healthy individuals.
- Dehydration - Dry mouth and dehydration are a universal experience with α-PVP and are a product of an increased heart rate, adrenergic activity and the motivation to engage in strenuous physical activities. While it is important to avoid becoming dehydrated, especially when out dancing in a hot environment, there is a potential possibility of suffering from water intoxication through over-drinking. Therefore it is advised that users simply sip at water and be mindful of their water in-take.
- Dry mouth
- Mouth numbing - In a similar fashion to that of cocaine this compound numbs the areas of the body which it touches, these areas can include the nostrils, gums, mouth and urethra of the user.
- Increased perspiration
- Difficulty urinating - Higher doses of α-PVP result in an overall difficulty when it comes to urination, an effect that is temporary and typically harmless.
- Headaches - This typically can occur towards the end of the experience, but can sometimes happen during one as well.
- Muscle spasms
- Restless legs
- Vasoconstriction - α-PVP can be considered very vasoconstricting at higher doses, and is on par with that of amphetamine and methamphetamine.
- Teeth grinding - This component can be considered to be less intense when compared with that of MDMA, though becomes more present at high doses.
- Seizure - α-PVP may lower the seizure threshold in some individuals, especially when it is abused.
- Brightness alteration - α-PVP can make spaces seem brighter due to its ability to dilate the pupils.
- Drifting - This effect is usually very mild and increases with sleep deprivation.
- Visual acuity suppression - α-PVP can have visual and vision-impairing effects that can lend readily to peripheral hallucinations.
The cognitive effects of α-PVP can be broken down into several components which progressively intensify proportional to dosage. The ample head space of α-PVP is described by many as one of extreme mental stimulation and a powerful rushing euphoria. It contains a large number of typical stimulant-type cognitive effects, particularly those of the cathinone or pyrrolidine classes of drugs.
The most prominent of these cognitive effects generally include:
- Thought acceleration
- Cognitive euphoria - A euphoria very similar to amphetamine or cocaine is present as well as feelings of joy and happiness which are likely a direct result of serotonin and dopamine release.
- Immersion enhancement
- Focus enhancement - α-PVP has been noted as enhancing focus, but in a way that leaves the user totally fixated on whatever task at hand, however trivial.
- Ego inflation - Similar to the ego inflation of cocaine or methamphetamine, α-PVP can temporarily induce states of egomania at its peak.
- Anxiety & Paranoia - α-PVP can lead to states of extreme paranoia when abused or dosed too highly, which is why eyeballing this substance is strongly discouraged. The paranoia this compound produces shares many features of the paranoia that can be induced by methamphetamine or cocaine, and typically happens while during the come down.
- Increased libido - Like its predecessors MDPV and Pentedrone, α-PVP can induce states of extreme sexual arousal due to its powerful disinhibiting effects
- Increased music appreciation
- Analysis enhancement - Users report that this effect typically only occurs at low doses, and becomes increasingly more impairing as one increases their intake.
- Motivation enhancement - This effect provides short-lived states of extreme motivation, but due to the cognitively narrowing aspects of its action, rarely ever translates into productive action.
- Compulsive redosing - A high tendency to compulsive redose is a hallmark of this class of drug.
- Feelings of impending doom - This typically is experienced when the substance is abused, but can happen at higher than needed doses, or the comedowns of binges. It can also happen spontaneously, although this tends to be rare.
- Time distortion - Strong feelings of time compression are common within α-PVP and increase in the perception of perceived experience is greatly increased
- Psychosis - This compound is known to readily induce psychosis if it is abused for prolonged periods of time.
- The effects which occur during the offset of a stimulant experience generally feel negative and uncomfortable in comparison to the effects which occurred during its peak. This is often referred to as a "comedown" and occurs because of neurotransmitter depletion. Its effects commonly include:
There are currently no anecdotal reports which describe the effects of this compound within our experience index. Additional experience reports can be found here:
Toxicity and harm potential
The toxicity and long-term health effects of recreational α-PVP use do not seem to have been studied in any scientific context and the exact toxic dosage is unknown. This is because α-PVP has very little history of human usage. Anecdotal evidence from people who have tried α-PVP within the community suggests that there do not seem to be any negative health effects attributed to simply trying this drug at low to moderate doses by itself and using it sparingly (but nothing can be completely guaranteed).
α-PVP has been reported to be the cause, or a significant contributory cause, of death in suicides and overdoses caused by combinations of drugs. α-PVP has also been linked to at least one death where it was combined with pentedrone and caused heart failure.
It is strongly recommended that one use harm reduction practices when using this substance.
Tolerance and addiction potential
As with other stimulants, the chronic use of α-PVP can be considered moderately addictive with a high potential for abuse and is capable of causing psychological dependence among certain users. When addiction has developed, cravings and withdrawal effects may occur if a person suddenly stops their usage.
Tolerance to many of the effects of α-PVP develops with prolonged and repeated use. This results in users having to administer increasingly large doses to achieve the same effects. After that, it takes about 3 - 7 days for the tolerance to be reduced to half and 1 - 2 weeks to be back at baseline (in the absence of further consumption). α-PVP presents cross-tolerance with all dopaminergic stimulants, meaning that after the consumption of α-PVP all stimulants will have a reduced effect.
α-PVP, like other stimulants, can result in a stimulant psychosis that may present with a variety of symptoms (e.g., paranoia, hallucinations, or delusions). A review on treatment for amphetamine, dextroamphetamine, and methamphetamine abuse-induced psychosis states that about 5–15% of users fail to recover completely. The same review asserts that, based upon at least one trial, antipsychotic medications effectively resolve the symptoms of acute amphetamine psychosis.
Although many psychoactive substances are safe on their own, they can become dangerous and even life-threatening when combined with other substances. The list below contains some common potentially dangerous combinations, but may not include all of them. Certain combinations may be safe in low doses of each but still increase the potential risk of death. Independent research should always be done to ensure that a combination of two or more substances is safe before consumption.
- Stimulants - α-PVP can be potentially dangerous in combination with other stimulants as it can increase one's heart rate and blood pressure to dangerous levels.
- 25x-NBOMe - Both the NBOMe series and this compound induce powerful stimulation and their interaction may cause severe side effects. These can include thought loops, seizures, increased blood pressure, vasoconstriction, increased heart rate, and heart failure (in extreme cases).
- Alcohol - It is dangerous to combine alcohol, a depressant, with stimulants due to the risk of excessive intoxication. Stimulants decrease the sedative effect of alcohol which is the main factor most people consider when determining their level of intoxication. Once the stimulant wears off, the effects of alcohol will be significantly increased, leading to intensified disinhibition as well as respiratory depression. If combined, one should strictly limit themselves to only drinking a certain amount of alcohol per hour.
- DXM - This combination may cause increased heart rate and panic attacks.
- MXE - Increased heart rate and blood pressure may occur.
- Tramadol - This combination can increase the risk of seizures.
- MDMA - The neurotoxic effects of MDMA may be increased when combined with other stimulants.
- Cocaine - This combination may increase strain on the heart.
Serotonin syndrome risk
Combinations in the list below may increase the amount of neurotransmitters such as serotonin and dopamine to dangerous or even fatal levels.
- MAOIs such as syrian rue, banisteriopsis caapi, 2C-T-2, 2C-T-7, αMT, and some antidepressants
- Serotonin releasers such as MDMA, 4-FA, MDAI and αMT
- Selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs)
- Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs)
This legality section is a stub.
As such, it may contain incomplete or wrong information. You can help by expanding it.
- Australia - The drug was explicitly made illegal in New South Wales after it was illegally marketed with the imprimatur of erroneous legal advice that it was not encompassed by analog provisions of the relevant act. It is encompassed by those provisions, and therefore has been illegal for many years in New South Wales. The legislative action followed the death of two individuals from using it; one jumping off a balcony, another having a heart attack after a state of delirium.
- Brazil - Possession, production and sale is illegal as it is listed on Portaria SVS/MS nº 344.
- China - As of October 2015 α-PVP is a controlled substance in China.
- Europe - α-PVP is banned in Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Slovenia, Sweden, United Kingdom, Turkey, Belgium, and Norway, as well as the Czech Republic.
- United Kingdom - It is illegal to produce, supply, or import this drug under the Psychoactive Substance Act, which came into effect on May 26th, 2016.
- United States - On January 28, 2014, the U.S. DEA listed α-PVP, along with 9 other synthetic cathinones, on the Schedule 1 with a temporary ban, effective February 27, 2014.
- Responsible use
- Designer drug
- Substituted cathinone
- Substituted pyrrolidine
- Analysis of synthetic cathinones commonly found in bath salts in human performance and postmortem toxicology: method development, drug distribution and interpretation of results (PubMed.gov / NCBI) | https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23361867
- Cheap, synthetic 'flakka' dethroning cocaine on Florida drug scene | http://news.yahoo.com/cheap-synthetic-flakka-dethroning-cocaine-florida-drug-scene-140910992.html
- Suicide attempt with a mix of synthetic cannabinoids and synthetic cathinones: Case report of non-fatal intoxication with AB-CHMINACA, AB-FUBINACA, alpha-PHP, alpha-PVP and 4-CMC (ScienceDirect) | http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0379073816000372
- Shoptaw, S. J., Kao, U., & Ling, W. (2009). Treatment for amphetamine psychosis. The Cochrane Library.
- Hofmann FG (1983). A Handbook on Drug and Alcohol Abuse: The Biomedical Aspects (2nd ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. p. 329. ISBN 9780195030570.
- Gillman, P. K. (2005). Monoamine oxidase inhibitors, opioid analgesics and serotonin toxicity. British Journal of Anaesthesia, 95(4), 434-441. https://doi.org/10.1093/bja/aei210
- Bath salts' death: lethal drug was a top seller | http://www.smh.com.au/nsw/bath-salts-death-lethal-drug-was-a-top-seller-20131008-2v5jp
- Flakka, synthetic drug behind increasingly bizarre crimes | http://bigstory.ap.org/article/f3667988d0e042cfbb9b40838a78ab65/naked-paranoids-begging-police-save-them-thats-flakka
- 关于印发《非药用类麻醉药品和精神药品列管办法》的通知 | http://www.sfda.gov.cn/WS01/CL0056/130753.html
- Látky, o které byl doplněn seznam č. 4 psychotropních látek (příloha č. 4 k nařízení vlády č. 463/2013 Sb.) | http://www.mzcr.cz/Admin/_upload/files/3/Nov%C3%A9%20PL.pdf
- Psychoactive Substances Act 2016 (Legislation.gov.uk) | http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/2016/2/contents/enacted