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Summary sheet: A-PVP
Chemical Nomenclature
Common names α-PVP, alpha-PVP, Flakka, O-2387, β-ketone-prolintane, Prolintanone
Substitutive name alpha-pyrrolidinovalerophenone
Systematic name (RS)-1-Phenyl-2-(1-pyrrolidinyl)-1-pentanone
Class Membership
Psychoactive class Stimulant
Chemical class Cathinone / Pyrrolidine
Routes of Administration

WARNING: Always start with lower doses due to differences between individual body weight, tolerance, metabolism, and personal sensitivity. See responsible use section.

Threshold Common Heavy
1 - 2 - 5 - 15 - 25 mg
Light Strong
Threshold 1 - 2 mg
Light 2 - 5 mg
Common 5 - 15 mg
Strong 15 - 25 mg
Heavy 25 mg +
Total 30 - 60 minutes
Onset 20 - 60 seconds
Peak 3 - 6 minutes
Offset 15 - 30 minutes
After effects 1 - 3 hours
Threshold Common Heavy
1 - 5 - 10 - 25 - 40 mg
Light Strong
Threshold 1 - 5 mg
Light 5 - 10 mg
Common 10 - 25 mg
Strong 25 - 40 mg
Heavy 40 mg +
Total 2 - 6 hours
Onset 2 - 20 minutes
Peak 1 - 2.5 hours
Offset 1 - 5 hours
After effects 4 - 12 hours

Threshold Common Heavy
0.5 - 1 - 5 - 15 - 25 mg
Light Strong
Threshold 0.5 - 1 mg
Light 1 - 5 mg
Common 5 - 15 mg
Strong 15 - 25 mg
Heavy 25 mg +
Total 2 - 5 hours
Onset 10 - 30 minutes
Peak 20 - 45 minutes
Offset 30 - 90 minutes
After effects 2 - 4 hours

DISCLAIMER: PW's dosage information is gathered from users and resources for educational purposes only. It is not a recommendation and should be verified with other sources for accuracy.

alpha-Pyrrolidinovalerophenone (also known as α-PVP, A-PVP, alpha-PVP, and Flakka) is a synthetic stimulant substance of the cathinone and pyrrolidine chemical classes. It produces medium-lived cathinone-like stimulation and disinhibition with a pronounced euphoric "rush" component when administered.

α-PVP is chemically similar to other pyrrolidine compounds such as MDPV and to other cathinone compounds found in the khat shrub of eastern Africa.[citation needed] It generally comes in the form of either a crystalline powder or crystallized shards which users can ingest to produce powerful but short-lived euphoric stimulant effects which are comparable to those of methamphetamine and cocaine when insufflated or vaporized.[citation needed]

α-PVP has been subject to much scrutiny by the media, similar to how MDPV and "bath salts" were portrayed in early 2011.[citation needed] Very little data exists about the pharmacological properties, metabolism, and toxicity of a-PVP and it has little history of human usage. It is commonly mass produced in China and commercially distributed as a research chemical by online vendors.[citation needed]

Due to its potent psychostimulant effects, dependence and addiction-producing potential and toxicity profile if misused, it is highly advised that one take proper precautions, conduct sufficient independent research, and use proper harm reduction practices if choosing to use with this substance.


α-PVP, or alpha-Pyrrolidinovalerophenone, is a compound of the substituted cathinone and substituted pyrrolidine chemical classes. Its structure is comprised of pentanal bound to a phenyl ring at the 1 position and the nitrogen of a pyrrolidine ring at the 2 position.


α-PVP acts as a potent norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitor (NDRI), similar to the designer drug MDPV [1]

Subjective effects

The effects listed below are based upon the subjective effects index and personal experiences of PsychonautWiki contributors. The listed effects should be taken with a grain of salt and will rarely (if ever) occur all at once, but heavier doses will increase the chances and are more likely to induce a full range of effects. Likewise, adverse effects become much more likely on higher doses and may include serious injury or death.

Physical effects

Visual effects

Cognitive effects

After effects
Aftereffects (3).svg

Experience reports

There are currently no anecdotal reports which describe the effects of this compound within our experience index. Additional experience reports can be found here:

Toxicity and harm potential

The toxicity and long-term health effects of recreational α-PVP use do not seem to have been studied in any scientific context and the exact toxic dosage is unknown. This is because α-PVP has very little history of human usage. Anecdotal evidence from people who have tried α-PVP within the community suggests that there do not seem to be any negative health effects attributed to simply trying this drug at low to moderate doses by itself and using it sparingly (but nothing can be completely guaranteed).

α-PVP has been reported to be the cause, or a significant contributory cause, of death in suicides and overdoses caused by combinations of drugs.[2][3][4][5] α-PVP has also been linked to at least one death where it was combined with pentedrone and caused heart failure.[6]

It is strongly recommended that one use harm reduction practices when using this substance.

Tolerance and addiction potential

As with other stimulants, the chronic use of α-PVP can be considered moderately addictive with a high potential for abuse and is capable of causing psychological dependence among certain users. When addiction has developed, cravings and withdrawal effects may occur if a person suddenly stops their usage.

Tolerance to many of the effects of α-PVP develops with prolonged and repeated use. This results in users having to administer increasingly large doses to achieve the same effects. After that, it takes about 3 - 7 days for the tolerance to be reduced to half and 1 - 2 weeks to be back at baseline (in the absence of further consumption). α-PVP presents cross-tolerance with all dopaminergic stimulants, meaning that after the consumption of α-PVP all stimulants will have a reduced effect.


Main article: Stimulant psychosis

α-PVP, like other stimulants, can result in a stimulant psychosis that may present with a variety of symptoms (e.g., paranoia, hallucinations, or delusions).[7][8] A review on treatment for amphetamine, dextroamphetamine, and methamphetamine abuse-induced psychosis states that about 5–15% of users fail to recover completely.[8][9] The same review asserts that, based upon at least one trial, antipsychotic medications effectively resolve the symptoms of acute amphetamine psychosis.[8]

Dangerous interactions

Although many psychoactive substances are safe to use on their own, they can become dangerous or even life-threatening when taken with other substances. The list below contains some potentially dangerous combinations, but may not include all of them. Certain combinations may be safe in low doses but still increase the possibility of injury of death. Independent research should always be conducted to ensure that a combination of two or more substances is safe before consumption.

  • 25x-NBOMe - Members of the 25x-NBOMe family are very stimulating and should not be combined with stimulants due to the risk of excessive stimulation. This can result in panic attacks, thought loops, seizures, increased blood pressure, vasoconstriction, and heart failure in extreme cases.
  • Alcohol - Alcohol can be dangerous to combine with stimulants due to the risk of accidental over-intoxication. Stimulants mask the sedative effects of alcohol, which is the main factor people use to assess their degree of intoxication. Once the stimulant wears off, the depressant effects of alcohol are left unopposed, which can result in blackouts and respiratory depression. If combined, one should strictly limit themselves to only drinking a certain amount of alcohol per hour.
  • DXM - DXM should not be combined with stimulants due to its effects on serotonin and dopamine reuptake. This can lead to panic attacks, hypertensive crisis, or serotonin syndrome.
  • MXE - Combining stimulants with MXE may dangerously elevate blood pressure and increase the risk of psychosis.
  • Tramadol - Combining stimulants with tramadol increases the risk of seizures.
  • MDMA - The neurotoxic effects of MDMA may be increased when combined with other stimulants.
  • Cocaine - This combination may increase strain on the heart.

Serotonin syndrome risk

Combinations with the following substances may increase the level of neurotransmitters such as serotonin and dopamine to dangerous or even fatal levels.



This legality section is a stub.

As such, it may contain incomplete or wrong information. You can help by expanding it.

  • Australia - The drug was explicitly made illegal in New South Wales after it was illegally marketed with the imprimatur of erroneous legal advice that it was not encompassed by analog provisions of the relevant act. It is encompassed by those provisions, and therefore has been illegal for many years in New South Wales. The legislative action followed the death of two individuals from using it; one jumping off a balcony, another having a heart attack after a state of delirium.[11][12]
  • Austria: α-PVP is illegal to possess, produce and sell under the NPSG (Neue-Psychoaktive-Substanzen-Gesetz Österreich).[citation needed]
  • Brazil - Possession, production and sale is illegal as it is listed on Portaria SVS/MS nº 344.[13]
  • China - As of October 2015 α-PVP is a controlled substance in China.[14]
  • Europe - α-PVP is banned in Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Slovenia, Sweden, United Kingdom, Turkey, Belgium,[15] and Norway,[16] as well as the Czech Republic.[17]
  • United Kingdom - α-PVP is a Class B drug in the United Kingdom as a result of the cathinone catch-all clause.[18]
  • United States - On January 28, 2014, the U.S. DEA listed α-PVP, along with 9 other synthetic cathinones, on the Schedule 1 with a temporary ban, effective February 27, 2014.[19]

See also

External links


  1. Marusich, Julie A.; Antonazzo, Kateland R.; Wiley, Jenny L.; Blough, Bruce E.; Partilla, John S.; Baumann, Michael H. (2014). "Pharmacology of novel synthetic stimulants structurally related to the "bath salts" constituent 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV)". Neuropharmacology. 87: 206–213. doi:10.1016/j.neuropharm.2014.02.016. ISSN 0028-3908. 
  2. Analysis of synthetic cathinones commonly found in bath salts in human performance and postmortem toxicology: method development, drug distribution and interpretation of results (PubMed.gov / NCBI) | https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23361867
  3. http://www.aafs.org/sites/default/files/pdf/ProceedingsWashingtonDC2013.pdf
  4. Cheap, synthetic 'flakka' dethroning cocaine on Florida drug scene | http://news.yahoo.com/cheap-synthetic-flakka-dethroning-cocaine-florida-drug-scene-140910992.html
  5. Suicide attempt with a mix of synthetic cannabinoids and synthetic cathinones: Case report of non-fatal intoxication with AB-CHMINACA, AB-FUBINACA, alpha-PHP, alpha-PVP and 4-CMC (ScienceDirect) | http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0379073816000372
  6. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25737339
  7. http://www.drugabuse.gov/drugs-abuse/emerging-trends
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 Shoptaw, S. J., Kao, U., & Ling, W. (2009). Treatment for amphetamine psychosis. The Cochrane Library.
  9. Hofmann FG (1983). A Handbook on Drug and Alcohol Abuse: The Biomedical Aspects (2nd ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. p. 329. ISBN 9780195030570.
  10. Gillman, P. K. (2005). Monoamine oxidase inhibitors, opioid analgesics and serotonin toxicity. British Journal of Anaesthesia, 95(4), 434-441. https://doi.org/10.1093/bja/aei210
  11. Bath salts' death: lethal drug was a top seller | http://www.smh.com.au/nsw/bath-salts-death-lethal-drug-was-a-top-seller-20131008-2v5jp
  12. Flakka, synthetic drug behind increasingly bizarre crimes | http://bigstory.ap.org/article/f3667988d0e042cfbb9b40838a78ab65/naked-paranoids-begging-police-save-them-thats-flakka
  13. http://portal.anvisa.gov.br/documents/10181/3115436/%281%29RDC_130_2016_.pdf/fc7ea407-3ff5-4fc1-bcfe-2f37504d28b7
  14. 关于印发《非药用类麻醉药品和精神药品列管办法》的通知 | http://www.sfda.gov.cn/WS01/CL0056/130753.html
  15. http://www.ejustice.just.fgov.be/cgi_loi/change_lg.pl?language=fr&la=N&cn=1998012251&table_name=wet
  16. http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/publications/joint-reports/alpha-pvp
  17. Látky, o které byl doplněn seznam č. 4 psychotropních látek (příloha č. 4 k nařízení vlády č. 463/2013 Sb.) | http://www.mzcr.cz/Admin/_upload/files/3/Nov%C3%A9%20PL.pdf
  18. United Kingdom. (2010). Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 (S.I. 2010/1207). London: The Stationery Office Limited. Retrieved February 9, 2018, from https://www.legislation.gov.uk/uksi/2010/1207/made
  19. http://www.deadiversion.usdoj.gov/fed_regs/rules/2014/fr0128.htm