|Summary sheet: 4F-MPH|
|Systematic name||Methyl 2-(4-fluorophenyl)-2-(piperidin-2-yl)acetate|
|Routes of Administration|
4-Fluoromethylphenidate (commonly known as 4F-MPH) is a novel synthetic stimulant of the phenidate class that produces long-lasting euphoriant, and stimulating effects when administered. It is a closely related structural analog of the commonly prescribed ADHD drug methylphenidate (known by the brand-names Ritalin and Concerta).
The two substances are believed to have very similar pharmacological mechanisms as monoamine reuptake inhibitors but have been reported to display distinctive subjective effects, with 4F-MPH being considered significantly more euphoric and recreational. Anecdotal reports suggest that it is considerably more potent with fewer uncomfortable side effects such as anxiety, muscle spasms and compulsive redosing. This perhaps owes to the fact that it has been shown to act as a higher efficiency dopamine reuptake inhibitor than the parent compound methylphenidate.
4F-MPH has an extremely short history of recreational use and has yet to be documented being sold on the streets. It was initially developed as a replacement for ethylphenidate which became illegal in the United Kingdom on April 2015 following a temporary blanket ban. Shortly after, it became available for sale on the online gray market as a research chemical for global distribution.
Due to its potent, long-lasting stimulant effect, likely habit-forming properties as well as unknown toxicity profile, it is strongly recommended that one use proper harm reduction practices if choosing to use this substance.
4F-MPH is a synthetic molecule of the substituted phenethylamine and substituted phenidate classes, and a fluorinated analog of methylphenidate. It contains a phenethylamine core featuring a phenyl ring bound to an amino -NH2 group through an ethyl chain. It is structurally similar to amphetamine, featuring a substitution at Rα which is incorporated into a piperidine ring ending at the terminal amine of the phenethylamine chain. Additionally, it contains a methyl acetate bound to Rβ or its structure. 4F-MPH is structurally identical to methylphenidate with the exception of a single fluorine atom bound to the four position on the phenethylamine core.
With respect to nomenclature, the methyl- in methylphenidate regards the side chain of one carbon atom, while phen- indicates the phenyl ring. Id- is contracted from a piperidine ring, and -ate indicates the acetate group containing the oxygen atoms. Like its parent molecule, 4F-MPH is a chiral compound, presumably produced as a racemic mixture.
Of note is the scientific finding that amphetamine analogs containing fluorine, chlorine, bromine and methyl groups are typically stronger than those without.
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4F-MPH is thought to act primarily as a dopamine and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, meaning it effectively boosts the levels of dopamine and norepinephrine neurotransmitters in the brain by binding to and partially blocking the transporter proteins that normally clear these catecholamines from the synaptic cleft. This allows dopamine and norepinephrine to accumulate within the reward pathways in the brain, resulting in stimulating and euphoric effects.
According to a pharmacological evaluation, the (±)-threo isomer of 4F-MPH is 2.15 times more effective at dopamine reuptake inhibition, and 2.7 times more at norepinephrine reuptake inhibition, than its parent compound methylphenidate. The (±)-erythro isomer, however, is 65 times less effective at dopamine reuptake inhibition and 45.6 times less effective at norepinephrine reuptake inhibition than methylphenidate. Neither racemate of 4F-MPH has a significant impact on serotonin reuptake.
Disclaimer: The effects listed below cite the Subjective Effect Index (SEI), an open research literature based on anecdotal user reports and the personal analyses of PsychonautWiki contributors. As a result, they should be viewed with a healthy degree of skepticism.
It is also worth noting that these effects will not necessarily occur in a predictable or reliable manner, although higher doses are more liable to induce the full spectrum of effects. Likewise, adverse effects become increasingly likely with higher doses and may include addiction, severe injury, or death ☠.
- Stimulation - 4F-MPH is usually reported to be energetic and stimulating in a fashion that is distinct but much weaker than that of amphetamine or methamphetamine and stronger than that of methylphenidate, modafinil and caffeine. At lower to moderate doses, it encourages general productivity but at higher dosages it can encourage physical activities such as dancing, socializing, running, or cleaning. The particular style of stimulation which 4F-MPH presents can be described as forced. This means that at higher dosages, it becomes difficult or impossible to keep still as jaw clenching, involuntarily bodily shakes and vibrations become present, resulting in extreme shaking of the entire body, unsteadiness of the hands, and a general lack of motor control. This style of stimulation is extremely similar to methylphenidate.
- Nausea - May occur at higher doses, although tends to fade after a short period.
- Appetite suppression - This effect is reported to be less intense than amphetamine and methylphenidate.
- Increased heart rate
- Abnormal heartbeat
- Increased perspiration
- Teeth grinding - This component can be considered to be less intense when compared with that of MDMA.
- Increased libido - Higher doses of 4F-MPH can increase sexual desire, although this enhancement is reported to be less intense and reliable than amphetamines and cocaine however stronger than normal methylphenidate.
- Dizziness - May occur at higher doses, although tends to fade after a short period.
- Spontaneous physical sensations
- Pupil dilation
The effects which occur during the offset of a stimulant experience generally feel negative and uncomfortable in comparison to the effects which occurred during its peak. This is often referred to as a "comedown" and occurs because of neurotransmitter depletion. Its effects commonly include:
- Cognitive fatigue - This component can occur during the offset of this compound as a rebound effect which is usually equal in its intensity to the enhancements which occurred before it.
- Motivation suppression
- Thought deceleration
Many users of this compound have reported positive, functional cognitive effects associated with the therapeutic aspect of traditional stimulants. This may owe to its similarities to methylphenidate, in which these effects have been well-studied.
- Anxiety - Anxiety with 4F-MPH is reported to be stronger and more common than that of other commonly used stimulants like amphetamine or cocaine. Similar to the closely related compound methylphenidate.
- Analysis enhancement
- Euphoria - The euphoric rush associated with 4F-MPH use (as result of dopamine reuptake inhibition) is very short-lived and compulsive, similar to that of cocaine.Although this rush is considered to be less reliably produced and intense than that of methamphetamine.
- Compulsive redosing - Compulsive redosing is reported but with less frequency than other common stimulants such as amphetamine or cocaine, however at high or non-orally administered doses it is reported to be more common than the closely related compound methylphenidate. It is recommended to dose orally or set a limit to avoid using more than needed.
- Ego inflation
- Emotion suppression - This component has been reported as being more prominent than with other stimulants, and is in-line with the noted emotion-suppressing effects that have been observed with other stimulants, but particularly methylphenidate and related compounds.
- Focus enhancement - This component is most effective at low to moderate dosages as anything higher will usually impair concentration.
- Increased music appreciation
- Time distortion - This can be described as the experience of time speeding up and passing much quicker than it usually would when sober.
- Motivation enhancement
- Memory enhancement
- Suggestibility suppression
- Thought acceleration
- Thought organization - This component has been reported as being more prominent than with other stimulants, which has led some users to adopt it for productive or functional purposes rather than hedonic ones.
There are currently no anecdotal reports which describe the effects of this compound within our experience index. Additional experience reports can be found here:
Toxicity and harm potential
This toxicity and harm potential section is a stub.
As a result, it may contain incomplete or even dangerously wrong information! You can help by expanding upon or correcting it.
The toxicity and long-term health effects of recreational 4F-MPH use do not seem to have been studied in any scientific context and the exact toxic dosage is unknown. This is because 4F-MPH is a research chemical with very little history of human usage. Anecdotal evidence from people who have tried 4F-MPH suggests that there are no negative health effects attributed to simply trying the drug by itself at low to moderate doses and using it very sparingly (but nothing can be completely guaranteed). Independent researchshould always be done to ensure that a combination of two or more substances is safe before consumption.
It is strongly recommended that one use harm reduction practices when using this drug.
Tolerance and addiction potential
In terms of its tolerance, 4F-MPH can be used multiple days in a row for extended periods of time, but acute tolerance does exist and builds up gradually over repeated extended use. This results in the user requiring an increase in dosage to achieve the same effects. Tolerance is reported to build quicker than methylphenidate.
4F-MPH has potential for abuse on par with that of amphetamine or MDMA due to its lack of significant tolerance, euphoric effects and action upon dopamine transporters.
Warning: Many psychoactive substances that are reasonably safe to use on their own can suddenly become dangerous and even life-threatening when combined with certain other substances. The following list provides some known dangerous interactions (although it is not guaranteed to include all of them).
Always conduct independent research (e.g. Google, DuckDuckGo, PubMed) to ensure that a combination of two or more substances is safe to consume. Some of the listed interactions have been sourced from TripSit.
- 25x-NBOMe & 25x-NBOH - 25x compounds are highly stimulating and physically straining. Combinations with 4F-MPH should be strictly avoided due to the risk of excessive stimulation and heart strain. This can result in increased blood pressure, vasoconstriction, panic attacks, thought loops, seizures, and heart failure in extreme cases.
- Alcohol - Combining alcohol with stimulants can be dangerous due to the risk of accidental over-intoxication. Stimulants mask alcohol's depressant effects, which is what most people use to assess their degree of intoxication. Once the stimulant wears off, the depressant effects will be left unopposed, which can result in blackouts and severe respiratory depression. If mixing, the user should strictly limit themselves to only drinking a certain amount of alcohol per hour.
- DXM - Combinations with DXM should be avoided due to its inhibiting effects on serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake. There is an increased risk of panic attacks and hypertensive crisis, or serotonin syndrome with serotonin releasers (MDMA, methylone, mephedrone, etc.). Monitor blood pressure carefully and avoid strenuous physical activity.
- MDMA - Any neurotoxic effects of MDMA are likely to be increased when other stimulants are present. There is also a risk of excessive blood pressure and heart strain (cardiotoxicity).
- MXE - Some reports suggest combinations with MXE may dangerously increase blood pressure and increase the risk of mania and psychosis.
- Dissociatives - Both classes carry a risk of delusions, mania and psychosis, and these risk may be multiplied when combined.
- Stimulants - 4F-MPH may be dangerous to combine with other stimulants like cocaine as they can increase one's heart rate and blood pressure to dangerous levels.
- Tramadol - Tramadol is known to lower the seizure threshold and combinations with stimulants may further increase this risk.
- MAOIs - This combination may increase the amount of neurotransmitters such as dopamine to dangerous or even fatal levels. Examples include syrian rue, banisteriopsis caapi, and some antidepressants.
This legality section is a stub.
As such, it may contain incomplete or wrong information. You can help by expanding it.
- Germany: 4-Fluoromethylphenidate is controlled under the NpSG (New Psychoactive Substances Act) as of November 26, 2016. Production and import with the aim to place it on the market, administration to another person and trading is punishable. Possession is illegal but not penalized.
- Switzerland: 4F-MPH is a controlled substance specifically named under Verzeichnis E.
- Turkey: 4F-MPH is a classed as drug and is illegal to possess, produce, supply, or import.
- United Kingdom: 4-Fluoromethylphenidate is a class B drug in the UK as of 31st May 2017 and is illegal to possess, produce or supply. 
- United States: 4-Fluromethylphenidate is a Schedule I controlled substance in the state of Alabama.
- ↑ http://www.bluelight.org/vb/threads/770658-4-Fluoromethylphenidate-(4F-MPH)
- ↑ Deutsch, H. M., Shi, Q., Gruszecka-Kowalik, E., Schweri, M. M. (15 March 1996). "Synthesis and Pharmacology of Potential Cocaine Antagonists. 2. Structure−Activity Relationship Studies of Aromatic Ring-Substituted Methylphenidate Analogs". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 39 (6): 1201–1209. doi:10.1021/jm950697c. ISSN 0022-2623.
- ↑ Schweri, M. M., Deutsch, H. M., Massey, A. T., Holtzman, S. G. (May 2002). "Biochemical and behavioral characterization of novel methylphenidate analogs". The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. 301 (2): 527–535. doi:10.1124/jpet.301.2.527. ISSN 0022-3565.
- ↑ Davies, H. M. L., Hopper, D. W., Hansen, T., Liu, Q., Childers, S. R. (5 April 2004). "Synthesis of methylphenidate analogues and their binding affinities at dopamine and serotonin transport sites". Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters. 14 (7): 1799–1802. doi:10.1016/j.bmcl.2003.12.097. ISSN 0960-894X.
- ↑ Misra, M., Shi, Q., Ye, X., Gruszecka-Kowalik, E., Bu, W., Liu, Z., Schweri, M. M., Deutsch, H. M., Venanzi, C. A. (15 October 2010). "Quantitative structure-activity relationship studies of threo-methylphenidate analogs". Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry. 18 (20): 7221–7238. doi:10.1016/j.bmc.2010.08.034. ISSN 1464-3391.
- ↑ Singh, S. (1 March 2000). "Chemistry, Design, and Structure−Activity Relationship of Cocaine Antagonists". Chemical Reviews. 100 (3): 925–1024. doi:10.1021/cr9700538. ISSN 0009-2665.
- ↑ McLaughlin, G., Morris, N., Kavanagh, P. V., Power, J. D., Dowling, G., Twamley, B., O’Brien, J., Hessman, G., Murphy, B., Walther, D., Partilla, J. S., Baumann, M. H., Brandt, S. D. (March 2017). "Analytical characterization and pharmacological evaluation of the new psychoactive substance 4-fluoromethylphenidate (4F-MPH) and differentiation between the (±)- threo and (±)- erythro diastereomers: Analytical characterization and pharmacological evaluation of 4-fluoromethylphenidate". Drug Testing and Analysis. 9 (3): 347–357. doi:10.1002/dta.2167. ISSN 1942-7603.
- ↑ Talaie, H.; Panahandeh, R.; Fayaznouri, M. R.; Asadi, Z.; Abdollahi, M. (2009). "Dose-independent occurrence of seizure with tramadol". Journal of Medical Toxicology. 5 (2): 63–67. doi:10.1007/BF03161089. eISSN 1937-6995. ISSN 1556-9039. OCLC 163567183.
- ↑ Gillman, P. K. (2005). "Monoamine oxidase inhibitors, opioid analgesics and serotonin toxicity". British Journal of Anaesthesia. 95 (4): 434–441. doi:10.1093/bja/aei210 . eISSN 1471-6771. ISSN 0007-0912. OCLC 01537271. PMID 16051647.
- ↑ "Anlage NpSG" (in German). Bundesministerium der Justiz und für Verbraucherschutz. Retrieved December 23, 2019.
- ↑ "Gesetz zur Bekämpfung der Verbreitung neuer psychoaktiver Stoffe" (PDF) (in German). Bundesanzeiger Verlag. Retrieved December 23, 2019.
- ↑ "§ 4 NpSG" (in German). Bundesministerium der Justiz und für Verbraucherschutz. Retrieved December 23, 2019.
- ↑ "Verordnung des EDI über die Verzeichnisse der Betäubungsmittel, psychotropen Stoffe, Vorläuferstoffe und Hilfschemikalien" (in German). Bundeskanzlei [Federal Chancellery of Switzerland]. Retrieved January 1, 2020.
- ↑ Cumhurbaşkanı Kararı Karar Sayısı : 1335 | https://resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2019/07/20190720-19.pdf
- ↑ The Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 (Amendment) Order 2017
- ↑ Alabama SB333, 2014, Regular Session