2C-B

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Summary sheet: 2C-B
2C-B
2C-B.svg
Chemical Nomenclature
Common names 2C-B, Nexus, Bees
Substitutive name 4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyphenethylamine
Systematic name 2-(4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)ethanamine
Class Membership
Psychoactive class Psychedelic
Chemical class Phenethylamine
Routes of Administration

WARNING: Always start with lower doses due to differences between individual body weight, tolerance, metabolism, and personal sensitivity. See responsible use section.



Oral
Dosage
Threshold Common Heavy
5 - 5 - 15 - 25 - 45 mg
Light Strong
Threshold 5 mg
Light 5 - 15 mg
Common 15 - 25 mg
Strong 25 - 45 mg
Heavy 45 mg +
Duration
Total 4 - 6 hours
Onset 20 - 40 minutes
Come up 40 - 60 minutes
Peak 2 - 3 hours
Offset 1.5 - 3 hours
After effects 2 - 4 hours









DISCLAIMER: PW's dosage information is gathered from users and resources for educational purposes only. It is not a recommendation and should be verified with other sources for accuracy.

4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyphenethylamine (also known as Nexus, Bromo Mescaline, BDMPEA, Venus and commonly as 2C-B) is a psychedelic substance of the phenethylamine class that produces psychedelic effects when administered. It is a popular member of the 2C-x family of psychedelic phenethylamines, all of which were derived from the systematic modification of the mescaline molecule.

2C-B was first synthesized in 1974 by Alexander Shulgin[1] and its activity in humans described in his 1991 book PiHKAL ("Phenethylamines I Have Known and Loved").[2] This particular substance is part of the so-called "magical half-dozen" which refers to Shulgin's self-rated most important phenethylamine compounds, all of which except mescaline he developed and synthesized himself. They are found within the first book of PiHKAL and are as follows: mescaline, DOM, 2C-B, 2C-E, 2C-T-2, and 2C-T-7.[3]

It first saw use among the psychiatric community as an adjunct in psychotherapy. It was considered one of the best substances for this purpose because of its short duration, relative absence of side effects, and comparably mild nature.[4] Shortly after becoming popular in the medical community, it became popular recreationally.[citation needed]

2C-B was first sold commercially as an aphrodisiac[5] under the trade name "Eros," which was manufactured by the German pharmaceutical company Drittewelle. For several years, it was available as tablets in Dutch smart shops under the name "Nexus."[citation needed] Today, it is used as a recreational substance, psychotherapeutic aid, and an entheogen.[6]

History and culture

2C-B was first synthesized and explored by Alexander Shulgin in 1974. He later published his findings on 2C-B in his 1991 book PiHKAL, and included it among the "magical half-dozen" of psychedelic phenethylamines he deemed most important.[7] In interviews, Alexander Shulgin repeatedly declared it his favorite psychedelic trip.[8]

In the 1970s, 2C-B was used in patients by a small number of psychotherapists in the United States. These therapists reported that it created a warm, empathetic bond between them and their patients. The therapists also said the drug helped break down a patient's ego defenses and inner resistances, allowing the patient to get in touch with suppressed emotions and repressed memories.[9] The gentle nature of 2C-B, in addition to its mild side effects and short duration, was found to be desirable traits for in the therapeutic setting.

Not long after it gained traction in the medical community, 2C-B became popular in the recreational drug scene. 2C-B was well liked as an MDMA substitute ideal for raves and parties with minimal comedown and a clear euphoric headspace.

In the 1980s and early 1990s, several foreign companies legitimately manufactured 2C-B under the brand names Nexus, Erox, and Performax and advertised that it would alleviate impotence, frigidity, and diminished libido. It was sold at adult book and video stores, "head" shops, and some nightclubs. The DEA reported it to be sold in Miami, FL as yellow pills marketed as an aphrodisiac.[citation needed]

After MDMA was classified as Schedule I by the United States in 1985, 2C-B gained popularity as an alternative to it. Its increasing popularity caused it to be placed in Schedule I in 1995.[10] Its use has since seen a resurgence due to the advent of online research chemical vendors.

2C-B is used as entheogen by the Sangoma, Nyanga, and Amagqirha people over their traditional plants; they refer to the chemical as Ubulawu Nomathotholo, which roughly translates to "Medicine of the Singing Ancestors".[11]

Chemistry

Generic structure of a phenethylamine molecule

2C-B or 2,5-dimethoxy-4-bromophenethylamine is a substituted phenethylamine featuring a phenyl ring bound to an amino (NH2) group through an ethyl chain. 2C-B contains methoxy functional groups CH3O- attached to carbons R2 and R5 as well as a bromine atom attached to carbon R4 of the phenyl ring.

2C-B belongs to the 2C family of phenethylamines, all of which contain methoxy groups on the 2 and 5 positions of the benzene ring.[12]

Pharmacology

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This pharmacology section is incomplete.

You can help by adding to it.

Further information: Serotonergic psychedelic

Unlike most psychedelics, 2C-B has been shown to be a low efficacy serotonin 5-HT2A receptor partial agonist[13] or even full antagonist.[14] This suggests that the 5-HT2C receptor is primarily responsible for mediating the effects experienced by users of 2C-B.[15] Research also suggests that 2C-B increases dopamine levels in the brains of rats which may contribute to its psychoactivity.[16]

However, the role of these interactions and how they result in the psychedelic experience continues to remain elusive.

Subjective effects

The effects listed below are based upon the subjective effects index and personal experiences of PsychonautWiki contributors. The listed effects should be taken with a grain of salt and will rarely (if ever) occur all at once, but heavier doses will increase the chances and are more likely to induce a full range of effects. Likewise, adverse effects become much more likely on higher doses and may include serious injury or death.

Physical effects
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Visual effects
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Cognitive effects
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Multi-sensory effects
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Transpersonal effects
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Combinational effects

  • Cannabis - This combination is highly effective at intensifying and extending both the visual and cognitive effects of 2C-B. This should be done with extreme caution if one is not experienced with psychedelics as this can also amplify the anxiety, confusion and psychosis producing aspects of cannabis significantly.
  • Dissociatives - When combined with dissociatives, the geometry, euphoria, dissociation and hallucinatory effects are often greatly enhanced. Dissociative-induced holes, spaces, and voids while under the influence of 2C-B have significantly more vivid visuals than dissociatives alone. It also results in more intense internal hallucinations and corresponding confusion which can develop into delusions and psychosis.
  • Nitrous - Nitrous oxide ("Laughing gas") is commonly used in combination with psychedelics. The two are known to possess powerful cross-synergistic effects, including the capacity to send the user directly into an "ego death" state. The speed and intensity with which this occurs is very rapid and the euphoria that can result often leads to the urge to compulsively redose.
  • MDMA - When combined with MDMA, the physical and cognitive effects of 2C-B become strongly amplified. The visual, physical and cognitive effects of 2C-B are also intensified with strong sensations of euphoric pleasure manifested through distinct body highs and headspaces, and uniquely colorful visuals. The synergy between these substances is unpredictable, and it is best to start with markedly lower dosages than one would take for both substances individually. This combination may increase the neurotoxic effects of MDMA based on its similarity to LSD, which has been found to increase MDMA neurotoxicity.[17]
  • Alcohol - Alcohol can increase the disinhibiting and euphoric effects of 2C-B which lends to its use in recreational settings. It can be used in light doses to "take the edge off" a trip as well as dull its psychedelic effects in a fashion somewhat similar to benzodiazepines. However, this is not typically recommended due to alcohol’s ability to cause dehydration and nausea and physical fatigue which can negatively affect a trip if taken in moderate to high dosages. Heavy drinking is strongly discouraged as it can easily lead to black outs and unpredictable behavior.
  • Benzodiazepines - Benzodiazepines can, depending on the dosage, slightly to completely reduce the intensity of the cognitive, physical and visual effects of an 2C-B experience. They are very efficient at stopping "bad trips" at the cost of amnesia and reduced trip intensity. Caution is advised when acquiring them for this purpose due to the very high dependence and addiction potential that benzodiazepines possess.
  • Psychedelics - When used in combination with other psychedelics, each substance's physical, cognitive and visual effects intensify and synergize strongly. The synergy between those substances is unpredictable, and for this reason generally not advised. If choosing to combine psychedelics, it is recommended to start with significantly lower dosages than one would take for either substance individually.

Experience reports

Anecdotal reports which describe the effects of this compound within our experience index include:

Additional experience reports can be found here:

Toxicity and harm potential

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This toxicity and harm potential section is a stub.

As such, it may contain incomplete or even dangerously wrong information. You can help by expanding upon or correcting it.
We also recommend that you practice diligent independent research and the most thorough harm reduction practices when using this substance.

The toxicity and long-term health effects of recreational 2C-B use do not seem to have been studied in any scientific context, and the exact toxic dose is unknown.

Anecdotal reports from those who have tried 2C-B suggest that there are no negative health effects attributed to simply trying it by itself at low to moderate doses or using it very sparingly (although nothing can be completely guaranteed).

It is strongly recommended that one use harm reduction practices when using this substance.

Lethal dosage

There is no current data for the LD50 of 2C-B, but it is thought to be considerably higher than the active dose. Alexander Shulgin reported a 100 mg oral dose taken without apparent harm.[18]

Tolerance and addiction potential

2C-B is non-addictive and the desire to use it can actually decrease with use.

Tolerance to the effects of 2C-B are not built almost immediately after ingestion as with other psychedelics. There are many anecdotal reports of people ingesting this substance many days in a row with no immediate tolerance build up.

Dangerous interactions

Although many psychoactive substances are safe on their own, they can become dangerous and even life-threatening when combined with other substances. The list below contains some common potentially dangerous combinations, but may not include all of them. Certain combinations may be safe in low doses of each but still increase the potential risk of death. Independent research should always be done to ensure that a combination of two or more substances is safe before consumption.

Legal status

  • Australia: Possession, production and sale is illegal.[citation needed]
  • Austria: 2C-B is illegal to possess, produce and sell under the SMG (Suchtmittelgesetz Österreich).
  • Belgium: Possession, production and sale is illegal.[citation needed]
  • Brazil: Possession, production and sale is illegal as it is listed on Portaria SVS/MS nº 344.[20]
  • The EU: 2C-B is a Schedule II drug.[citation needed]
  • Canada: 2C-B is a Schedule III drug.[21]
  • Croatia: Possession, production and sale is illegal as a result of it being a 2,5-dimethoxyphenylethanamine.[22]
  • Italy: 2C-B is Schedule I (tabella I)[23]
  • Estonia: 2C-B is a Schedule I drug.[citation needed]
  • Finland: Possession, production and sale is illegal.[citation needed]
  • Germany: 2C-B is illegal to possess, produce and sell under the BtMG.[24]
  • Japan: Possession, production and sale is illegal.[citation needed]
  • The Netherlands: Possession, production and sale is illegal.[citation needed]
  • Latvia: 2C-B is a Schedule I controlled substance.[25]
  • Norway: 2C-B is a Schedule II drug.[citation needed]
  • Poland: 2C-B is a Schedule I drug.[citation needed]
  • Russia: Possession, production and sale is illegal.[citation needed]
  • Spain: 2C-B is a Category 2 drug.[citation needed]
  • Sweden: 2C-B is a Schedule I drug.[26]
  • Switzerland: Possession, production and sale is illegal.[27]
  • United Kingdom: 2C-B is a Class A drug in the United Kingdom as a result of the phenethylamine catch-all clause.[28]
  • United States: 2C-B is a Schedule I drug.[citation needed]

See also

External links

Discussion

Literature

  • González, D., Torrens, M., & Farré, M. (2015). Acute Effects of the Novel Psychoactive Drug 2C-B on Emotions. BioMed Research International, 2015. https://doi.org/10.1155/2015/643878
  • Papaseit, E., Farré, M., Pérez-Mañá, C., Torrens, M., Ventura, M., Pujadas, M., ... & González, D. (2018). Acute Pharmacological Effects of 2C-B in Humans: An Observational Study. Frontiers in Pharmacology, 9, 206. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2018.00206

References

  1. Shulgin A. T., Carter M. F. Centrally active phenethylamines. Psychopharmacology Communications. 1975;1(1):93–98. PMID: 1223994
  2. Shulgin, A., & Shulgin, A. (1991). Erowid Online Books: "PIHKAL" - #20 2C-B. Retrieved Oct 26, 2017.
  3. Shulgin, A., & Shulgin, A. (1991). Erowid Online Books: "PIHKAL" - The Chemical Story. Retrieved April 14, 2017.
  4. Erowid 2-CB effects | http://www.erowid.org/chemicals/2cb/2cb_effects.shtml
  5. 2C-B (Nexus) Reappears on the Club Drug Scene | http://www.justice.gov/archive/ndic/pubs0/665/665p.pdf
  6. Anu. "The Nexus Factor". Erowid.org. Feb 1996. Online edition: Erowid.org/chemicals/2cb/2cb_article1.shtml
  7. Phenethylamines I Have Known And Loved http://isomerdesign.com/PiHKAL/read.php?id=20
  8. https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/self-experimenter-chemist-explores-new-psychedelics/
  9. http://www.encyclopedia.com/science/applied-and-social-sciences-magazines/2c-b-nexus
  10. https://www.justice.gov/archive/ndic/pubs0/665/
  11. http://www.tacethno.com/info/2cb/2cbhistory.html#South%20Africa
  12. http://isomerdesign.com/PiHKAL/read.php?id=20
  13. Functional Selectivity of Hallucinogenic Phenethylamine and Phenylisopropylamine Derivatives at Human 5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)2A and 5-HT2C Receptors | http://jpet.aspetjournals.org/content/321/3/1054
  14. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1038/sj.bjp.0705722/abstract;jsessionid=7F4731B4EF0AF36C37D0E3CA60319C4E.f03t04 | http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1038/sj.bjp.0705722/abstract;jsessionid=7F4731B4EF0AF36C37D0E3CA60319C4E.f03t04
  15. http://jpet.aspetjournals.org/content/321/3/1054.full.pdf
  16. behavioral, neurochemical and pharmaco-EEG profiles of the psychedelic drug 4-bromo-2,5-dimethoxyphenethylamine (2C-B) in rats | http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00213-012-2797-7
  17. Armstrong, B. D., Paik, E., Chhith, S., Lelievre, V., Waschek, J. A., & Howard, S. G. (2004). Potentiation of (DL)‐3, 4‐methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)‐induced toxicity by the serotonin 2A receptior partial agonist d‐lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), and the protection of same by the serotonin 2A/2C receptor antagonist MDL 11,939. Neuroscience Research Communications, 35(2), 83-95. https://doi.org/10.1002/nrc.20023
  18. "Shulgin, A (1991) PIHKAL" | http://www.erowid.org/library/books_online/pihkal/pihkal020.shtml
  19. Talaie, H., Panahandeh, R., Fayaznouri, M. R., Asadi, Z., & Abdollahi, M. (2009). Dose-independent occurrence of seizure with tramadol. Journal of medical toxicology, 5(2), 63-67. doi:10.1007/BF03161089
  20. http://portal.anvisa.gov.br/documents/10181/3115436/%281%29RDC_130_2016_.pdf/fc7ea407-3ff5-4fc1-bcfe-2f37504d28b7
  21. "CDSA Schedule II" | http://isomerdesign.com/Cdsa/schedule.php?schedule=3&section=ALL&structure=C
  22. "Popis droga, psihotropnih tvari i biljaka iz kojih se može dobiti droga te tvari koje se mogu uporabiti za izradu droga" | https://narodne-novine.nn.hr/clanci/sluzbeni/2016_01_10_258.html
  23. Italy drug schedule | http://www.salute.gov.it/medicinaliSostanze/paginaInternaMedicinaliSostanze.jsp?id=7&menu=strumenti
  24. BtMG Anlage I | https://www.gesetze-im-internet.de/btmg_1981/anlage_i.html
  25. Noteikumi par Latvijā kontrolējamajām narkotiskajām vielām, psihotropajām vielām un prekursoriem (2,5-Dimetoksifeniletānamīni) | http://likumi.lv/doc.php?id=121086
  26. http://www.lakemedelsverket.se/upload/lvfs/LVFS_2009-22.pdf
  27. http://web.archive.org/web/20170329020935/https://www.admin.ch/opc/de/classified-compilation/20101220/index.html
  28. United Kingdom. (1977). Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 (S.I. 1977/1243). London: The Stationery Office Limited. Retrieved July 5, 2017, from http://www.legislation.gov.uk/uksi/1977/1243/made